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Anything that is both Christian and “early” but, specifically to Christian Art from 300 to 500 A.D
Literally “house church”, found in Dura-Europas, was the earliest known structure set aside specifically for Christian worship, the baptistery has frescos depicting Adam and Eve and Jesus the Good Shepherd
Underground burial complex, many survive around Rome from the Early Christian period, usually were lands of wealthy church members who donated the underground property to the church
Rectangular hole slots for bodies in catacombs, they were usually sealed with marble plaques
A room in a catacomb bought by the wealthy for their tomb, or they served as mortuary chapels
An arch topped recess used as a place of entombment
Refers to the idea of Early Christian art combing already existing non-Christian common imagery to make their ideas understood
Catacomb paintings and Early Christian sarcophagi depict
Basic themes of salvation or dogma, Christ as the Good Sheppard, appropriated concepts from mythology
Used for congregational worship (like Old St. Peter’s), based on the Forum of Trajan with the courtyard shifted, giving it a forward progression
Used for baptisms (a baptistery) and burials (mausoleum or martyrium), usually had a ambulatory and circular nave
Old St. Peter’s
Has a bema (not a transept), and a reversed orientation in order to face the city, influenced the double apse church style.
Example of a central plan structure, has a double shell/core construction that has a central circular nave and an encircling ambulatory
An individual little piece of marble or stone used in mosaics
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
Has a lunette of the Good Shepard, has an Alexandrian Christ dressed in royal blue and gold, over the center is a concentric circle of stars around a cross that has the four evangelist symbols on the corners.
Symbols of the Evangelists
Depicted in the dome of Galla Placidia
Half moon, like the mosaic above the door on the Galla Placidia
Lunette of Galla Placidia
Depicts Jesus as the Good Shepherd, uses atmospheric prospective, the background fades to pale grey which is a very naturalistic observation, good use of depth, everything at different heights
Santa Maria Maggiore
Nave - Hebrew Bible scenes
Triumphal Arch - Christian Bible scenes
Apse - Extra-Biblical Church tradition scene
St. Apollinaris Nuovo
Left side – Ministry cycle scenes with Alexandrian Christ types on the left side
Right Side - Passion cycle scenes with Syrian Christ types on the right
Church of Saint George (Hagios Georgios)
In Thessaloniki (Salonica)
12 mosaic scenes that comprise a virtual liturgical calendar of saints locally venerated in Early Christian Thessaloniki
Refers to the 6th century, the first golden age of the Byzantine Empire.
Capital of the Byzantine Empire
Constantinople, previously named Byzantium, now called Istanbul
Justinian the Great
The most important emperor of the Early Byzantine period, his wife was Theodora. They both are depicted gifts in the apse mosaic at San Vitale in Ravenna.
Justinian & Theodora financed
The apse mosaic of the Transfiguration at St. Catherine's Monastery at Mt. Sinai and Hagia Sophia
Designers of Hagia Sophia
Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus
San Vitale Apse Mosiac
Depicts Justinian & Theodora bearing gifts to the church
Vaulting system at Hagia Sophia
A dome raised up on pendentives and extended to the east and west by great half-domes
The outer narthex on the double narthexed church, Hagia Sophia
Early Byzantine mosaic decoration
Otherworldly abstraction, the concept is more important than the depiction
Early Christian mosaic decoration
Naturalism, focuses on best representing a natural setting and tangible figures
The Age of Migration
Refers, very roughly, to the 6th, 7th, and 8th centuries in Western Europe. Emphasis is placed on portable objects executed in either the polychrome or animal interlace style.
Used semi-precious stones of many DIFFERENT colors
Polychrome Style origins
Animal Interlace Style
Reflection of the struggle to exist in the North, had interlacing patterns and used a lot of animals
Animal Interlace Style origins
The Carolingian Period
Focuses around the year 800 and is named after Charlemagne, the king of the Franks.
It was a period classical renascence (revival), that imitated the naturalism of Greco-Roman classicism
The king of the Franks who was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope in Rome on Christmas Eve, 800
Aachen, in Germany
Charlemagne took architectural influence from what?
Proto-types from the two preceding great Christian imperial periods, the Age of Constantine and the Age of Justinian
Based on the San Vitale at Ravenna, the architects lost the knowledge to build something as complex as the San Vitale, and transformed the Chapel through translating the San Vitale
The west-facing entrance section of a church, the façade consists of multiple stories between two towers
Abbey of St. Riquier
It has a sense of verticality through the massing of its six towers and the use of a modular unit approach in the design of its plan. Gate - Based on the Arch of Constantine
Focuses around the year 1000. Is the result of a stylistic synthesis based on the immediately preceding Carolingian style and the style of contemporary Middle Byzantine Art (the Ottonian and Middle Byzantine families were married)
Ottonian Period characteristics
Tall, thin, elegant figures, isolated from one another against a gold or neutral background, but interrelated through gestures and glances.
St. Cyriakus at Gernrode
The interior is divided into square modular units, has real transepts
Cross section of a church where the roof is the same height
St. Michael's at Hildesheim
Modular design layouts and also in reverse orientation like Old St. Peter’s
Designed the Gero Crucifix and the great bronze doors for the Cathedral at Hildesheim
Cathedral at Hildesheim
Featured the Gero Crucifix and the great bronze doors designed by Bishop Bernward
The style of the 11th and 12th centuries. It is the first truly international art style of Western Europe. The Romanesque period is the age of monasticism and also the age of pilgrimage
First International art style in Western Europe
Santiago de Compostela
The favorite pilgrim destination in Western Europe during the Romanesque/pilgrimage period
Romanesque architectural style features
The round arch and barrel vault
Pilgrimage church type
(San Sernin at Toulouse) A two-part nave elevation comprising a nave arcade and a (tribune) gallery topped by a barrel vaulted roof system
The parts of the plan of a Romanesque pilgrimage church (10)
narthex, nave, side aisles, crossing, transept, choir, apse, ambulatory, and apsidials.
Architectural element formed by the lengthening of a single curve, it was fireproof and had acoustical properties
The intersection of two or three barrel vaults, jointed by transverse ribs
The sectioning of a rib vault
A transverse wall-bearing arch forming a partial wall dividing a vault or a ceiling into sections
Norman Romanesque style
(St. Etienne at Caen) tripartite horizontal and vertical divisions of its twin-towered facade and its three-part interior nave elevation - a nave arcade, tribune/gallery, and clerestory zone roofed by a hexpartite (6-part) ribbed-vault roof system.
Begins around 1140 and continues in Europe north of the Alps until 1525. The Gothic period is the age of the great medieval universities and university learning.
Gothic architecture characterizations
By the use of the pointed arch, rose windows, stained glass windows, and flying buttresses.
Saint-Denis (St. Denis)
First Gothic church. Designed by Abbot Suger
Introduced the pointed arch
Pointed Arch allows
Flexibility in vaulting complex bay shapes and greater height. Reduces weight on supporting walls by directing the weight downward rather than sideways. Thus, the walls can be made thinner, higher, and opened up to accommodate large areas of glass.
Designer of Saint-Denis
Early Gothic architecture
Has a four-part interior nave elevation comprising a nave arcade, (tribune) gallery, triforium, and clerestory surmounted by a hexpartite (6-part) vaulting system. (The Cathedral of Notre Dame at Loan)
Cathedral of Notre Dame at Chartres.
First High Gothic church
The High Gothic architectural style
Features a much more streamlined three-part interior nave elevation comprising nave arcade, triforium, and clerestory surmounted by a quadripartite (4-part) vaulting system. (The Cathedral of Notre Dame at Chartres, Reims, and Amiens)
High Gothic architectural style first introduced
The use of the flying buttress.
The Sainte-Chapelle (San Chapelle) in Paris
Late Gothic Rayonnant (1220-1400) style
Rebuilt left tower of Chartres Cathedral
Flamboyant (1400-1525) style
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