II.Thursday, February 19 A.movie: Invisible Children 1.war is horrific B.proxy war between Sudan and Uganda 1.Sudan supported the LRA in southern Uganda 2.Uganda was supporting the Sudanese Peoples' Liberation Front (SPLA) which was fighting against the Khartoum government a.made a peace agreement in 2005 (1)war continues still 3.Juba talks a.Kony was supposed to come and sign the agreement but the ICC had kicked in and there were indictments against the LRA and there was no incentive to come out of the bush and sign the agreemtn (1)LRA moved into Congo and continued to create havoc there 4.Why did the Museveni government do anything to bring this to an end? a.blamed Sudan b.same time as 9/11 happened --> anti terror movement (1)way for Museveni to get support from the US C.End of Conflict in Africa 1.Global Trends a.# of armed conflicts down 40% since 1992 b.# of deadliest conflicts down 80% since 1992 (over 1000 deaths) c.# of international crises down 70% between 1981 and 2001 d.wars between countries 5% of all conflict (1)becoming much rarer globally e.# of coups down 60% since 1963 2.Trends in Africa a.most of the world's conflicts are concentrated in Africa b.between 2002 and 2003, the number of armed conflicts in Africa dropped from 41 to 35 (major armed conflicts, deaths in the 1000+ range) c.# of casualties down 98% between 1950 and 2002 d.by the end of the 1990s, more people were killed in sub- Saharan Africa's wars than the rest of the world put together (1)biggest death toll from malnutrition and disease, not from fighting e.most conflicts are low-intensity conflicts fought with small arms and light weapons f.decline in the battle-death toll related to increase in internally displaced persons and refugees in the 1980s g.60 armed conflicts in the world today (1)main trend: increase in terrorism (a)only area of political violence that seems to be getting worse (b)overall decline since early 1980s 3.Chart re: civil wars starting and ending in Africa a.similar chart on Tuesday b.graph as well D.Reasons for decline in conflict in Africa 1.end of colonialism, early 1950s to 1980 2.end of the Cold War a.had driven approximately 1/3 of all conflicts in the post- WW2 period 3.increase in efforts to end war a.UN preventative diplomacy missions to prevent wars b.UN peacemaking missions to end conflicts (1)4x increase c.UN peace operations to reduce the risk of wars occurring (1)4x increase d.UN sanctions (1)can include travel sanctions, limits on travel (2)try to limit people who have stolen wealth of various countries (a)also freezing assets in various banks 4.decline in authoritarian regimes a.1970s: about 90 countries had authoritarian regimes (globally) b.by 2003, only 30 countries had authoritarian regimes c.same pattern in Africa (1)1980: 55% authoritarian, 8%, 37% (2)2006: 38% authoritarian, 19% democratic, 42%, semi- auth 5.changing role of Libya in the region a.was a source of terror and was up to no good in many Western African countries for some time 6.expanded role of African players in peacekeeping processes a.especially Nigeria and South Africa b.maybe Tanzania 7.also more African peacekeeping initiatives a.ECOMOG - West African multilateral armed force (1)established by ECOWAS (Economic community of West African States) (2)peacekeeping interventions (a)1997 Sierra Leone (b)1999 Guinea-Bissau (c)1999 Sierra Leone (d)2001 Guinea-Liberia, border to stop guerrilla infiltration 8.peace movements a.lots of pressure, especially from women and women's organizations intent on bringing an end to conflicts b.in countries coming out of conflict in Africa, women claim an average of 21% of legislative seats (1)in non-conflict countries, the average in 12% c.why was it easier for women to work across ethnicities than it was for the men? (1)men were focused on who gets what ministerial position and who gets the jeeps, etc. (2)women had a common agenda d.conflict itself disrupted gender roles in a profound way (1)allowed women to move into new roles (2)created new incentives to demand greater representation and rights e.donors/foreign governments were also pushing for womens' rights (1)women were critical to reconstruction (a)without women's involvement, reconstruction not gonna happen (2)UNSC resolution 1325 - women have to be part of all peacekeeping operations and all peacemaking efforts f.men participate too E.Other partners for peace 1.World Bank 2.donor states 3.regional organizations 4.thousands of NGOs F.Chart of Peacekeeping Missions in Africa 1.patterns? a.most occur in the 90s (tons after 1988) Maria Putzer Document1
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