the belief that AAE developed historically from an ancestral creole language, influenced by both colonial English and West African languages.
the belief that AAE is derived historically from British & other immigrant dialects of English. Little to no influence from native languages. no creole.
A full fledged language that develops from a pidgin (hawiian creole English, gulla "geechee" on Sea Islands of SC"
--Creole is based on a primary language that supplies most of the vocabulary. (the lexifer)
The rules are developed from a combination of the contact languages & some new rules.
basilect--> mesolect--> acrolect.
1) basilect is the most non-standard (deepest creole)
2) mesolect is the middle stage
3) acrolect is the most standard (standard dialect of English.)
AAE features characteristic of creoles
*copula absense (even with is)
--she my sister. she nice
*plural -s absence on nouns
--four girl; three dog
*consonant cluster reduction (even before vowels)
Anglicist Hypotheses : Evidence 1
*ex slave recordings show Black English to have been more similar that would be expected to Southern white speech of the time.
*Over 80% of slaves lived on farms that had 4 or fewer slaves (alhough figures differ across studies somewhat on this)
Anglicist Hypothesis : Evidence II
Features like habitual be & 3p present tense -s can be traced to brit- eng. dialects.
*these features may have been lost by other dialects of American English.
evidence II cont..
Dominican Republic, Nova Scotia and places like this don't sound creole. but John Rickford asks if this can be used as evidence 100 years later.
Phonology in AAE
Post-vocalic liquid deletion
-- ex. car [ka], guard [gad] soul [so]
*CCR in more context (common in creoles)
--Before a vowel: left out [lef awt]
--Past Tense: walked [wak] passed [paes]
--AAE Rule: only when both consonants have the came voicing quality
Monophthongization (southern feature)
ex. I [a] time [tam]
Stopping of interdental fricatives (non standard)
-examples: thin [un] this [dis] they [de]
*devoicing of final voiced stops
-ex. bid [bit] pig [pik]
Habitual be (bare form) found in many W. African Lgs.
she BE at going to school.
she BE at the library
momentary be (deletion)
she __ going to school
she __ at the library
Syntax: Word in indirect questions
in AAE, interrogative word order is used in declarative statements, when a question is restated indirectly (instead of quoted outright)
Syntax existential "it"
SAE there is some coffee kitchen
AAE It's some coffee in the kitchen
The traditional notion of correctness used in standardized testing adopts a main stream, middle class, standard dialect in it's real state (informal standard) or ideal state (formal standard) as correct.
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