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University of Hawaii - Manoa
Family Resource Management
Family Resource Management 230
FAMR Test 2
FAMR Test 2
Family Resource Management 230
University of Hawaii - Manoa
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EC Growth & Devpt
grow at reduced rate but cont. to develop coordination
SLOW STEADY physical growth
Gross=whole body actions, kicking a ball
Boys excel in activities involving strength ex. throwing, jumping
girls outshine in coordination ex. balancing, hopping
Differences reflect cultural expectations which channel gender based activites
provide material, emotional and spiritual confort
Types: traditional, single parent, 2nd marriage, 3 generational
strengthening families is investment in future
sharing values and beliefs
coping w/ stress
Poverty major contributor to poor health
20% of kids in 2007
Leading cause of death in childhood
accidents are preventable
Piaget 2nd stage
Preoperational stage age 2-7
children think before taking any action and anticipate outcome
ex. deferred imitation
Growth and language tied to cog skllls
Limitations: children are unable to: egocentricism, conservation, centration, irreversibility, animism
able to imitate someones actions after seen or heard
take other viewpoints into account
understand quantity is un-related to physical appearance of objects
focus on several aspects of problem at same time
reverse series of operations to original state
projection of human qualities onto inantimate object
acquired at fast rate after 2
social speech develops over time (begins at 2 but not controlled until 5)
preschoolers ability to associate words and their meanings after first encounter
child gathers reasoning by asking questions
kids learn in presence of other people (social context)
Zone of proximal development
parents can guide child to answers when kids are learning something new
level when kid can almost but not fully perform a task independently
help provided to child to help learn
support for learning and problem solving that encourages growth
ex. want child to throw ball 15 ft, start close and move back each throw
speech directed toward self "I can do it"
speech spoken to others and meant to be understood by others
television and internet
televised violence is part of social learning theory
developmentally appropriate educational practice
1. typical development=teacher designs activities based on what child can do
2. unique=teacher realizes each child is unique
Erikson 3rd stage of psychosocial development
Iniative vs. guilt
children display eagerness to understand new activities
guilt is emotional response to realization of possible failure
positive or negative self evaluation
set of beliefs about one-self
perception of maleness/femaleness
how kids learn they are boy/girl by observation
usually occurs between 5-7
Males spend more time in rough & tumble play
Females spend more time in organized games and role playing
children attempt to be similiar to same sex parent
framework that organizes info relevant to gender
awareness that people are permanently male or female
what it means to be male or female in given culture
Social learning theory
offset of Skinner behavioral theory
learn thru observation
gender specific behavior learned f/ observation of others
similarities b/t boys and girls outweigh differences
books and media reinforce stereotypes
aggresion is a learned behaviour
influence child attitude about:
1. gender roles
2. hurting/helping people
3. alcohol/drug use
children learn to use muscles and develop social interactions
easy, simple repetitive play
1. prevent from hurting
2. teach moral values
3. learn self control
body weight more than 20% above average for height and weight
food choices, physical activity, eating patterns, parental eating habits and physical activity
overweight children are more likey to become overweight adults
punitive measures for punishment
word is law
non-controlling but warm
dont play a role in childs development
age appropriate limits with explanations to why but still firm
1/3 of children abused
Cycle of violence hypothesis
children who were abused are more likely to abuse their own children
conveying to a child that they are worthless, flawed, unloved or unwanted
Kohlberg Moral devpt
standards of morality coincide with advances in cognitive devpt.
ability to understand another POV is basic component in moral reasoning
presented moral dilemmas and recorded responses
Kohlberg 3 Moral Levels
1. pre-conventional (child-10) child follows rules in terms of physical punishment or reward or that authority imposes rules (morality external)
2. Conventional (most teens and adults) morality internalixed, conforms to expectations of social order
3. Post-conventional (<25% of adults) person tries to identify moral values regardless of others opinions
helping behavior that benefits others
emotional response that corresponds to feelings of another person
emotional self regulation
being able to control emotions
Ecological system theory
series of concentric circles
3. low tolerance for frustration
Piaget cognitive theory
major acheivements=conservation, decentration, reversability, egocentricism
children begin to use symbols to perform operations or mental activities, although cannot transcend "here and now"
awareaness that 2 things remain the same although altered physically
talking multiple aspects of situation into account instead of focusing on one thing
series of actions can be undone
enables children to understand other viewpoints and improves communication
flexible and original thought
only one answer
video addresses issue of positive parenting as preventative strategy in dealing with devastating effects of child abuse
memory capablity and stragies that can aid memory
ability to objectify language as a process
knowing that language is more than just symbols, words are seperable from meanings
language has a structure than can be manipulated
capacity to think logically and solve problems independent of acquired knowledge
ability to use skills, knowledge and experience that relies on info from long term memory
Erikson 4th crisis
Industry vs. inferiority (6-12 yrs)
children attempt to gain regocnition of their efforts in completing something worthwhile
individuals evaluate own opinions and desires by comparing themselves to others
1. emotional acceptance and security
2. contribute to devpt. of values and attitudes
3. influence formation of self-concept
4.transmit knowledge about socially accepted behaviors
Stages of friendship
Basing Frienship on:
Stage 1: others behavoir
Stage 2: trust
Stage 3: phychological closeness
evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group
collection of individual social skills that permits individuals to perform successfully in social settings
social problem solving
use of strategies for solving social conflicts in ways that are satisfactory both to oneself and to others
children and parents jointly contol behavior
self care child
children who let themselves into their homes after school and wait along until their parents return from work
family that has a step mother/father/sister/brother from a remarriage
teacher expectancy effect
cycle of behavior in which a teacher transmits an expectation about a child and actually brings about the expected behavior
skills that underlie the accureate assessment, evaluation, expression and regulation of emotions
G. Stanley Hall
created adolescence as own period in turn of 20th century (1904)
period of "storms and stress"
period between childhood and adulthood (12-20 years)
puberty and physical change
marks stage of rapid physiological growth
height and weight increase
10 for girls
12 for boys
pattern of change occurring over several generations
primary sex characteristics
associated with development of organs and structures directly related to reproduction
secondary sex characteristics
visible signs of sexual maturity that do not involve sex organs directly
Early puberty vs. late
early maturing boys=more popular
late maturing boys=may feel inadequate but benefit from prolonged childhood
Piaget 4th stage
Characteristics, adolescents can think:
sees changes in adolescents cognitive abilities as evidence of gradual transformations in the capacity to take in, use and store info
knowledge that people have about their own thinking prcesses and thier ability to monitor their cognition
Adolescent egocentricism (Elkind)
state of self absorption in which world is viewed as focused on oneself
characteristics: argumentiveness, self conciousness, self centerdness, indecisiveness
why do teens find fault in authority? teens can now imagine possibilities in ideal world
fictitious observers who pay as much attn to the adolescents behavior as adolescents do to themselves
view that what happens to them is unique, exceptional and shared by no one else
develops throughout life
Erikson 5th stage
Identity vs. identity confusion
2 developmental peaks:take on adult body proportions, ability to think abstract
adolescents gain increase sense of purpose and own individuality
sharing basic values
independence an self control over life
divide between parents and children in attitudes, values, aspirations and worldviews
groups of people with whom one compares one self
groups of 2-12 people whose members have frequent social interactions
larger groups comprised of people sharing interest but may not interact with one another
boys hang out with boys vice versa
caused by peer pressure
influence of ones peers to conform to thier behavior and attitude
higher rate in US
Risk factors:Physical and Educational
Factors: contraceptive, adolescent pressure, socioeconomic, childhood enviro, sexual abuse, dating violence
is it true that parents and teens dont see eye to eye?
Teen Pregnancy risk factors
leading cause of death in children
diff between L and R brain hemisphere
older child watches mom bathe younger, then older child bathes stuffed animal. Ex of what?
Piaget 5 year old stage?
level at which child could almost, but not fully perform task?
learn word after hearing it once
divorce can lead to period of psychological maladjustment for children resulting in?
lack of sleep
obesity.org lists all modifyable causes of obesity except?
ability to produce more than one answer?
moral devpt is tied to ?
person following moral principles that supercede societty?
10 year old asked how he is at basketball. He will compare himself to?
same aged person
Characteristics of puberty?
rapid physical growth
early maturing boys
18 year old thinks they can drink and drive?
arguments b/t teens and parents usually over?
Erikson psychosocial stage that says unique and different?
identity vs. identity confusion
slow steady continual growth for entire life?
no, until puberty
% of children living in poverty in us?
do boys and girls differ in motor skills?
no if given same opportunity
name of Piaget 2nd stage?
pre operations (2-7)
How does child identify object, even if not seen but has only heard name?
How does TV influence childrens attitude?
gender roles, hurting/helping people, alcohol and drugs, sex
Erikson 3rd stage?
initiative vs. guilt
Piaget 3rd stage
2 girls (8 & 4), one has plate of spaghetti cut the other remains whole. Both plates are equal but uncut child thinks cut child has more. Why?
morality internalized at what level according to Kohlberg?
Current divorce percentage?
Psych consequence of divorce
anxious, depressed, trouble sleeping
How did adolescence become a period?
G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall said adolescence was period of what?
storm and stress
self concious=imaginary audience
self centered=personal fable
Erikson 5th stage
Identity vs. confusion
child abuse 33%
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