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One of the biggest problems in prison classification is that human behavior may be:
The concept of the new-generation jail has evolved in recent years to embrace the idea of ____________ justice, a philosophy of reorienting the jail experience from being mostly punitive to being mostly rehabilitative.
To avoid the problems of bail, many U.S. cities have increased the use of ___________ for non-serious offenses.
Innovations designed to reduce the intrusiveness of the correctional system, no matter how well intentioned, often backfire and expand its capacity for social control. When this occurs, the innovation is said to:
_________________involves a variety of interpersonal techniques that increase the effectiveness of correctional treatment, by having the probation officer interact with the client in ways that promote the client’s stake in the change process.
Probation revocation can result from a new arrest, conviction, or from a rules violation; a failure to comply with a condition of probation. Rules violations that result in revocation are often referred to as ___________ violations.
Probationers commonly resent their ____________ even when most people think they should be grateful for "another chance."
______________ ____________, imposed on all probationers, include reporting to the probation officer, notifying the agency of any change of address, remaining gainfully employed, and not leaving the jurisdiction without permission.
Formal constraints, the "legal conditions" of probation, whether standard, punitive, or treatment, are set by _____________ or written into law.
The return of a former correctional client to criminal behavior, as measured by new arrests or other problems with the law is known as _________.
Community corrections legislation is best understood in terms of its goal to reduce reliance on:
________ is compensation for financial, physical, or emotional loss caused by an offender, in the form of either payment of money to the victim or to a public fund for crime victims.
Two-thirds of all people under correctional authority in the U.S. are ____________.
The idea that different forms of intermediate sanctions can be calibrated to make them equivalent as punishments despite their differences in approach is known as the principle of:
The private-prison business in the United States is dominated by the __________________, which currently manages more than 60 facilities and 80,000 prisoners at all security levels.
The major focus of corrections today seems to have shifted to a _____________ model of corrections; a model which emphasizes the importance of incarceration.
Currently, the largest racial/ethnic group in state-level U.S. prisons is
During the 1960s and early 1970s, when the _________model was dominant, many states built new prisons and converted others into “correctional institutions.”
Due to the rising U.S. health costs, the increasing number of ________ offenders may become a major problem for corrections within the next decade.
Which of the following prison designs is most often used for maximum-security prisons in the U.S.?
A set of rules of conduct that reflect the values and norms of the prison society is referred to as the:
Using data from the National Inmate Survey, 2011-2012, the Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that inmate on inmate sexual victimization was;
Scholars report that female inmates tended to adopt which of the following rather than identifying with the larger prisoner subculture?
Almost 60 percent of women who have minor children never get to see their children while incarcerated. One of the biggest reasons for this is;
Although there is less violence in women’s prisons there are certain types of violence that are more common such as;
According to your authors, the most serious boundary violation involves:
________________ is a management principle holding that a supervisor can effectively oversee only a limited number of subordinates.
Women officers currently make up about ____ percent of the state prison workforce.
A correctional officer is an example of _____ personnel.
“Corrections staff are prohibited for using which of the following types of force within a corrections institution?”
More than two-thirds of those convicted of a crime in the U.S. receive ____________ as their punishment.
Wall officers assigned to the towers or along the walls have little to no contact with the inmates. Traditionally, these assignments have been reserved for;
One of the problems that vocational rehabilitation faces in the prison system is the fact that many inmates must deal with ________ that attach to the former offender and legally restrict the inmate from obtaining certain types of employment.
A labor system in which goods produced by prison industries are purchased by state institutions and agencies exclusively is referred to as:
By far, the most extraordinary health problem in contemporary corrections is the growing number of _________offenders.
Providing treatment for sex offenders in prison;
What three techniques are essential for prison rehabilitation programs?
_________is the process of evaluating an offender’s needs and developing custody and treatment programs that fit those needs.
The probability of release well before the end of the formal sentence promotes ______________by both prosecutors and defendants.
_______________ developed a classification system by which prisoners could pass through stages of increasing responsibility and freedom: (1) strict imprisonment, (2) labor on chain gang, (3) freedom within an area, (4) a ticket-of-leave or parole with conditional pardon, and (5) full liberty.
The required release of an inmate from incarceration to community supervision on the expiration of a certain period, as stipulated by a determinate-sentencing law or parole guideline is known as______________.
Release is usually granted to prisoners who have served the amount of time stipulated by the guidelines and who meet three criteria. Which of the following is one of the three criteria?
An inmate's eligibility for release to community supervision depends on requirements set forth by the law and:
When discretionary release is used, the parole board's power is much like that of the ________.
Parole can be revoked for two reasons: 1) committing a new crime or 2) _____________.
Which of the following is one of the two major forces which may influence a newly released offender’s adjustment to society?
In most agencies, the officer and parolee develop a supervision plan that states what the parolee is going to do about their problems. Another term for this supervision plan is a__________________ plan.
Parole officers are usually asked to play two roles: ________and_________.
A legal process that results in the removal of a conviction from official records is referred to as:
A pardon is an action of the _____________ of the state or federal government excusing an offense and absolving the offender of the consequences of the crime.
Residential programs for released offenders are often referred to as:
One of the major differences between adult probation and juvenile probation is the juvenile probation officer ________ with/for their client.
According to the text, the juvenile justice system has changed dramatically in recent decades. Currently, the juvenile justice system is in what period of development?
One of the most widespread new intermediate sanctions for juvenile offenders is;
One reason for the slowness in developing juvenile intermediate sanctions;
An estimated ____% of all African American men are permanently banned from voting in the states where they live.
In cities such as Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, _________of all African American adults under 40 are under some form of correctional control.
Today African Americans make up almost _______% of the prison population but only about 13% of all U.S. residents.
______________ is a biological concept used to distinguish groups of people by their skin color and other physical features.
____________ is the term used to refer to the differential treatment of an individual or group without reference to the behavior or qualifications.
In every U.S. state, African American incarceration rates are at least _______ times as high as those for whites, and in some states African American rates are 10 times as high.
Young ________males who have no criminal record are less likely to get entry-level jobs than are young ________males with prison records.
The concept used to distinguish people according to language, religion, and group traditions is referred to as:
Almost ___________ of all African American children have a father is prison.
Of the 58 countries that use capital punishment for ordinary crimes, such as murder, _________ reported the highest number of executions in 2012.
A major study conducted on death penalty appeals found that ________ convictions were overturned on appeal.
More than half of all prisoners on death row in the U.S. are in the:
three most frequently cited rationales for capital punishment in the United States?
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