A theory is discarded not because of any evidence against it or lack of evidence for it, but because of the person who argues for it
Begging the question
An argument that assumes in the premises what is at issue; thus the conclusion inferred rests on questionable premises. The relevant rule that it violates is: the conclusion must be inferred from premises whose truth is accepted and does not simply restate what is at issue.
Burden of Proof
a fallacy in which the burden of proof is placed on the wrong side. Another version occurs when a lack of evidence for side A is taken to be evidence for side B in cases in which the burden of proof actually rests on side B. A common name for this is an Appeal to Ignorance.
psychologically-charged language to pose as definitions. They are not really definitions.
A word or phrase that minimizes the significance of a claim.
making something appear less important than you'd expect.
•Words like mere, merely or so-called
•Putting words in quotes
A word or phrase that makes something sound worse than a neutral description
A word, phrase or expression that puts a neutral or negative slant on something generally considered as positive
word or phrase that makes something sound better than a neutral description.
a word, phrase, or expression that puts a neutral or positive slant on something generally considered as negative
psychologically-charged language toose as explanations. They do not really explain.
Presenting a limited set of alternatives when there are others that are worth considering in the context
The either-or fallacy, also known as the false dilemma, forces people to choose between two alternatives when there may be other options available.
The Appeal to Ridicule is a fallacy in which ridicule or mockery is substituted for evidence in an "argument."
Can be positive or negative
thinly concealed negative claim that is implied by what the speaker does say.
A phrase or expression that suggests a a slanted notion without really saying it
If we improperly reject a vague claim because it’s not as precise as we’d like, then we commit the line-drawing fallacy. Being vague is not being hopelessly vague. Also called the Bald Man Fallacy, the Fallacy of the Heap and the Sorites Fallacy.
A question is posed in such a way that a person, no matter what answer he/she gives to the question, will inevitably commit him/herself to some other claim, which should not be presupposed in the context in question.
embodies an assumption that, if answered, indicates an implied agreement.
If you remark that a proposal or claim should be rejected solely because it doesn’t solve the problem perfectly, in cases where perfection isn’t really required, then you’ve committed the perfectionist fallacy.
Poisoning the Well
involves trying to discredit what a person might later claim by presenting unfavorable information (be it true or false) about the person
The person making such an attack is hoping that the unfavorable information will bias listeners against the person in question and hence that they will reject any claims he might make
form of ad hominem
Suggestion of evidence or authority without actually providing it
An argument that implicitly shifts the issue. The relevant rule that is violated is: A refutation should stick to the issue or change the subject explicitly.
distract the listener from the original issue
coercing a favorable response by preying upon the audience’s fears.
not direct threats, but are coerced conclusions
An argument that wrongly asserts that one situation will necessarily lead to another. The relevant rule that is violated is: A hypothetical syllogism is a valid argument form, but each causal connection must be correct.
If p then q and if q then r; therefore if p then r).
A stereotype is a persistent idea about a group of people based on little or no evidence
An argument that distorts an opponent's position in order to make it easier to attack. The relevant rule that it violates is: A refutation should deal with the opponent's position fairly (or in the best possible light).
A straw man fallacy is often confused with red herrings. Notice, however, that where red herrings distract the listener, a straw man distorts an opponent's position in order to more easily attack it.
Two Wrongs Make A Right
a fallacy in which a person "justifies" an action against a person by asserting that the person would do the same thing to him/her, when the action is not necessary to prevent B from doing X to A.
Expressions in an argument that provide a way out of the argument when it's going badly.
One kind redefines words so they won't describe you
uses qualifying words that reduce a claim to a suggestion: possibly, perhaps, maybe
Want to see the other 24 Flashcards in Fallacies?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!