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entire series of biochemical reactions and pathways whereby ATP can be synthesized from food-fuels but only in the presence of oxygen.
Includes aerobic glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and ETS.
The incomplete chemical breakdown of carbohydrate. The anaerobic reactions in this breakdown release energy for the manufacture of ATP as they produce lactic acid
(aka the lactic acid system).
The amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute
stroke volume * heart rate.
Abnormally high blood pressure in humans that has no known cause and therefore no known cure
most common type of high blood pressure.
fast contraction time,
high anaerobic capacity,
low aerobic capacity,
all making the fiber suited for high-power output activities.
Also known as Type II fiber.
A diet or exercise-diet procedure that elevates muscle glycogen stores to concentrations two to three times normal.
The incomplete chemical breakdown of glycogen. In aerobic glycolysis, the end product is pyruvic acid; in anaerobic glycolysis (lactic acid system), the end produce is lactic acid.
1. The effect (usually beneficial) that the manner, attention, and caring of a provider have on a patient during a medical encounter regardless of what medical procedures or services the encounter involves.
2. The influence upon an observation of the observer’s perception of the characteristics of the individual observed (other than the characteristic under study) of the influence of the observer’s recollection or knowledge of finding on a previous occasion.
The effect (usually positive or beneficial) of being under study upon the persons being studied; their knowledge of the study often influences their behavior.
The difference between the resting heart rate and the maximal heart rate.
A condition of fatigue caused by prolonged exposure to environmental heat. May be associated with headache, nausea, and vomiting
A complex molecule found in read blood cells, which contains iron (heme) and protein (globin) and is capable of combining with oxygen.
Presence of an abnormally large amount of CO2
in the circulating blood: increased partial pressure of CO2
resulting in extra stimulation of respiratory area.
A general term for elevated concentrations of any or all of the lipids in the plasma, such as cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins
An increase in the size of a cell or organ.
Lower than normal blood sugar level due to inadequate supply or regulation; bay be the result of excessive blood insulin.
Lack of adequate oxygen due to a reduced oxygen partial pressure
The rate at which new events occur in a population. The numerator is the number of new events that occur in a defined period; the denominator is the population at risk of experiencing the event during this period.
Force of myocardial contraction
a shift in the Frank-Starling curve to the right or to the left.
A hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas that causes increased cellular uptake of glucose.
The index and comparison groups are selected and compared in such a manner that the observed differences between them on the dependent variables under study may, apart from sampling error, be attributed only to the hypothesized effect under investigation.
A system of physical conditioning in which the body is subjected to short but regularly repeated periods of work stress interspersed with adequate periods of relief.
Complex carbohydrate stored within muscle cells; the glucose subunits are used as a ready source of energy for muscle metabolism
A local and temporary deficiency of blood and oxygen, chiefly caused by narrowing of a blood vessel.
A unit of work or energy equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water 1° C.
A unit of work.
A unit of energy.
Scientific study of human movement. Includes such aspects of study as exercise physiology, motor learning/control, and biomechanics.
A series of chemical reactions occurring in mitochondria, in which carbon dioxide is produced and hydrogen ions and electrons are removed from carbon atoms (oxidation). Also referred to as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), or citric acid cycle.
The point during exercise where a nonlinear increase in blood lactate occurs
A fatiguing metabolite produced during anaerobic glycolysis: resulting from the incomplete breakdown of glucose (sugar).
An anaerobic energy system in which ATP is manufactured when glucose (sugar) is broken down to lactic acid. High-intensity efforts requiring 1 to 3 minutes before energy (ATP) is primarily drawn from this system. More commonly referred to as anaerobic glycolysis.
The body weight minus the weight of the body fat.
The quantity of matter of an object that is reflected in its inertia (SI unit: kilogram).
The maximal rate at which oxygen can be consumed per minute
the power or capacity of the aerobic or oxygen system.
The greatest force output that an individual can generate from a muscle group through only volitional control.
The amount of oxygen required per minute under resting, sitting conditions. It is approximately 3.5 mL of oxygen consumed per kilogram of body weight per minute (mL ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ min -1).
A system of biochemical reactions that cause the formation of waste products (metabolites) and the manufacture of ATP; for example, the ATP-PC, anaerobic glycolysis, and oxygen system.
The substance produced by a metabolic reaction.
The amount of air inspired (V1) or expired (Ve) in one minute; usually it refers to the expired amount.
A subcellular structure found in all cells in which the reactions of the Krebs Cycle and electron transport system take place.
A nerve cell, which when stimulated affects muscular contraction. Most motoneurons innervate skeletal muscle.
An individual alpha motor nerve and all the muscle fibers it innervates.
The ability of a muscle or muscle group to perform repeated contractions against a light load for an extended period of time.
The force or tension that a muscle or group of muscles can exert against a resistance in one maximal effort.
An oxygen-binding pigment similar to hemoglobin that gives the red muscle fiber its color. It acts as an oxygen store and aids in the diffusion of oxygen.
Myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase
an enzyme found in myosin that catalyzes ATP degradation to ADP and Pi
a marker for muscle fiber contraction speed.
A condition in which less energy (food) is taken in than is given off; body weight decreases as a result.
Force times distance applied in the same direction as the pull of gravity; assisted by gravity.
The amount of oxygen above resting values, required to perform a given amount of work. Also referred to as net cost of exercise.
A nerve cell consisting of a cell body (soma), with its nucleus and cytoplasm, dendrites and axon.
Progressively increasing the volume of exercise during workouts over the course of the training program as fitness capacity improves.
Imbalance between high volume and/or high intensity training and adequate recovery., resulting in disturbances in physical performance, biologic function, and mood state.
The amount of oxygen consumed during recovery from exercise, above that ordinarily consumed at rest in the same time period. There is a rapid component (alactacid) and a slow component (lactacid).
The time period during exercise in which the level of oxygen consumption is below that necessary to supply all the ATP required for the exercise; the time period during which an oxygen debt is contracted.
Composed of the stroke volume (SV), the heart rate (HR), and the arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (a-vO2 diff). Mathematically, it is defined as vO2 = SV * HR X a-vO2 diff)
An inert medication or procedure. The placebo effect is attributable to the expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
A chemical compound stored in muscle, which when broken down aids in manufacturing ATP.
A condition in which more energy (food) is taken in than is given off; body weight increases as a result.
Force times distance applied in opposition to the pull of gravity.
The rate of performing work; the product of force and velocity. The rate of transformation of metabolic potential energy to work or heat (SI unit; watt).
The total number of all individuals who have an attribut or disease at a particular time (or during a particular period) divided by the population at risk of having the attribute or disease at this point in time or midway through the period.
Comprehensive term to cover a wide variety of muscular strength or endurance training practices when progressive overload is emphasized.
heart rate * systolic blood pressure
myocardial oxygen consumption.
Net amount of oxygen consumed during recovery from exercise; oxygen consumed in excess of the amount consumed at rest over the same time period (reported in liters)
A cellular process where food substrates are broken down to CO2 and H2 in the presence of O2 to liberate chemical energy.
The ratio of the amount of carbon dioxide produced by the body to the amount of oxygen consumed (VCO2 / VO2)
A proposed mechanism for muscle action where shortening and elongation are the result of actin protein filaments sliding inward and outward over myosin protein filaments.
A muscle fiber characterized by slow contraction time, low anaerobic capacity, and high aerobic capacity, all making the fiber suited for low-power output activities. Also known as Type I fiber.
Principle underlying construction of a training program for a specific activity or skill and the primary energy system(s) involved during performance. For example, a training program for sprinters would consist of repeated bouts of sprints in order to develop both sprinting performance and the ATP-PC system.
Umbrella term that refers to all aspects of sport and exercise science, especially as used in the U.S.; examples are kinesiology, cardiac rehabilitation, adult fitness, and athletic medicine.
A type of training system employing repeated sprints at maximal speed.
Pertaining to the time period during which a physiological function (such as VO2) remains at a constant, steady value.
The maximal force or torque a muscle or muscle group can generate at a specific or determined velocity.
Contraction of muscles to produce movement or tension due to muscle spindle stretch via a sharp tap on tendon or pull of gravity on skeleton.
A predetermined heart rate to be obtained during exercise
Force applied to a structure that does not move; in muscle, the static or isometric tension developed with the recycling of ATP at cross-bridge sites.
The effectiveness of a force to overcome the rotational inertia of an object. The produce of force and the perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the axis of rotation (SI unit; netwon-meter).
Volume of air in the lungs at the end of maximal inspiration.
An exercise program to develop an individual for a particular event. Increasing skill of performance and energy capacities are of equal consideration.
known for slow twitch, nonfatigue, and mostly oxidative metabolism.
The amount of ventilation required per liter of oxygen consumed
ex. (Ve / VO2)
Maximal volume of air forcefully expired after maximal inspiration.
The force exerted by gravity on an object (SI unit: newton; traditional unit; kilogram of weight). (Note: mass = weight ⋅ acceleration due to gravity -1).
Force expressed through a displacement but with no limitation on time (SI unit: joule).
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