· Hobson and Lenin: Increase in imperialism. Need places to invest excess capital
· Robinson and Gallagher: International tension European nations.
· Internal African factors/external European conditions.
o Rise in African wars, Germany gaining power
· MUST BE economic, social and political factors.
· Scramble Everywhere
· End of a treaty: Europe protect Africa, gain trading rights. Typical for F&B
· Signing of bilateral treaties between imperialist powers: Africa not involved
· Europe occupies territories. Referred to as pacification, but very bloody.
· Complete by 1910; A responses vary: already know, religion, education.
· Diamonds found in 1867. B see SA as valuable.
· Boers and Orange Free State press form independence (1870)
· Cecil Rhodes annexed unclaimed territory, establish customs union (Transvaal eventually obliged to join)
· Peace treaty in 1902 after years of fighting; Lord Milner governor
· 1908 produce constitution, effect in 1910. Only Europeans vote, so only 20 percent of population.
· Traditional society crumble. Racism. No land
· Glen Grey Act (Rhodes)—Obtain A labor, not protect land rights.
· A labor= unskilled.
· Rhodes’ pioneers interrupt Ndebele beyond the Limpopo, conflict.
· Europeans (G, P) eye land, but B take over region, sign treaties w/ G&P
· Colonial governments form, fundamentalist missionaries clash w/A revivalists.
· Uganda: Western missionaries, Buganda transformed by imperialistic competition. Paternalism—rule land, hierarchy. Implementation of laws left to Africans. Economic expansion w/cash crops like cotton
· Kenya: Not the best land (wilderness). Conflict, famine, disease. Expand railways to make more inhabitable. New tech and disease from west. European officials implement policy.
· Tanganyika: Move toward indigenous rule. Controlled by G and then B. Native Authority Ordinance of 1926.
· Zanzibar: B support Arab oligarchy which was the norm. Colonial rule became liberal after WWII, popular election in 1956.
· French: assimilation. French civilization shared by all under its rule. A have same rights. Further inland became military rule, harsher policies. Later encourage association: retain culture but be subservient. Autocratic.
· British: Tight hold. Governors in regions. Customs disregarded. Indirect rule became the standard.
· Germany: colonies distributed among B&F after war when Europe needed to recoup losses.
· Unity among members of the black race all over the world. A leadership.
· Casely Hayford (Gold Coast Leader) natural leader. Blacks return to Africa
· W.E.B. Du Bois join conference in Paris, movement at height. Solidarity
· Marcus Garvey; convicted of fraud and deported, killed his part of movement
· Blaise Diagne Support F colonial policy.
· In decline by time of depression.
· Only independent black nation in West Africa during WWI. Pan-African ok
· Support idea of repatriation w/Garvey’s plan. Colonizers prevent.
· Weak econ, uncertain sovereignty. True Whigs oligarchy, unpaid loans.
· US invest, L repay debt. Revenue increased. Expand rubber industry. Firestone agreements. Forced labor.
· Exploitation with some improvements to assimilate Africans.
· Direct &indirect taxation: took from laborers, gave infrastructure, ed, water, electricity, paved streets. But mostly URBAN.
· Discrimination: whites benefit more. F overt, B&G subtle.
· A lose land. Migrant labor. Cash crops led to brutality. Decline in food for A, imports increase, hurt A farmers.
· A can’t participate in mining, profitable business. No industrialization.
· 1890-WWI: Traditional rural v Urban educated. Rural-rebellions common against taxes or land. Western style bad. Religious leaders involved. Violent put downs. Educated-pass laws, correct abuses. Use press.
· 1919-1935: Intensified reactions, adapting strategies. Pan-African, depression, end of WWI cause difference. Goal REFORM. Trade unions, Zionist churches get involved. Colonizer’s hypocrisy.
· Italian occupation of Ethiopia: End of scramble, beginning of tension toward independence. Caused frustration (E last independent). Kill reform.
· WWII: Cause independence push later. BUT made revolution inevitable. Africans conscripted, discriminated against, denied benefits. F&B poor
· Pan-Africanist Congress of 1945: Rekindle interest, bring people together. Strategies applied after.
· New political parties: Incorporate all, not just elite. Working class. Self govt
· African leaders demand independence: Radical ideas, unconstitutional methods
· Important but not Westernized. Missionaries bring ag info, literacy.
· Colonizers: ed required. Disregard A culture. Ed=elite.
· Elite make policy changes. Don’t support colonizers. Nationalist, self govt.
· Educated abroad, return to revolutionize. Newspapers, associations.
· White euro superiority, bring reforms.
· Belgian Congo: Leopold II reforms. Material oriented, rubber, fuel profit. White man’s burden.
· Land and labor disputes hurt Africans. Deny them majority of capital. Citizens eventually rebel.
· French also engage in some reforms, P focus on slaving areas, tyranny and fraud run rampant.
· Massive land. 1926: 3.1 million inhabitants, spread thin. Experiences different based on area.
· Not rich in resources unlike other French holdings.
· Hegemony north of the Congo. Connect Central/North Africa (didn’t) Still made a mark. Several states responsible to governor general in Brazzaville
· Poor communication, lack of personnel, bad financing, no public works.
· 1948, when Afrikaner National Party wins election. (Means separateness)
· Different races/cultures kept physically apart, develop w/o influences.
· 1950 Hendrik Verwoerd Minister of Native Affairs implements. Homelands
· By 1968, ½ million blacks relocated.
· Post WWII. SA saw industrialization earliest, have upper hand?
· Positive action; blacks frustrated by unification in 1910.
· Communism/nationalism, become international.
· Strikes and unionization. ICWU large membership.
· Higher literacy and economic development.
· Educated masses want change. Centralize action in cities.
· Urban areas want more; Europeans make some good changes.
· Economic changes mean cities are more logical—cash crops, int. market.
· Infrastructure from Europeans, help Africans communicate w/each other
· Diminish European rule. Cities help econ, econ helps cities.
· In response to urban pop. Considered parties
· Women also organize. Nigerian women at Aba.
· Include trade unions, sports groups, aid societies, religious orgs, social clubs, cultural orgs
· Training ground for leadership in political groups. African controlled info!
· Mobilize many people around central cause. Many literate. Educate. Press
· Nnamdi Azikiwe, Ibo rep, main leader (editor). Demand radical change.
· WWI: serve fighting for Europe. Gain first hand knowledge of West.
· In-between: spend time in West. See democracy
· WWII: Gain more knowledge of West. Biggest shift toward independence, whether it accelerated an existing process, or created one.
· After: Europe looks weak, poor. Made mistakes. Blacks proved equal.
· Led to: political concessions. Greater A participation. Europe needs US help. UN exists, pressures colonies.
· B: Riots & new constitution in Nigeria. Legislation enables transition.
· F: ed improved, forced labor abolished, F citizenship introduced. Transition slower. Demands grew more radical, territories see others become independent. Domino effect through 60s.
· Belgian: Congo wants independence. Local govts elect radical leaders. Bel. Makes concessions. Conference in 1959. Riots, constitution, election.
· Continue after independence: econ alliances, puppet regimes, sabotage, loan investment gone bad—direct financial control.
· Kwame Nkrumah well spoken leader against, and Sekou Toure (Mali prez)
· Marxist; A Socialism=answer. Direct state control of econ, state planning, examine foreign aid, collective farming. Goal = pan-African.
· Depart from classic Marx: Toure argued class warfare did not exist.
· Ag: cash crops. Environment difficult (no winter). Bad soil, techniques. Exploit land, no private ownership= hard for individual farmers.
· Mining: profitable, but need tech. A no have. Led to int. assistance. Resources run out, competition, political unrest. Internal conflict.
· Industry: attract A planners. Regarded as key to affluence. BUT no causal factor! Produce things that farmers buy. Lack skilled labor, experience. Poor planning, lack of development of heavy industry stunted growth.
· Ag/minerals tied to international markets, no meet pop increase demand
· Growth rate slow in 70s. unskilled workers in cities. Borrow more.
· Droughts/famine. CEAO or OERS try to partner to solve.
· ECOWAS form common market, minimal success. Most potential?
· Spend more on energy b/c prices rise w/OPEC.
· Urbanization: cities created by colonial. Ports, mining, railway centers. Amenities, benefits from large cities.
· Healthcare: piped water, hospitals, housing, sanitation. Populations can grow, be healthy. Mortality decrease. Decrease yellow fever, plagues, sleeping sickness, yaws. Medical facilities.
· Education: missionaries. Elementary become important, some even build secondary/universities. Create A elite, use to overthrow colonial. Backbone of civil service. Create main language.
· B push for 2 party system, A push back. Those that expel colonizers naturally lead after. Proven leadership. Spur single ruling party.
· Groups in opposition silenced with intimidation, violence.
· Ghana under Nkrumah had single party. Women, youth, laborers tacked on to party.
· French colonies go toward single party. Boundaries contain many ethnicities/religions, nationalism had to be created by party.
· Marxism: Toure, Keita.
· 1952-1968: over 70 incidents, 20 new govts.
· Left leaning military replace elitist govt (Libya, Somalia).
· Clan loyalties, ethnic diversity create conflict, turnover.
· Independence doesn’t ensure quality of life. Anger seep into army.Military see problems more accurately. Some hold power too long, though
· Ethnic/religious conflicts. Boundaries arbitrary.
· Nigeria, 1966: military coup. Ibo parts create Republic of Biafra, civil war follow. Nigeria reunified. Historical roots—arbitrary boundaries!
· Sudan: regional loyalties. Religious differences. Poor, hard to modernize.
· Rwanda and Burundi: Hutus/Tutsis.
· 1994 plane crash of Hutu president of Rwanda. Nearly ½ million died.
· Tutsis invade, overthrow Rwanda. Hutus immigrate to Zaire.
· Laurent Kabila’s forces topple cities in Zaire.
· Antonio Salazar sees P mission as historic, civilizing, “imperial destiny”. A attempts at revolt fail. Angola not unified.
· Salazar dies in 1970, army responsible for revolution (not conservative). Resent bad leadership, help A guerrilla forces.
· 1974: turn on govt, topple regime in Angola. Others follow. Domino effect, visible Marxist movements.
· Technically under B control. 1970 gain independence. UDI w/Ian Smith
· Declared illegal, UN sanctions. Ban selling oil, but SA help them.
· African majority rule in 1971, blacks react negatively. Contrast w/SA, where whites oppose majority rule.
· SA apartheid look bad. B no pressure SA, but US oppose, withhold investments. Violence, riots, strikes all led to elimination.
· President Botha retire in 1989, talks begin.
· Literary and ideological movement, spur A independence.
· True racial emancipation, freeing of bonds of colonizers.
· Grew most in Paris w/expats, b/c French assimilation provoke reaction
· Include Sartre individual identity. Fit w/pan-Africanism. Blyden: fit two races together in complementary way. Some say blacks must be independent.
· Criticize: francophones and English speaking Africans. Extreme militarism, too much race not enough social class. African base too westernized.
· Women: examine place, discrimination. Cash crops keep women out. Rural areas male dominated. City work limited too. Educated do ok. Traditions remain-deference, polygamy, stay at home. No politics.
· Environment: droughts, famine, water shortages. Population growth can’t keep up, no clean water.
· Ethnic/cultural/religious clashes, fighting, warfare. Increase casualty rate, prohibit progress.
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