purposeful, organized and socially sanctioned combat involving killing. Seems to be an intrinsic feature of human societies.
Native American group that captured and traded horses with the Spaniards in the 1500’s. Violent raids on the Spanish to get the horses demonstrated bravery. Rank was determined in two ways: how many horses you have and by the honors accruing to him in warfare. The Kiowa rewarded aggressive behavior and bravery in battle.
group in Venezuela that practice slash and burn agriculture where intervillage warfare is a normal and expected occurrence. Men express ferocity by capturing the valuable women and children from other villages, conducting raids after a village member has died, beating wives, public duels between men to prove they aren’t cowards. Boys are encouraged to fight one another and bully girls.
means blood fued for the Kohistani people. Friendships can easily slip into dusmani if one person wrongs the other—retaliation is expected. Deadly retaliation results from any unwarranted behavior toward a man’s daughter, wife or unmarried sister (even just staring at these women).
(those that have no special roles for warriors, place positive value on nonaggressive behavior, avoid telling others what to do and carefully control emotions in order to maintain goodwill, minimize violence and conflict through ceremony) are hard to find. Ex: JuWasi, Semai, Inuit, Xinguano
Example of a peaceful society in West Malaysia. Believe in “pehunan” which is a state of being in which a person is unsatisfied in regard to some need or want, such as food or sex—they believe it is the obligation of all members of the group to help and nurture one another because of this unsatisfaction.