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__________ is imposed when emphasis is placedon the loss of some mental or physical capacity and no consideration is givento ways of reducing barriers to full participation.
People make decisions about which kin theywill acknowledge as family and which kin the will “forget.” This process isknown as
Sociologist Randall Collins maintains that theideology of ______________ is at the heart of sexual stratification
“Intimacyat a distance” is a term used to describe a situation in which norms specifythat
Inthe U.S. children classified as ________________ are most likely to live insecure parental employment households
Endogamyrefers to norms requiring or encouraging people to choose partners
Childbearing, care giving, managing households, and education children fall underthe category of
Ina _____________ women offer men sexual access in exchange for economicsecurity.
Whenfamily residence is neolocal, that means the
Husbandand wife’s residence is separate from their parents
SociologistKingsley Davis wrote about an economic arrangement in which the man’s economicrole was the link between the family and the wider market economy, and thewoman’s role was confined to running the household. Davis called the economicarrangement the
Ina _______________ women can enter relationships offering income and otherpersonal achievements.
Whichone of the following is true about Japan relative to United States?
Therelatively permanent claim to exclusive rights over a particular person relatesto the concept of
Atone time (before 1967), the United States had laws prohibiting marriagesbetween classified as white and black. Those laws enforced
Thepercentage of married women in the labor force increased from 15.4 percent to53.1 percent between 1900 and 1980. According to sociologist Kingsley Davis,women’s entry into the paid work force can be attributed to all but which oneof the following factors
Thewomen’s liberation movement
Incomparison to the United States, Japan has a
lower rate of reported domestic abuse cases
Inthe United States, ___________ of people 65 and over require assistance withdaily activities such as bathing, walking, dressing and eating.
Caregivingthat family members, neighbors, and friends provide in a home setting is
Whichone of the following is a core concept sociologists us to think about thefamily?
Theaging of the population has no historical precedent
Weknow that the Industrial Revolution separated the workplace from the home andaltered the division of labor between men and women. More specifically,
Theman became the link between the family and the wider market economy.
Apoint of view that assumes those who are impaired with regard to some activity,such as walking, are also impaired in other areas is called
Aconflict theorist would argue that families are structured to
InJapan, the population of working single adults (22 and older) that live withtheir parents while contributing little to household expenses is known as
The“means of existence, food, clothing, and shelter and tools” relates to
InJapan, 94 percent of marriages involve brides and grooms both classified asJapanese. The pattern of marrying within one’s own ethnic group is known as
A_________ is a physical or mental condition that interferes with someone’sability to perform an activity that the average person can perform withouttechnical or human assistance.
Inthe United States, the practice of dividing family members along racial linesbegan with
Jukuis a Japanese term for
Functionalistsmaintain that the family performs several social functions for society. Whichone of the following is not one of these functions?
KingsleyDavis believed that married women became motivated to seek work outside thehousehold for all but which one of the following reasons?
Inboth the United States and Japan, the percentage of people age 65 and older isincreasing relative to younger age groups. This is known as ______________population
DemographerS. Ryan Johansson argues that coupes in industrialized economies have childrenfor all but which one of the following reasons?
Ina ____________ there is no police force or militia; the household is an armed unit.
Thebreadwinner system is an outcome of an economic arrangement. That arrangementis
Ina ________________ the available technology does not permit the creation ofsurplus wealth.
Definitionsof family that emphasize ____________ view the family as comprising members whoare linked together by blood, marriage, or adoption
Asocial institution that binds people together through blood, marriage, law,and/or social norms is known as
Researchsuggests that tracking has ________ effect on high-track students.
Themost popular destination for U.S. students studying abroad is __________.
Colemanbelieves that _________ is one of the major avenues open to adolescents inwhich they can act as a representative of the school and community.
MostAmericans tend to equate education with ___________.
__________encompasses subject content, assessment methods, and activities involved inteaching and learning for a specific course, grade, or degree.
Accordingto sociologist Randall Collins, the steady increase in educational requirementsfor employment throughout the last century in the United States has created a____________.
Transmittingskills, contributing to personal reflection and change, and integrating diversepopulation are considered ____________ of education.
Wefocus on the European Union in the Education chapter for all but which one ofthe following reasons.
TheEU is working to limit opportunities for education beyond high school.
__________helps to explain why people living in countries other than the United Statesspeak more than one language.
Thelatest data in the United States showed that, as a group, __________ studentsseem to score highest on standardized tests
Althoughall countries in the world have education-based programs that address socialproblems, ______ is unique in that education is viewed as the primary solutionto many of its problems.
Asystem in which students are assigned to separate instructional groups within asingle classroom or different programs, such as college preparatory versusremedial, is known as __________.
__________programs prepare students for direct entry into a specific occupation.
__________percent of college graduates in the United States claim their degree is notneeded to do the job they currently hold.
___________includes a person's educational credentials, the kinds of knowledge acquired,social skills, and aesthetic tastes.
Thestatement "Illiteracy is a product of one's social environment" meansthat people are considered illiterate when ___________.
Aprogram of formal and systematic instruction that takes place primarily inclassrooms is ______.
MostEuropean vocational school programs are equivalent in rigor to U.S. __________programs.
SociologistPierre Bourdieu found that the perceptual schemes people draw upon are shapedin large part by their _____________.
Whichone of the following characteristics applies to the process of informaleducation?
___________is a purposeful, planned effort intended to impart specific skills and modes ofthought.
SociologistJames Coleman defined ________ as a "small society---one that has most ofits important interactions within itself, and maintains only a few threads ofconnection with the outside of adult society."
Approximately____ percent of ninth graders enrolled in U.S. public schools do not graduatefrom high school four years later.
Inthe United States, most of the funding for primary and secondary educationcomes from _______.
TheColeman study of adolescent societies found that _______ is/are extremelyimportant to boys and _______ is/are extremely important to girls.
The________ curriculum is the things that students learn along with the subjectmatter.
Accordingto sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, high schools dropouts came to know andinternalize what is objectively possible for someone with their educationalcredentials, and as a result, are not likely to expect high income. Thisinternalized reality is known as ___________.
Themeans by which instructors pass on the values, knowledge, and skills that theyor others have defined as important for success in the world is known as__________.
______ranks number one among the top 25 countries sending students to the U.S.
Rosenthaland Jackson maintain that something in the way teachers talk, in their facialexpressions, and posture conveys their expectations to the students. It seemsthat students respond by meeting these expectations. This process is known as__________.
__________argue that schools simply perpetuate the inequalities of the larger society.
SociologistJames Coleman's report Equality ofEducation Opportunity found that _____________.
Shawnstates "I'm dropping out of high school because I'm just not a good testtaker. Both of my parents dropped out of school—my family just isn't cut outfor school." This statement speaks to the process known as _____________.
Brownv Board of Education (1954) is a famous Supreme Court case dealing with__________.
Themost predominant religion in the world (as measured by the number of peoplepracticing that religion) is
________is a belief in the timeless nature of sacred writing and the belief that suchwritings apply to all kinds of environments
___________is a small community of believers who broke away from a denomination and areled by a lay ministry, with no formal governing body.
In__________ members accept a religion as the official religion of thestate/country.
Conflicttheorist focus on ways in which religion
In__________ a charismatic leader plays a central role in attracting members.
Areligion in which followers become involved in practices such as fasting orcelibacy to separate themselves from worldly attachments can be classified as
InThe Elementary Forms of the ReligiousLife, Emile Durkheim cautioned that sociologists who study religion mustassume that
TheAfghanistan constitution defines __________ as the official religion of thecountry.
TheU.S. started to print the phrase “In God We Trust” on its coins in the
Contactbetween the sacred and profane is viewed as
Whichone of the following is not one of the three essential features of religion asidentified by Durkheim?
“great”books such as the Bible, Koran, or Torah
Whensociologist study religion, they investigate
Thesociological perspective on religion is one that is guided by
__________is a process by which religious influences on thought and behavior are reduced
Inhis State of the Union Address on January 7, 1991, President George Bush said,“We know why the hopes of humanity turn to us. We are Americans; we have aunique responsibility to do the hard work of freedom. And when we do freedomworks.” His statement appeals t sentiments associated with
Areligion in which the sacred is sought in places, objects, and actions believedto house a god or spirit is classified as
A_____________ is a hierarchical organization led by a professionally-trainedclergy in which church and state remain separate.
Theterm __________ refers to compatible combinations of belief systems, such asConfucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and Shinto in Japan.
Accordingto Max Weber, religion
Givesmeaning to the ultimate and inescapable problems of existence
The__________ includes everything that is regarded as extraordinary and thatinspires in believers deep and absorbing sentiments of awe, respect, mystery,and reverence.
Thephrase “under God” was added to the Pledge of Allegiance during
____________is the belief that God has preordained all things
___________includes everything that is not sacred
___________reflects a long-standing ideology that the U.S., by virtue of its moralsuperiority, was destined to expand across the North American continent to thePacific Ocean and beyond.
___________are rules that govern how people must behave in the presence of the sacred toachieve an acceptable state of being.
Webermaintained that the Protestant ethic
In___________ religions, the sacred revolves around items that symbolize historicevents or around the lives, teachings, and writings of great people.
Functionalistsmaintain that religion must serve some vital social function because
Someform of religion has existed as long as humans have been around
The_________ includes everything that is regarded as extraordinary and thatinspires in believers deep and absorbing sentiments of awe, respect, mystery,and reverence.
Whichone of the following factors represents an example of a pull factor?
Theleast important reason for the decline in death rates in Western societies is
Asituation in which poverty, unemployment, and other problems associated withurbanization are made worse by an influx of unskilled, poverty-stricken ruralimmigrants who have been pushed into the cities out of desperation is called
Doublingtime is the estimated number of years it will take to double
Birthrates fall below replacement when the average woman has fewer than ____child/children over the course of her reproductive life.
Stewartis moving out of his hometown because there are no jobs. The reason he ismoving is called a
Asubspecialty within sociology that focuses on the study of human population is
A__________ is a group of people who share common experiences and perspectivesby virtue of the time they were born.
Apopulation’s age and sex composition is commonly depicted as a
__________refers to the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of a terminationof pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or the way itis managed.
Typically,the infant mortality rate is calculated for the age group that is
Agglomerationsare urban areas with populations
Thedifference between birth and death rates is known as the demographic
Insociological terms, the forced migration by slave traders of more than 11million Africans to the Americas is an example of __________ migration.
Theworld’s population has doubled ____________ times in the last 2,000 years.
TheUnited Arab Emirates has 219 males for every 100 females, meaning that theUAE’s _______ is skewed in favor of males relative to females.
Movementwithin the boundaries of a single country is known as
Withinthe U.S., the greatest amount of internal migration is movement
Themovement of people from one residence to another is
The__________ is the average number of children that women in a specificpopulation bear over their lifetimes.
Urbanizationincludes all but which one of the following characteristics?
In2010, the difference between the number moving into the U.S. and the numbermoving out of the U.S. was 5.05 million. This figure represents the _________for the U.S.
Thepoint at which population growth overwhelms the environment’s carrying capacityis
_______are frequent and violent fluctuations in the death rate caused by war, famine,and epidemics.
The most critical factor driving the industrialrevolution was ________________.
_________________ is a transformative process inwhich people migrate from rural to urban areas and change the way they useland, interact, and make a living.
A scientific revolution occurs when________________.
A few people who occupy such lofty positions inthe social structure of leading institutions that their decisions affectmillions, even billions, of people worldwide are known as ______________.
Revolutionary, unprecedented, or ground-breakinginventions that are cornerstones for a wide range of applications are termed_____________.
Leslie White maintains that ______________ istied to the size of the cultural base.
_____________________ is formed when asubstantial number of people organize to change, to resist change, or undochange in some area of society.
In sociology, the concept of tipping point wasfirst applied to _______________.
_________________ is the average number of livechildren women bear in their lifetime.
Pharmacies, banks, and car washes have adopted“drive-thru” services to facilitate their goal of moving customers from onestate of being to another quickly. This strategy speaks to which one followingMcDonaldization principles _______________.
_______________ involves producing goods that aredisposable after a single use, have a shorter life cycle than the industry iscapable of producing, or go out of style even though the goods can still servetheir purpose.
_____________ is a term for that portion ofnonmaterial culture that adjusts to material innovations.
Sociologists use the term _______________ todescribe a group with which people identify and to which they feel closelyattached – particularly when that attachment is founded on opposition toanother group.
Marx believed that ________________ was the firsteconomic system capable of immense productive potential of human labor andingenuity.
The explanatory value and hence the status of aparadigm is threatened by the existence of an anomaly. An anomaly is_________________.
Why is Greenland the focus of a chapter on socialchange?
Situation in which a previously rare (orseemingly rare) event, response, or opinion, snowballs into somethingdramatically more common are known as ________________.
Perhaps the most outstanding feature of theinternet is that it was designed to operate ___________.
Sociologist define ____________ as a critical setof potential social advantages, including everything from the chances that aperson will survive through the first year of life to the chances that aperson’s will live a long life.
A technological determinist believes that humanbeings ________________-,
___________________ is the systematic use ofanxiety-inspiring violent acts by clandestine or semiclandestine individuals,groups, or state-supported actors for idiosyncratic, criminal, or politicalreasons.
A society in which the use of fossil fuels shapesvirtually every aspect of people’s personal and social lives is a__________________ society.
The principles efficiency,quantification/calculation, predictability, and control govern theorganizational trend known as ______________-.
The unprecedented increase in the amount ofstored and transmitted data and messages is ____________.
When studying a social change, sociologists ask__________________.
________________ is any significant alteration,modification, or transformation in the organization and operation of sociallife.
Ogburn’s theory of cultural lag emphasizes________________.
Which one of the following theorists would ask“Who benefits from climate change, and at whose expense?”
Highways and automobiles have created_________________ and making it difficult to distinguish between city, suburbs,and nonurban environments ______________-.
Sociologist first emerged as a disciplineattempting to understand an even that triggered dramatic and seemingly endlesschanges in every human life. That event was _________________,
___________________ is a situation in which thesame invention is created by two or more people working independently of oneanother at about the same time.
One can argue that the information explosionbegan with the invention of the ________________.
_________________ is a term for that portion ofnonmaterial culture that adjust to material innovations.
Sociologist Max Weber used the term ___________to refer to the way in which daily life is organized socially to accommodatelarge numbers of people.
Improving innovations are ____________inventions.
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