"civilization," urban, state, literacy, history, with "church" and MONOTHEISTIC religion but eventually replaced with "science"
A sacred impersonal force existing in the universe; similar to our notion of efficacy or luck.
A successful hunter may have a charm or amulet that would be believed to make the next wearer hunt better too.
This refers to supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims, Voodoo relies on magic
Contagious Magic: is based on the principle that things or persons once in contact can afterward influence each other
Imitative Magic: is based on the principle that "like produces like",
A strong social prohibition, such as not not being able to touch the chief because commoners couldn't bear so much sacred current.
A perceived energy formed by a gathering of people; can be religious or secular
Gathering at a sporting event or religious service
This refers to an unstructured community in which people are equal, and gives a strong feeling of community.
Fasting with everyone else in a certain church
These people are intermediaries or messengers between the human world and the spirit worlds.
This uses nature as a model for society. Animals, plants, and geographical features become symbols to tell stories.
Native Americans used totem poles to tell stories
The first step in a rite of passage, where one must disconnect from society to prove themselves.
One does not belong to the society that they previously were a part of and they were not yet reincorporated into that society.
A chief may undergo a reversal of position to run for an office, and be insulted for a while before taking his high government position
One rejoins their society, but with a new rank and social status. This can be changing from a boy to a man, etc.
Universalities: Beliefs or practices found in every culture, like religion or currency
Generalities: Common beliefs or practices found amongst many cultures
Particularities: Beliefs or practices found only in one certain culture
Analyzing Cultures (Kottak's Description) and examples
Small (Research Method)
Qualitative 99% and Quantitative 1%
Uses participant observation, and Key Cultural Consultants
Applies Conversations and some semi-structured interviews to extract information
Uses open ended questions (typically, unless just using a survey, this will be the case)
Longitudinal Research + Self-Reflexsive Ethnography
Reed (Research Method)
Same as Small, but less self-reflexsive and did more life history by reading through old books
Somewhat more quantitative because of his use of economic surveys
Pendry (Research Method)
Practical Problems and Dilemmas (for Rabinow, Small, and Pendry)
The tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is of greater importance or more correct.
The way of seeing human's beliefs and activities in terms of his or her own culture, not to apply your own cultures standards
Human Rights and Cultural Rights
Human rights challenges cultural relativism saying that there is a realm of justice and morality that cannot be broken
Cultural Rights give groups the right to preserve their culture (Ethnocide is the opposite: destruction of a culture)
Small's View on Cultural Relativism and Human rights
According to Kottak, rituals are formal- stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped. These are social acts.
Prayer is a typical ritual that religions such as muslims do together repeatedly throughout the day.
Rites of Passage
According to Kottak these are customs associated with the transition from one place or stage of life to another.
Such as fending for one's self in the wilderness until they see a spirit, then they go back to society in better standing.
Function of Religion in Society
According to Kottak it is a leveling mechanism to keep people in line; such as the ten commandments or golden rule.
Roles of Religion in social control and social change
According to Kottak it helps to cope with adversity and tragedy. It helps to mobilize emotions and keep society in line and existing peacefully.
Brazilian Carnival (and how rites of passage, and religion with its functions affect it)
This version of Mardis Gras brings all the people together and temporarily flips all cultural standards.
Held forty days before Easter, marks the beginning of lent and is allowed as an expression of culture
Zapotec rituals and community celebration, which costs about 2-3 times the average annual income per party ($10,000) and the party lasts for about 5 days.
This is an important ritual to build prestige, pray to the patron saint of the town, and even give thanks to the patron saint of the town
Mayordomos (and How does guelaguetza help support it)
Guelaguetza allows these to be held, it is an old fashioned loan system that allows one family to be able to hold a massive event as such.
How films illustrate culture and religion discussed in class
"They Call me Muslim" film
Samah Mazouni was 18 and couldn't wear headscarf because of new French law. 10% muslim in France, and although this is a sacred and necessary part of their culture, France banned it because of the safety issue. They didn't want girls beaten by husbands or fathers, or given a hard time by others at school for not wearing the scarf.
Why did the Syrian woman decide to wear the headscarf?
She wanted to to follow the Qur'an, and she felt that doing this strengthened her religious beliefs.
Roles of Men and Women in films
In the Mayordomia film, women do almost all of the work while men carry some heavy stuff then sit around most of the day.
Actions, dress, and interactions in films
Amalgams of Cultural Influences in films
Tongan Dance (Appearance and other's actions at family and public celebrations)
How did migration affect religion in Teotitlan del Valle?
Why did the French government prohibit scarfs in school?
Small's Subject Position (and the resulting relationships and results)
Small's Research Techniques
Daily life in Tonga in 1980's
What were housing conditions like? What were daily activities?What were changes in tapa mat making and use of cash?
What was tonga's original social structure? What are some major post european contact changes? What is the social structure now?
Why were Tongans migrating? How did their lives change? What was life like in the U.S.?
Compare experiences and views of Estea and Manu, their daughters, Malia and Atu, Palu/Emma, and Finau.
What did being Tongan mean to these people?
How did Eseta and Manu help other relatives?
How did immigrants in the U.S. socialize and help each other?
How did migration and remittance affect life, family, and religious celebrations in Tonga?
Mechanisms of Change
Diffusion: borrowing of traits between cultures (can be direct or indirect)
Acculturation: exchange of cultural features through firsthand contact
Independent Invention: when humans solve similar problems in the same way
Globalization: change in the world because we are all interlinked
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