The lagging strand is synthesized ________, while the leading strand can be synthesized ________.
DNA replication requires a _________.
Without ______, the core RNA polymerase binds and releases DNA at random
Initiation of Transcription
RNA polymerase holoenzyme
Binding of the RNA polymerase to the promoter
Melting of the Helix
What does it mean to say that the genetic code is degenerate?
More than one codon can specify the same amino acid
Genes encoding bacterial antibiotic resistance involving efflux transport systems are most commonly encoded on ______ which can be readily transferred to other bacteria.
______ is the process of moving a transposable element within or between DNA molecules.
A transmembrane _____ detects an environmental condition outside of the bacteria while ______ is in the cytoplasm and binds to DNA to alter gene expression.
Sensor kinase..... response regulator
Transcription attenuation is a common regulatory strategy used to control operons that code for what?
Amino acid biosynthesis (anabolism)
Some microbes, especially pathogens, use gene regulation to periodically change their appearance in a process called _____, which can allow them to escape a host's immune response.
DNA polymerase synthesizes DNA in the ______ direction. However, it has an exonuclease activity that provides for a _____ activity to fix mistakes.
5'----> 3' ..... proof-reading
Bind to regulatory sequences in the DNA and prevent transcription.
Bind to regulatory sequences in the DNA and stimulate transcription.
inhibits initiation of transcription
Suppose Pasteur's swan necked flasks containing boiled broth became cloudy 24 hours after boiling. Which choice could best explain the turbidity or cloudiness in the broth without supporting spontaneous generation?
Endospores in the broth survived boiling and grew after the broth cooled.`
The capsule polysaccharides form a slippery mucous layer that inhibits ______
Lipopolysaccharides are found in
Gram negative bacteria
A bacterium whose sugar uptake levels are equal when the organism is grown in media in the presence and absence of inhibitors of energy production. What is the mechanism of transport?
When the intracellular iron concentration is low, iron-scavenging molecules called _____ are produced
During biofilm formation, as more and more cells bind to the surface, they begin sending signals to each other in a process called
Human pathogens are
Psychrophiles favor the cold since their membranes are more fluid at low temps owing to the high proportion of ____ present
Unsaturated fatty acids
Runoff from agricultural fields, lawns, and golf courses can cause an overgrowth of microbes due to
The removal of all microbial life from a given sample
An ____ removes microbes from the surface of living tissues.
A _______ removes microbes from the surface of inanimate objects.
Reducing the microbial population to safe levels
Four phases of the bacterial growth curve
Peptidoglycan has a backbone consisting of repeating disaccharide units composed of ____ and ____.
N-Am & N-Ag
After counter-staining, Gram positive bacterium are _____ because it has a _____ peptidoglycan layer.
After counter-staining, Gram negative bacterium are _____ because it has a _____ peptidoglycan layer.
Structural parts of lipopolysaccharide
The laws of thermodynamics indicate that systems tend to become less ordered and that the ______, a measure of disorder of randomness of the universe, always increases.
ATP is the main energy carrier in living organisms, but these also serve as energy carriers in metabolic reactions
Fermentation can be defined as completion of metabolism
without an electron transport system
without a terminal electron acceptor
in the absence of oxygen
The greatest amount of reduced NADH is produced during
The proton motive force drives
ATP biosynthesis from ADP and Pi
Production of traditionally fermented foods typically relies on ____ flora, whereas commercial fermentation generally relies on _______
natural... starter cultures
This contaminant in water is especially prevalent in agricultural in the US
Likely to raise biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Energy carriers in order of greatest to least potential chemical energy
Excess ______ runoff can lead to an algal bloom, which causes _______ of a body of water causing massive die-off of fish and other animals.
Purposes of fermentation of foods
Preserve food (pickles)
Improve digestibility (bread)
Add nutrients and flavors (wine)
The mucociliary escalator functions to
Trap and sweep microbes from the bronchi back up to the throat to be swallowed
The major phagocytic cells in the body
Neutrophils and macrophages
Antigen presenters in humans
Macrophages and dendritic cells
An activated Tc cell trying to kill of influenza in the lungs would
Bind to the infected host cells then release perforin and granzymes
Tc cells have ____ on their surface and recognize ____ on host cells
CD8 ..... MHCI
Th cells have ____ on their surface and recognize _____ on B cells, macrophages and DCs
Innate immune response
Causes whooping cough
Most diarrheal diseases are caused by
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is caused by
Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae
#1 pathogen in the world
Antibiotic resistance mechanisms
Modify binding site
Destroy the antibiotic
Modify the antibiotic
Pump out the antibiotic
Signs of inflammation
Botox causes _____ paralysis
Tetanus toxin causes _____ paralysis
Bacterial _______ prevent phagocytosis
Rare hamburger meat contains E. coli 0157:H7 which produces _____ which damages the _______
Shiga toxin....... kidneys
Most frequent reported STD in the US. 75% of women have no symptoms but damage still occurs which causes sterility
used for strength. makes up the gram-positive thick cell wall.
discovered autoclaving... can only kill endospores with high heat and pressure.
NOT STERILIZATION! (does not kill everything) Meant to kill Q fever.
Do High temps kill, low temps?
High temperatures KILL. Denature proteins. Low temperatures SLOW GROWTH. put stress on growth.
John Lister's Claim to Fame
LISTERINE! First use of antiseptic to save lives!!
Influenza A has a _______ genome. It is easy to break and make them.
______ and ______ cause diarrhea and are especially fatal in children of the developing world.
A, G, T, C
DNA is a polymer of 4 deoxynucleotides which are ___, ____, ____,& ______.
The DNA backbone is composed of ______.
DNA strands come together in an ______ fashion.
DNA is polymerized in the ______ direction
is the transfer of free DNA into bacterial cells.
is the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another.
is the process in which bacteriophages carry host DNA from one cell to another.
antibiotic that affects Translation. inhibits 70S ribosome formation.
antibiotic that affects Translation. Inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the A site.
antibiotic that affects Translation. inhibits peptidytransferase.
antibiotic that affects Translation. Causes abortive translocation.
antibiotic that affects Transcription. inhibits initiation of transcription.
Translation begins at the _____ codon and ends at the ______.
Start codon: AUG Stop codon: UAG, UAA, UGA
signals the beginning of the gene.
_______ helps the core enzyme detect the promotor.
gene expression can also be controlled through _______. Ex: Salmonella changes Flagellum from one type to another by rearranging (inverting) a DNA segment that contains the promoter that controls one flagella type and the repressor for the other second flagella type... so now the other flagella type is made and this is called phase variation.
some microbes use gene regulation to periodically change their appearance in a process called __________.
_______ is a behavior in which motile bacteria swim toward favorable environments or away from unfavorable environments. "Random Walk"- Toward food by sensing the environment. hot/cold. caused by swims and tumbles.
Two-component signal transduction system
Detection of food occurs through a process that is like a _______________________: the food receptors that are like the sensor kinase and the protein that controls the flagellar motion is like the response regulator.
breakdown of complex molecules into smaller ones.
reactions that build cells.
is the ability to do work.
______ provides the energy for _________.
is a reducing agent.
is an oxidizing agent.
TCA Cycle production
Produced: 3 CO2 , 4 NADH, 1 FADH2 1 ATP
Why can't microbes in general survive on glycolysis and TCA alone?
Must have oxidative phosphorylation
What pathogen is the leading cause of hospitalization/death from a foodborne pathogen?
Clostridium Botulinum toxin
causes flaccid paralysis. don't eat grandma's green beans... "home canning".
causative agent for cholera. secretes cholera toxin which an AB5 toxin which caused the host cells to secrete Cl-, HCO-, and water.
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