life events: people develop to times when key events occur in life
recurrent themes of adulthood
identity, intimacy, freedom, life goals
3 stages: Early, middle, late
state of "being" is replaced by state of "becoming"
Erikson 7th stage
generativity vs. stagnation: (MA)
person seeks to attain sense of sharing, giving or productive work
stagnation occurs when person cares only about oneself and percceives life as "dreary". They feel trapped
Divorced who get remarried
75-80% of people who get divorced get remarried within 2-5 years
social scientist who studies aging
prejudice & discrimination against elderly based on age
media often reinforce myths
healthy, vigorous majority of older adults (75-80% of 65+ population)
frail minority of older adults (20-25% of 65+)
average life expectancy in HI
empty nest syndrome
loneliness felt when children leave the home
generation of people who care for aging parents while supporting own children
Myths of aging
85+ is fastest growing section of population
aging that involved universal and irreversibe changes that, due to genetic programming, occurs as people get older
changes in physical and cognitive functioning due to illness, health habits, and individual differences but are not due to increased age itself and are not inevitable.
most common mental disorder of elderly
serious memory loss accompanied by declines in mental functioning
progressive brain disorder that produces loss of memory and confusion
approaches to aging
genetic programming theory
wear and tear theory
genetic programming theory
suggest that our bodys DNA genetic code contains a built in time limit for the reproduction of human cells
wear and tear theory
the mechanical functions of body simply wear with age
Intel in old aage
fluid intel declines with age
crystallized intel remains steady and can improve with age
Erikson final stage
ego-integrity versus despair
process of looking back over ones life, evaluating it and coming to terms with itl
point in life where people examine and evaluate lives
Butler life review:
1. Good life
2. Wasted life
3. Reconciliation (mending broken relationships)
no one way to age
disengagement thoery (graudal withdrawal from world)
activity theory (maintaining interests/activities as earlier in life)
continuity theory (combo of both, maintain level of involvement to max sense of well being and self esteem)
% of people over 65 in nursing home
Social support network
all need a network of caring, interesting people to be involved with to combat loneliness in old age
formal definition of death based on the cessation of all signs of brain activity as measured by electrical brain waves
absence of heartbeat and breathing
person who studies death and dying
stages of dying found by asking people with terminal illness to talk to her
stages of death:
acknowledgement of the objective fact that one has experienced a death
emotional response to ones loss
Physical development and senses
Development and maturation is, in most respects, complete at early adulthood.Most people are at their peak of physical capabilities.
Natural physical decline brought on by aging.
Motor functioning, fitness, and health (7 healthy habits):
Having breakfast every day
No more than 1-2 alcoholic drinks per day
7-8 hours of sleep per night
Not eating between meals
Not being more than 10% overweight
1/3 of pop is obese with body weight of 20% or more above average
Stress and coping
Physical and emotional response to events that threaten or challenge us.
Individual’s assessment of an event to determine whether its implications are positive, negative, or neutral.
Person’s answers to the question, “Can I handle it?,” an assessment of whether his or her coping abilities and resources are adequate to overcome the challenge posed by the potential stressor
Effort to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate threats that lead to stress.
Nature of thinking changes qualitatively.Also encompasses dialectical thinking (an interest in and appreciation for argument, counterargument, and debate).
Acquisitive: Point reached by young adults in which intelligence is applied to specific situations involving attainment of long-term goals regarding careers, family, and societal contributions. All 4 Piaget stages here(childhood to early adult)
Achieving: (late teen to early 20,30) using knowledge to accomplish goals
Schaie Stages (cont)
3. Responsible: (late 30 to middle 60)Major concerns of middle-aged adults relate to their personal situations, including protecting and nourishing their spouses, families, and careers.Tackling practical problems involved in responsibility ofothers
4.executive:broadening focus from personal needs to society
5. Reintegrative: Period of late adulthood during which the focus is on tasks that have personal meaning
Triarchic theory of intelligence: Sternberg’s theory
Componential: mental components involved in analyzing data used in solving problems, especially problems involving rational behavior.
Experiential: Relationship between intelligence, people’s prior experience, and their ability to cope with new situations.
Contextual: Involves degree of success people demonstrate in facing the demands of their everyday, real-world environments.
Normative crisis model
Approach to personality development that is based on fairly universal stages tied to a sequence of age-related crises. Views key events as developmental markers. Normative events: expected occurences.Non-normative events:unusual occurences that have major impact on life, not based on age.
Erikson 6th crisis
intimacy vs. isolation
period of postadolescence into the early 30s that focuses on developing close relationships with others. EA.Selflessness, joint pleasure, deep devotion and fusing of identities
Strong and intense emotionally and physically arousing love.Neither can be sustained unless you have commitment.
Intimate, non-passionate type of love that is supposedly stronger than friendship because of the element of long-term commitment.
Sternberg’s triangular theory:
Consists of intimacy, passion, and commitment.
Intimacy: Feelings of closeness, connectedness, and bondedness.
Passion: Drives that lead to romance, physical attraction, and sexual consummation.
Commitment: Decision to remain with each other, and in long term, the shared achievements and plans made with that person
People tend to marry someone who is similar in age, ethnicity, cultural values, etc. (also known as HOMOGAMY).
Informal norms that suggest women to marry men of equal or higher social status.And older men marry women who are younger and of lower social status.
Social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship.An institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found.
Persons of Opposite Sex Sharing Living Quarters.Came up in the 1970s by US Census Bureau as part of an effort to accurately gauge prevalence of cohabitation in American households. Cohabitation: partners living together before marriage
What makes marriage work?
Couples who show affection and perceive themselves as interdependent (and those who make a commitment).
Period between 20-40, when young adults become centered in their careers.
Ginzberg’s career choice theory:
Fantasy period: child, career choice made based on what sounds cool and fun
tentative period: people begin to take practical considerations and think about own interests and beliefs in relation to job
Realistic period: young adults explore specific career options thru actual experience or through training
Gender and career choices:
Note – Until 1960’s, employment ads in newspapers throughout U.S. were almost always divided into two sections “Help Wanted: Male” and “Help Wanted: Female”.There was an assumption that certain jobs were for women, and certain jobs were for men.
Women were traditionally considered most appropriate for communal professions (occupations associated with relationships, such as nursing).
:Associated with getting things accomplished, such as carpentry.
Why do people work?
People work to earn a living.The reality is different, for young adults express many reasons for seeking a job.
:Drives people to tangible rewards, such as money and prestige.
People work for the enjoyment, not the material reward.
Gradual changes begin to occur during middle adulthood
:A condition in which the bones become brittle, fragile, and thin, often brought about by a lack of calcium in the diet.
: Loss of near vision. Visual acuity reaches peak at 20 and declines after.
Pressure in the fluid of the eye increases, either because the fluid cannot drain properly or because too much is produced.
Loss of ability to hear high-frequency sounds
There is an increase in reaction time, but usually the increase is fairly mild and hardly noticeable.
Sex in middle adulthood
Sexuality remains an important part of life for many, if not most, middle-aged people.Frequency of sexual intercourse declines with age, but sexual pleasure remains a vital part of most middle-aged adults’ lives.
A normal part of aging – positive attitudes lessen effects.45-55 age, 85% have hot flashes, 30% call them severe
Coronary heart disease
Both genetic and experiential characteristics are involved in heart disease.
Type A behavior
Behavior characterized by competitiveness, impatience, and a tendency toward frustration and hostility
Behavior characterized by noncompetitiveness, patience, and a lack of aggression.
Threat of cancer
About 40% of people diagnosed with the cancer are still alive 5 years later.
Reflections information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory.
Accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving situations.
Process by which people concentrate on particular skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas.
Reccurent theme of adulthood
schaie model relating stages with ages:
acquisitive: childhood to EA
achieving: late teen to early 20,30
responsible: late 30 to middle 60
reintegrative: late adulthood
Erikson 6th crisis
intimacy vs. isolation
can old people still learn new things?
does age affect problem solving?
is there a midlife crisis?
common pattern of maritial satisfaction
% of people who end up in nursing home?
how is ageism seen in action?
by people using words like "old geezer"
possible outcomes of life review
how was death viewed 100 years ago?
as a part of daily life, accepted
ways of defining death?
What did Kubler-Ross find out during patient interviews?
patients welcomed the interviews and wanted to talk about their illness
Why is Kubler-Ross not seen as stages anymore?
dying is an individual experience
Dr, can i get a 2nd opinion on diagnosis? Or wake up from this dream?
% of women going thru menopause with depression
% of people of 85 with dimentia?
Old-old population percentage?
20-25% of 65+
% of people suffering from deep depression b/c of grief?
Experts recommendation regarding dieting?
eat in moderation and diet is no necessary
Married people are....?
healthier and happier
Why are middle age adults good at practical problem solving?
dont accept things at face value
integrate new info with previous learning
how long does first stage of grief last?
few days or weeks but can be longer
begin good medical care early
gain weight sensibly
dont drink alcohol
dont take drugs
Plan you childs viewing in advance
do not use tv as reward/punishment
watch with your child
talk to your child
set a good example
Essay: Older people
Enrich yourself thru other person's experience
enourage physical activity
encourage mental activity
help with memory
for persons with hearing problems, speak slow but dont shout
for persons with vision problems. install lights at top of stairs and rid clutter
Essay: Life review
written or taped autobiographies
scrapbooks, old photos, & memorbilia
books of historical events in person's lifetime
focus on ethnic identity
6th: Intimacy vs. Isolation EA
7th: Generativity vs. Stagnation MA
8th: Integrity vs. Despair LA
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