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University of Connecticut
Final Essay Questions
Final Essay Questions
University of Connecticut
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Candide: Or Optimism (Penguin Classics)
Cengage Advantage Books: Western Civilization, Volume 2
The Communist Manifesto (Signet Classics)
The Cultures of the West, Volume Two: Since 1350: A History
The Social Dimension of Western Civilization, Volume 2
This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen (Penguin Classics)
Western Civilization: Volume II: Since 1500 (Western Civilization to 1500)
believes in a higher power- deism
corrupt religious leaders--> Franciscan friar (jewel thief)
S.S. agents mock religion
detached from religion, questions existence of God
Money (only in Voltaire)
does not lead to happiness
finds fortune in Eldorado but still misses Cunegonde so he leaves
Pangloss's philosophy cannot explain the suffering, Martin's focuses on it
End suffering through work
prisoners suffer every day
starving, fear, gas chambers, etc.
exiled from the castle for kissing Cunegonde
punished for beliefs-- Oreillons almost kill Candide and Cacambo for being Jesuits
punishment for disobeying S.S. officer
boredom, vice, poverty
S.S. agents impose suffering on the prisoners
What does Candide learn on his travels?
Money- doesn't always result in true happiness
Make your own destiny:
"We must cultivate our own garden"
rejects Pangloss's optimism and Martin's pessimism
Must learn through experience
Garden represents cultivation
Wants to start from scratch with his own ideologies without blindly following Dr. Pangloss
How does Borowski try to make us understand the radically altered world that existed in the camps?
Mass killings didn't shock the prisoners because so normal
Hannah Arendt- death had no meaning
"Auschwitz, Our Home"
people gassed on a daily basis
prisoners do unthinkable acts to survive
conditions better than Birkenau's
"Death of Schillinger"
nude woman throws gravel in his eyes and shoots him with his revolver
irony-->Schillinger does not understand why he is suffering
"Man with the Package"
holding his package gave him hope/comfort (holding a hand)
package contained whatever he received from patients
"World of Stone"
shows no emotion towards anything and everything is like stone because it is meaningless
Why did the first Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain?
cotton, steam, coal, iron, railroads
changes in farming and breeding led to increase in food production
more food at lower prices with less labor
Supply of capital
effective central bank
had money to pay for new machinery
a lot of individuals willing to invest if the opportunity arose
coal and iron
Parliament provided stable environment
passed laws that protected private property
able to produce what was in demand in the foreign and domestic markets at a cheap price
How did English industrialization differ from the rest of Europe?
first industrial nation
Britain became wealthiest country
What was the impact on factory workers and artisans?
workers only hired to run the machines
had to work long shifts to make sure machines moving for max. output
poor living conditions
no protection from the police (increased wife-beating and drinking)
work 15-16 hour days
How did the factory workers and wealthy middle class differ from one another?
life expectancy half of the wealthy middle class
factory workers- 75% income on food, wealthy middle class-20%
middle class valued property and discipline (running water and private rooms)
Technological changes of Second Industrial Revolution
Substitution of steel for iron
Chemicals (i.e. artificial dyes)
Electricity (lightbulb, telephone, radio, electric railway)
Internal combustion engine
-switched coal to oil
-gave rise to automobile and airplane
Economic changes of Second Industrial Revolution
real wages increase, more disposable income
Germany became industrial leader of Europe (over Great Britain)
reaction against free trade
guaranteed domestic markets for products of their industries
independent enterprises worked together to control prices and production quotas
prevented reduced prices
Britain, Belgium, France, Germany, etc. --> high standard of living, healthy and educated
Austria-Hungary, Russia, Southern Italy --> agricultural, food and raw materials
Social changes of Second Industrial Revolution
New jobs for women
-white collar jobs at low wages (clerks, secretaries)
-German Social Democrats most successful
-strikes and labor unions
Rise of mass society
-decline in infant deaths due to better nutrition
-mass employment in cities
-improved conditions in cities
Effects on middle class
-added new groups- engineers, architects, accountant
-new white-collar workers
Effects on factory workers
rise in real wages
more disposable income- clothes, leisure
increase in marriage rates
decrease in birthrates- birth control, limit number of children to limit poverty
How would you compare the First and Second Industrial Revolutions?
Second improved technologies of the first
-spinning jenny-->sewing machine
Great Britain vs. Germany
First industrial workers vs. second industrial workers
-factory jobs vs. white collar jobs
Where would you locate the most important changes in European society?
Second Industrial Revolution (Germany)
Marx thought life would get worse after First Industrial- got better
What were the causes of WWI?
Literal cause: assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
-Westernization of Africa and Asia
Feuds over the Balkan area
-Austria and Russia fought for the Serbian land
emergence of nation-states led to competition
division of Europe into Triple-Entente (Britain, France, Russia) and Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy)
growth of mass armies heightened tensions and ensured that war would be destructive
European military machines doubled in size between 1890 and 1914
How did the war change European society?
Nationalism increased- most people believed their nation's cause was just
Domestic differences temporarily ignored
Socialist parties dropped strikes to fight for their country
Why was the war a crisis in liberalism?
Political need for a constitutional gov't, civil liberties, freedom
Economic need for open market and capitalism
Dual liberalism broke in WWI- turned to communism and fascism
What was the impact of war on the home front?
Total war- involved all citizens
Conscription- needed to draft citizens, made sure skilled workers stayed in factories
Extension of gov't
-regulated imports and exports, prices, wages
-nationalized transportation system and industries
What made fighting this war different from previous wars?
-i.e. Germans used airships to bomb England
-caused a stalemate
-used in the West (germany)
Fascism, Nazism, and totalitarianism
Limit publications that show disrespect
Terror- OVRA, SS
Propaganda- "Mussolini is always right"
How do fascism and Nazism differ from liberalism and Marxism?
Fascism and Nazism:
-one party has power
-war and struggle
Liberalism and Marxism:
-distribution of wealth and power
How do you explain the rise and triumph of Nazism in Germany?
Nationalist party-->Nazi Party
-mass political movement through use of flags, uniforms, badges
Germany in a state of depression
gave gov't power to do whatever had to be done to save the state
dispensed with constitutional forms
essentially appointed Hitler as a dictator
coordination of all institutions under Nazi control
What changes did Nazism bring to Germany society in the 1930s?
Unemployment drops by over 3 million in 2 years
-regime claims full credit
-Nuremberg laws: separated German Jews from German citizens
Was Weimar Germany doomed to failure?
No great political leaders
-Hindenburg was president
-not in favor of the Republic
-led to unease, discontent
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