· Hobson and Lenin: Increase in imperialism. Need places to invest excess capital
· Robinson and Gallagher: International tension European nations.
· Internal African factors/external European conditions.
o Rise in African wars, Germany gaining power
· MUST BE economic, social and political factors.
· Scramble Everywhere
· End of a treaty: Europe protect Africa, gain trading rights. Typical for F&B
· Signing of bilateral treaties between imperialist powers: Africa not involved
· Europe occupies territories. Referred to as pacification, but very bloody.
· Complete by 1910; A responses vary: already know, religion, education.
· Diamonds found in 1867. B see SA as valuable.
· Boers and Orange Free State press form independence (1870)
· Cecil Rhodes annexed unclaimed territory, establish customs union (Transvaal eventually obliged to join)
· Peace treaty in 1902 after years of fighting; Lord Milner governor
· 1908 produce constitution, effect in 1910. Only Europeans vote, so only 20 percent of population.
· Traditional society crumble. Racism. No land
· Glen Grey Act (Rhodes)—Obtain A labor, not protect land rights.
· A labor= unskilled.
· Rhodes’ pioneers interrupt Ndebele beyond the Limpopo, conflict.
· Europeans (G, P) eye land, but B take over region, sign treaties w/ G&P
· Colonial governments form, fundamentalist missionaries clash w/A revivalists.
· Uganda: Western missionaries, Buganda transformed by imperialistic competition. Paternalism—rule land, hierarchy. Implementation of laws left to Africans. Economic expansion w/cash crops like cotton
· Kenya: Not the best land (wilderness). Conflict, famine, disease. Expand railways to make more inhabitable. New tech and disease from west. European officials implement policy.
· Tanganyika: Move toward indigenous rule. Controlled by G and then B. Native Authority Ordinance of 1926.
· Zanzibar: B support Arab oligarchy which was the norm. Colonial rule became liberal after WWII, popular election in 1956.
· French: assimilation. French civilization shared by all under its rule. A have same rights. Further inland became military rule, harsher policies. Later encourage association: retain culture but be subservient. Autocratic.
· British: Tight hold. Governors in regions. Customs disregarded. Indirect rule became the standard.
· Germany: colonies distributed among B&F after war when Europe needed to recoup losses.
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