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Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, ca 60-50 BC.
Women into the cult of Dionysus.
Scenes relate and move from wall to wall.
Villa of Livia, Primaporta, ca 30-20 BC
Depicts trees, gardens, nature. Has scale and three dimension. The furthur away you get, the blue it becomes.
Third Syle Painting: Villa of Agrippa Postumus, Boscotrecase, ca 10 BC
Has tiny details that must be seen from up close. Very thin lines and black dominating color. Sacred landscape of villa with people enjoying themselves.
Fourth Style Painting: the Domus Aurea of Emperor Nero, 64-68 AD.
Last style of painting. Has geometric lines and different floral decorations. Inspired by Nero.
House of Vetii, Pompeii, 70-79 AD.
Statue of Augustus from Primaporta, copy, ca 20 BC
Has a bronze plate and is standing democratically. Bronze plate shows doves returning to rome which resembles peace. Shows Roman army w/ provinces & sun and moon. Little details. Youthful man.
Forum of Augustus.
Built adjacent to the fourm of Julius Caesar. Bought land with own money. Temple of Mars Ultor dominates Forum. Statues of previous roman leaders. Has greek features to say Augustus inherited golden age of athens.
Toga Statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus 20 BC
Issued a dress code to wear a toga which was everyday piece of clothing for poor. Hood over head shows that Augustus was a priest (divine) Eternally youthful.
Ara Pacis Augustae, 13-9 BC
First altar of peace & not of a god. small but brilliantly decorated (jewel box)lower frieze is garden decor. upper frieze shows succession of roman state. N. frieze is senators. E. frieze is woman surrounded by gods.
Gemma Augustea 1st C. AD
Shows Augustus as Zeus seated with warriors returning home after campaign. Poseidon & Earth crowing Augustus. Shows Roman soldiers putting a trophy on battlefield with dying gauls.
Portrait of Vespian, 69-79 AD
Declares that he is not a deco-Julian Cladian type like Augustus but returns to Roman veristic style. More realistic sculpture w/ aging. Style keeps switching back and forth.
Flavian Lady, Rome, ca 90 AD
Always depicted as young woman, never veristic. Adopt unique, grand hairstyle. Face idealized & reflects light compaired to hair. Give sense of personality through facial expression.
Portrait of Hadrian, ca 117-120 AD
Portrayed as a philosopher with a full grown, large beard. Is interested with greek learning and builds large library in Athens. On campaign most of life.
Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, ca 175 AD
Has been above ground since antiquity. Is granting pardon to a defeated barbarian leader. Some statues would be made of gold. Shown with long beard. Begins to disengage from Paganism.
Severans, Egypt, 200 AD
Severius has two sons carcalla and geta Carcalla kills Geta and takes his face out of all portraits and art.
Portrait of Carcalla, 211-217 AD
Looks very mean and gazing stare. Has a military beard which looks more like stubble and is shorter. Realistic eyes much like A. the Great. Drill becomes preferred tool which is more precise like pen on paper.
Arch of Titus, Rome ca 81
Goes to Jerusalem and puts down a revolt. Arch is a monument showing victory. Reliefs show victory procession through Rome w/ army which is rarely allowed. Brought back gold minora. Shows actual events w/ myth. aspects.
Column of Trajan, Rome, 106-113 AD
Would have been a look w/ stairs on the inside. Base acted like a tomb for Trajan & Wife. Column has 2500 figures and 3' high. Shows ever detail of campaign. Shows emperor giving speech. space was important.
Imperial Roman Architecture
Temple of Portunas, Rome
Similar to Greek Temples, used ionic or Doric columns. Has a lifted and deep front porch. Sits atop podium.
Golden House of Nero
Takes over large part of Rome. Has artificial lake, 120' high statue of Nero, wild animals, forests, ivory dining rooms, heavens. thought people should visit him. use of octagonal hall. concrete allows architecture.
Colosseum, Rome, 72-80 AD
Colosseum is free standing (first of time). holds about 55,000. Senators get the best seats. colosseum has vaulted arches that look like x's. bottom vaults are doric order followed by ionic then corint. could be flooded.
Trajan Planned to build a Forum. Had to carve away a hill. Column of Trajan, basilica of Trajan, temple of Trajan. Many different colors of Marble. Working place which conducted business.
Markets of Trajan
First markets to be built. Like a shopping mall. Built in concrete and brick with two levels. streets run on both levels. Market hall has monumental windows. Ceiling is buttressed.
Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, 135
Somewhat miimics nero by bringing world to him. Has different Roman provinces represented. Rebuilds temple of Aphrodite & statue of Aphrodite of Knidos. Has an individual villa with a grand dome.
Pantheon, Rome, 125-128 AD
Originally described as a temple of all gods. Still standing today. First part resembles traditional roman temple. Innermediate stage which has no purpose. Third stage is large dome. Feat of Construction. Freestand dome.
Baths of Carcalla, Rome, ca 212-216
Huge area that covers about 100 acres. Had many different colored marbel. decked out with statues. had libraries, different temp. of baths from cold, warm & hot. Vaulted ceilings and domes.
Portrait of Trajan Decius, 249-251 AD
Flesh is realistic, no sense of plastic. Use of drill. Decius looks sad because it was dark times in Rome. Not in the Roman tradition with baths. Veristic style.
Portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, Rome, 251-253 AD
Shown as a member of the army with the roman general boots and he also has a military campaign beard. not proportioned correctly. Head is smaller.
Tetrarchs 305 AD
Are in a unified pose. Man with the beard is the Jr. Emperor and younger one is Caesar. No interest in personal identities but identifying position. Rare material from Egypt only used for Imperial statues.
Palace of Diocletian at Split 296-306 AD
modeled after a roman military camp. Fortified and has actual army barracks inside of it. Diocletian buried here. Looks at Pantheon for personal mausoleum.
Arch of Constatine, Rome,312-315 AD
Son of tetarchs but takes control of all of Rome. Declares christianity de facto religion. Granted vicotry arch by senate. Designs after previour emperors saying declaring golden rome. famous ceromonies.
Colossal statue of Constantine from Basilica of Maxentius 315-30
Large and decorated with colored marble, coffered ceilings, columns, windows. Had apse where he put large statue of himself. 33' tall and his eyes represented his soul.
Catacomb of Saints Peter & Marcellinus, Rome, wall paintings, 4th Ct.
No public space to worship for christianity so much of what we know comes from catacombs. Acted as funerary place, celebration, collaboration. Usually domed w/ paintings.
Old St. Peter's, rome, ca 320-27
Built in style of Basillica. Could hold about 14,000 people. used oldsyle wooden ceiling, lots of arches. walled mosaics. colannade processions, further back, more sacred area.
Sta Costanza, Rome, ca 338-50
Looks like a basillica but is wrapped in round exerior. Simple architecture. Contained mosaics much like the St. peters, many windows. Pagan vaulted mosaics.
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, 425-26
Cross shaped with vaults going left to right. Has many sarcophagus and mosaics. mosaicsfrom bible. ceilings show heaven with four corners of saints.
Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, 532-37
Hired many scientists & mathematicians to build. Great space with a dome larger than pantheon. Actually a rectangle hollowed out to make dome, 2 aisles, atrium. Dome sits on windows, floating effct, arches.
Church of San Vitale, Ravenna 526-527
Many round chapels. Still has aisles & apse. Abraham sacrificing Isaac. mosaic. within apse but below jesus is justinian and byzantine army. Other side shows women of the clergy. sacred space.
Monastery of St. Catherine, Mt. Sinai 548-65
Many early icons survived here. Apse shows jesus taking disciples to mtn where is transformed & he glows white light.
Icon of Virgin & Child w. saints & angels, 6th-7th cent
Made from wood and painted with beeswax. Survived iconaclasm at Mt. Sinai. Many people prayed to these and greeted them in a home.
yeavering Palace Complex, Northumbria, 7th CE, England, Anglo-Saxon
King Edwin's palace and sat in center of territory. Visited it seasonally. Fence surrounded the complex for rituals not defense.
Viking Stave Church, Urnes, 12th CE, Norway
has similar rectangular structure with east apse. Verticality built with triangle on top. Staves allow support for the building which can then be built up.
Portal, Stave Church 1050-1070 CE
Shows a battle scene between many diefferent creatures around a key hole. Harmonic and interwoven. Key hole which a person would have walked through.
Escomb Church, 670 CE, Durham England
Took stones from an abandoned Roman Fort. Stones look like a puzzle on the church. One is inscripted with Roman Fort name. Roman Arch inside of church. Rebuilt it piece by piece.
Oseberg Ship, 850 Ce Norway
Found plates, silverware, cloth, ancor, materials for journey. Burial was for two women. Dont know who they were. Many animals found with too. Found sleigh and wagon with carvings of sacred animals.
Lindisfarne Gospels, Northumbria, England, ca 700-721 CE Hiberno-celtic.
Called a carpet gospel, looked like a carpet.Influenced by Irish Monks which settled England.
Book of Durrow, 675 CE, Hiberno-celtic, Dublin
Illuminated with large letters. Written in Latin with many bright colors. Very small interlace designs.
Chi-Rho, Book of Kells, late 8th-9th C. CE, Dublin
Has virgin Mary sitting in center with baby jesus sitting on her lap. Angels flank them. Has a common icon with Virgin Mary
Franks casket, Whalebone, 8th C.
Not a burial casket but sat on the dinner table. Incripted with own language which has many twig like letters. Shows three magi servin Mary. Also shows Roman Mythology of Romulus and Rimus.
Charlemagne; Rome Reborn
Palace of Charlemagne, Aachen, 792-805
Private Chapel attached to charlemagnes palace. Buried within the chapel. has the first plan with two towers left and rightof main entrance. Constains roman arches. Has a thrown above altar.
Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne, Aachen, ca 800-10 CE
This book coronated all other kings and it is said to be found within Charlemagne's tomb. Has icons within the book that depict saint. calm and give qualities that are realistic. indivual.
Utrecht Psalter, Hautviller, ca 825-50 CE
Doesnt depict gospels in picture form. it has picture in between text but it isnt in great detal and no color. text is more focused on the gospels and has very deliberate message.
Lindau Gospels, Crucifixion, 870 CE
Book covers are done independetly, pages inside were done with one person per job. High degree of execution. front cover is made of jewels and gold. Many people sob and bow to jesus crucified.
Church of St. Michael, Hildesheim, Germany, ca 1000 CE
Has towers that flank both sides. Four total. Simple structure that could be built easily. Centered around military tactics.
Doors of Bishop Bernward, Saint Michael, 1015
Is made from common wax technique which hasnt been implement since roman times. cast in bronze which is extremely expensive now. scenes of christ and his journeys. Figures pop out which is stunning.
Saint-Sernin in Toulouse, Languedoc, France, 1070-1120
Popular place for pilgramages. contained an east apse and congregation area for crusaders. great vaulted syles of roman buildings. ceiling is made from stone which is safer. ribs used vaults.
Abbey Church of Ste-Foy, Conques, mid 11th-12th c
Romanesque style building. housed the reliquary of ste-foy. Covered by jewels. said to have powers and perform miracles.
Third Abbey Church at Cluny 1085-1130 CE
Main church in Europe for a period of time and was torn down later.
Benedictine Abbey of St. Pierre, Moissac, Languedoc, France, 1115-30
had a tipinum. sculpted column seperted entry way. Had reliefs over entry way. supposed to reperesent going from real to divine space. promises afterlife. 3-d style. no scale.
Cathedral of Saint Lazare, Autun 1120-35
Depicts the last judgment where demons and angels are weighing people.place many small human touches where some are funny.
Abbey of La Madeleine at Vezelay, 1130
Rallying point for the second crusade. Tipnium shows scene with jesus sitting over disciples with rays of light. telling them to go out and teach/heal. Underneath is St. Paul.
Virgin and Child from Auvergne, Ca 1150-1200
Wooden and depicts christ on vigins lap. three dimensional but meant to be looked at straight forward. Drapery isvery symmetric and the side figures look distorted.
Bayeux Tapestry, ca 1066-82
shows the poilitical and military history of William the Conqueror. 226' long of white linen and everything is narrated. focus is exlusively on humans. Declares William is proper air to the throne.
Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, Paris, 1140-44
School trained many aristocrats. French Kings buried here. First abbey church with gothic choir. More windows, pointed arches, thin columns. Stained glass and belief in divinity through light.
Cathedral of Charters 1220
Dedicated to V. Mary. Fire destroyed church in 1194. Originally planned to have nine towers. First to use flying buttresses. Large, massive windows.Four part vaultings instead of rib. Three doors to represent trinity.
Charters Cathedral, West facade
Includes christ with two lions. The stonework is 3-d and gives a sense of that christ is really there. Elongated figures that are sculpted within a column which serves to support the structure.
Charters Cathedral, North Transept
Has many jam figures that sit like west facade. Christ shown in coronation with Virgin. Column in the middle is Mary holding Christ. Figures arent completely frontal.
Charters Cathedral, Stained Glass
Glass made by putting different minerals to stain the glass. Tell biblical stories. North Transept shows mary holding christ with doves surriounding them. Charlemagne window shows life of him and his reign.
Amiens Cathedral 1220-29
Three door facade, has pointed arches. Towers and statues are hollowed out. Crossing square sits truely in the center. Increase the height to emphasize heavens. Minimal stone and bar tracery is used. Facade shows christ
Reims Cathedral, 1210
Very expensive to build and was rebuilt in 1213. Building is taller and lighter than most. Bar tracery used.
Reims Cathdral, 1210, West Facade
Shows different parts of the story of Virgin Mary declaring mother of Christ. Certain style which draws from classical Greek. Not interested in making statues realistic.
Saint-chapelle, Paris, 1243-48
About 3/4 of wall space is now windows. Largest window is 50' high15' wide. Church was built to house relics. Glass depicts the beginning of the world until Louis VIIII
Salisbury Cathedral, 1220-58 England
has two transepts and is really in shape of cross. Cloister which would belong to a monastery. No obvious and absolute apse. No flying buttresses. No obvious facade. Interesting use of colored stone and lines
Cologne Cathedral, begun 1248
Largest cathedral in Europe which is higher than Reims and wider. Houses the reliquary of the Three Kings. Sits in the center and resembles French style.
Florence Cathedral begunin 1296
The cathedral is paired with baptiestery. Began building it without knowing how to build the main dome. Dont want to put flying buttresses in. Not enough knowlegde w/math so a contest to build it first. 1418 built.
Nicholas of Verdun, Chrine of the Three Kings, ca 1190-1205
Reliquary is huge. About 6' wide and long. Has enamel and inlaid gems. There are saints, apostles, the virgin, and the three magi that are placed on the base of the relic.
Nicholas of Verdun, Klosterneuburg Altar, Abbey Church at Klosterneuburg, Austria, 1181
5' high and made of gold enamel. Originally installed in a pulpit. Changed syle of workmanship. Piece is flat and not 3-d.Linear style. Can be read left, right.
Naumberg Cathedral, 1242
Has a rood screen that seperates the clergy from the nade. There are statues that sit on columns but arent really embeded in. Stand on mini cities. Individualized statues. Relative proportions, realistic style.
Bamber Rider, EAst choir of Bamberg Cathedral, 1235-40
On his horse inside cathedral. Doesnt blend in like other sculptures. Has personality and individualism. Wears crown so know he is a king. Not certain which one.
Virgin of Jeanne d'Evreux, Abbeychurch of Saint Denis, France, 1339
Elongated body and exaggereated s-curve. Becomes a popular figure. Base is done in flat enamel. Mary could have possibly been crowned.
Nicola pisano, Pulpit, Pisa Baptistry, 1260
Two pulpits that serve for baptistery. Classical style of coumns that still stand. Shows lions relating to old testament. Many different sides to story in one part.
God as architect, Moralized Bible, 1220-1230
Shows god creating the world. He is measuring the earth. Connection stories from both new and old testaments.
Abraham, Sarah, Three Strangers, Psalter of st. Louis, 1253-70
Tiny illuminations and meant to be personal book. Book is elaborately illuminated. Backdrop is gothic cathedral. Border that mimics earlier gothic. No sense of depth or landscape.
Giotoo, Virgin and Child Enthroned, Florence, 1310
Revived the art of Italy and derived style from nature. Places Virgin under an arch. Ground line. Overlapping spaces and rationally placing things. Emphasis on color and verticality.
Giotto, fresco cycle in Arena Chapel, Padua, 1305-6
Scenes from old and new test. Focus on real landscape with blue background. hidden characters which draws away from byzantine. Focus on christ with people more spread out.
Simone Martini, Annunciation from Siena Cathedral, 1333
Encloses the fram of the Church in Gothic style. Angel is telling Virgin that she will bear Christ. Lillys stand for Virgins purity.
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegory of Good Government in City, Siena, 1338-39
First Art meant for civic purposes since roman age. shows figures half disapprearing behind walls telling moment of time. Atmospheric perspective.
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegory of Good Government in Country, Siena, 1338-39
Can follow the road throughout the painting. First painting of the country in hundreds of years. Much like villa of Publius Fannius.
City of Khorsabad 717-705 BC
Had Lamassu which were winged human headed bulls built to defend a the city. Mystical creatures. From Assyria. Looked natural from all sides so it has extra leg. Sits by Gate.
Parthenon, built by Kallikrates and Ilktinos, 447-32 BC
Refined and delicately built.Jewel of building and not really needed. Has subtle curvature emphasizing verticality. Athena statue inside of it built from gold. Built from pure marble.
Head of Alexander the Great near Pella, official portrait by Lysippos, 200-150 BC
First to make shaving a style. He had longer hair as well which was a new syle. Eyes are gazing and creates a new style.
Capitoline She-Wolf, ca 500-480 BC
Depicts story of Romulus and Rimus who founded Rome. Some theories think this sculpture was created much later. Has lion like mane to add fierceness.
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