November 24, 2009 Review- first third: [Focus on Functionalist vs. Conflict Theory] Basic Concepts Sociology- science of society; Social Deviance- not following the norms; factor of social control; judgment of others that determine deviance; Socialization- learning; explains conformity and deviance; Operational Definition- how we can categorize; how everything is determined off of basic principles; description of how to measure; -a good definition would infer that the same results would be produced every time. -key character of science is the replication of studies; same measure for variance. -criteria Culture- Shared way of life; -subculture- unique different patterns of a group of people within a group; Society- [social] groups; political boundaries; large group that we belong to Status Group- -Faber, we don?t have huge social classes with giant divisions, instead we have a number of smaller units competing with other small groups for power ; more complex [talked about status groups and socio-economic factor] -Marx, importance of economic factor; employers and workers [bourgeoisie, owners of lands and factories?proletariats, workers] socially marginal, not immigrated into society?from Germany but wrote in England. Socio-economic Status- income and education; [wealth, power, prestige?not used] Poverty- $22,000 for a family of four; easy operational definition; Food x 3 [not realistic]; -number of poor Americans has increased from last year to this year, and more to come. -most dramatic increase of people within the ?food insecurities? category; [1 in 6] -number of people on welfare, is always defined as decreasing; Crime- males, minorities, poor people; Stratification- structured inequality; macro level variable [looking at whole society and ?international ?]; also sometimes looking within small groups?micro. -Dependency Theory- [universal conflict theory] -Class Conscious- very low in America; we are aware of stratification but not identification of people in the same position as us?independently trying to get higher but not as a group. -Four Classes in America?based on the book [last class divided into 2 however]- product of low class consciousness Independent Variable- generally groups people belong to in sociology?something we belong to; taught as being the [tentative] ?cause? of something; what happens first in the time frame. Dependent Variable- generally a behavior/attitude/or belief because of group they belong to; what happens second in the time frame Correlation- relationship between two variables [two operational definitions needed because there are two variables?two chances for lack of validity] established and statistical; a pattern -correlation does not equal causation; causation does however infer correlation Hypothesis-tentative; not certain or sure?start of research. NOT THEORIES. May come from or lead to theory, however. Classical Theory [of Deviance]-punishment to fit the crime/ act Positivist Theory [of Deviance] - outside factor involved in reason why something occurs; SSI-supplemental security income; large program that is almost never counted as welfare [even though it ought to be] lifetime limit?welfare has limit. -Clean money vs. Dirty money- welfare is dirty, social security is clean; [the way people earn money can either be looked down on or not, feel bad about taking it or not] CHAPTER 9 -Hidden unemployment- unemployment is the result of a survey of households(?did you work for money in the last week?? unfair question?under employed; -discouraged worker( ?have you looked for work in the last four weeks?? if answer is no, you fall under this category, ?discouraged looker/seeker??where you have looked for work but have given up within the last four weeks. Not counted in unemployment rate. -minorities often fall under the under employed and the discouraged worker categories; -Federal Hate Crime Law- [not in book, just occurred this semester] was extended to include gender, orientation, and disability; more inclusive operational definition; -Hate crime involves motivation of the individual, hard to define as a hate crime because of that. -American Dilemma- began in late 1930?s; problem is WWII interfering with study; could not find an American social scientist that was fair?to biased. Scandinavian (Myrd) was hired to lead study?concluded that Americans value freedom and fair play but that the behavior was discrimination and racism. Split between what we say we value and what we actually value?it?s a white problem, the heart and minds of the white folks. Believed that if people were aware of their discrepancy between their actions and opinions, they?d change it -explored the people?s excuses(how they all blamed others. Cut through it and people will change; -Social Institution- macro level concept; society wide(broad idea including social structures, attitudes and beliefs [look at file on SAKAI for better understanding] -originally just ?the family? institution; -No child left behind act- independent variable; influencing what goes on in schools?dependent variable is now testing and more grades in more subjects; [started in 2002, supposed up to par b 2014] -if schools are failing, they have a couple options?charter schools; children can be tutored,
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