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While the notion of gender refers to sociological characteristics, the concept of sex refers to ________ characteristics.
What is the philosophy that biology is not destiny, especially with regard to justifying gender stratification?
Sociologically, why is gender especially significant?
It is a master status cutting across all aspects of life.
Based on the accident that led to the sex change of a seven-month-old identical twin as well as the Vietnam veterans' study, which statement is most accurate regarding the effects of nature and nurture on behavior?
Human behavior is the result of nature and nurture working together.
What classification or terminology do sociologists apply to women that describe their inability to gain equal access to power, property, and prestige?
The terms "sex" and "gender" are sociologically and biologically interchangeable.
Gender stratification refers to the ranking of males and females according to their access to power, property, and prestige based on their sex.
Sexual harassment and rape in the military have become isolated events due, for the most part, to extensive training and severe penalties for convicted offenders.
Research shows that men will earn more money than equally qualified women, and that tall men will earn more money than equally qualified shorter men.
Sexual harassment was not recognized as a social problem until the 1970s.
How do theorists view the relationship between industrialization and the elderly in the United States?
The social value of the elderly decreased with industrialization.
What sociological perspective stresses that age has no inherent meaning and that each culture shapes the way that its citizens perceive the elderly?
What does it mean when sociologists say that age is "socially constructed"?
Age is based on cultural attitudes that are rooted in a society.
Of the following countries, in which one do the citizens have the longest life expectancy?
Prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age is called ________.
Citizens in which of the following nations pay the lowest social security taxes?
Gender age is the relative value that a culture places on men's and women's ages, such as gray hair on men interpreted as a sign of being mature and gray hair on women interpreted as a sign of being old.
Since 1900, the life expectancy of people in every industrialized country has increased.
The terms "life span" and "life expectancy" are interchangeable and virtually mean the same thing.
While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.
prejudice and discrimination
John recently received his semester grades and found that he had failed two courses. He says the reason he failed the two courses is that they were taught by female professors. John believes that women are really not smart enough to teach at the college level. In this example, the female professors are ________.
scapegoats and being blamed for John's grades
Tony Pascalucci often wears a shirt that says, "Kiss me, I'm Italian." He flies the Italian flag at his U.S. home, greets people by saying, "Buongiorno," and is known for making the best lasagna in the valley. In view of this, which phrase best describes Tony's behavior?
The belief held by many African Americans that lighter skinned African American women are more attractive than those with darker skin is referred to as ________.
the reformulation of race at the micro-level
Which statement is most accurate regarding the meaning of race?
Race varies, depending upon the society in which its meaning is constructed.
As described in the text, what are the two myths of race?
one race is superior to another; pure races exist
What did Ezekiel suggest as the reason why some people are attracted to racist hate groups?
Hate groups provide some people with a type of meaning in their lives.
What is the term used to describe an attitude that exaggerates the virtues of a group, such as all Asian Americans being brilliant or all African Americans being great athletes?
The relocation of Native Americans to reservations and the transfer of Americans of Japanese descent to internment camps during World War II are examples of ________.
Napoleon Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.
the cultural relativity of deviance
Based on Merton's typologies, what do drug addicts, the homeless, nuns living in a convent, and monks living in a monastery have in common?
They are all retreatists.
A group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives, is called ________.
Matthew and Ryan are devout Christian Fundamentalists and believe that homosexuality is against God's will and that homosexuals deserve to be punished. They spend a couple evenings each week in gay bashing activities that include physical violence and verbal assaults. Based on their rationalization, which technique of neutralization is most applicable for Matthew and Ryan to maintain positive self-images?
denial of a victim
Suicide bombers in Iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose an American presence in the Middle East and are considered heroic warriors. Such honor and praise is an example of a ________.
The relativity of deviance is most aligned with which sociological perspective?
Erving Goffman used the term ________ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.
Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.
The concept of the relativity of deviance is best illustrated by which of the following statements?
It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.
Susie is a first-year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie's decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ________.
The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is referred to as ________.
What were the three major causes of slavery prior to life in the American colonies?
debt, crime, and war
In every society, from the hunting and gathering society to the postindustrial society, the most common basis for social stratification has been ________.
In which of the following societies might slavery most likely exist?
What is the basis of India's caste system?
What did Higginbotham and Weber discover about women from working-class backgrounds who now occupied professional, managerial, and administrative positions in Memphis?
They were encouraged by their parents to get an education.
The trend in the United States in which most poor families are headed by women is called ________.
the feminization of poverty
What are the three variables Max Weber identified as defining social class?
wealth, power, prestige
What region of the United States has the highest clustering of people in poverty?
Ken belongs to a church in which the worship services are highly expressive with spontaneous "Amens" and "Praise Jesus" outbursts accompanied by loud, inspirational organ music. Ken is most likely a member of the ________ class.
In some tribal societies it is highly encouraged for the son or daughter of one tribe to marry the son or daughter of a neighboring or rival tribe to build camaraderie and form an alliance. This pattern of marital behavior is called ________.
In Bongo Bongo, male members of the tribe may each legally have three wives. This is a family relationship defined as ________.
How has the age of the average first-time bride and groom in the United States changed since 1890?
Both the bride and groom are older than at any other time.
Why do functionalists argue that the incest taboo is a nearly universal norm?
The incest taboo facilitates the socialization of children and avoids role confusion.
Johnnie's parents were divorced three years ago. During the first year after the divorce, Johnnie's father visited him every week. Then Johnnie's father remarried and fathered another child. Now he rarely visits Johnnie. This situation is an example of ________.
Sociologically, what is the immediate family of husband, wife, and children called who live apart from other kin?
the nuclear family
Maria and Brian recently gave birth to their first child. Based on sociological findings, what is the likely change in the marital satisfaction that Maria and Brian feel towards one another?
It will decrease.
Sociologically, what is a family?
Two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption.
In the United States and many other parts of the world, the common practice is for whites to marry whites, African Americans to marry African Americans, and members of specific social classes to marry within their class. This marital practice is called ________.
Husbands remain primarily responsible for earning the income and wives are primarily responsible for the house and children. This is an arrangement sociologists call ________.
the gendered division of labor
What did Durkheim call the common elements of everyday life?
What is the primary reason sociologists study religion?
to study the role that religion plays in people's lives
Which sociological perspective is aligned with the belief that religion attaches meaning to our lives, provides emotional comfort during times of sorrow, creates a sense of solidarity with others and provides guidelines with which to direct our lives?
What does incorporating religious teachings into criminal law, such as prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages before noon on Sunday, illustrate about religion?
It is a means of social control.
What are the three elements of religion based on the writings of Emile Durkheim?
beliefs, practices, moral community
Marx's notion that religion diverts the thoughts of workers to the afterlife rather than toward rebellion against their worldly oppressors is expressed by his statement ________.
"Religion is ... the opium of the people."
Why is it believed that the Internet will have a significant effect on our religious lives and alter the face of religion?
Why is religion classified as a universal social institution?
It meets basic human needs.
It is a functional equivalent of religion.
Someone with an outstanding gift or exceptional quality that draws others to them and their message is said to possess ________.
Why do catholic schools score higher on national tests than do students in other schools?
Catholic schools have controlled admission (e.g. they only allow high scoring students to enroll.)
Catholic schools have higher academic standards for their students, they expect more from students and parents.
Teacher expectations are so powerful that if teachers believe that their students will do well, the students are likely to demonstrate significant improvement.
Which perspective views education as a system designed to reproduce social inequity?
School shootings have increased in recent years.
Which State has the highest high school drop-out rate?
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