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A: 74% (pg. 113)
A: It has been a problem all throughout history, from the times pre-revolutionary to past the 1990’s with Tim McVeigh, the Unabomber.
A: In early America Catholics were the center targets of religion based hate. Throughout colonial times Catholics were a tiny minority in the Americas and fellow colonists wanted to keep it that way. Public schools taught children about the evils of Catholicism, and “Pope Night” festivals were held in which Catholics were depicted as in league with the devil. A popular game at these festivals was “Break the Pope’s Neck”.
A: They were a political party that had a platform that was explicitly anti-immigrant, including a provision that no Catholic could hold any public office. At the height of their influence, “the Know-Nothings sent seventy-five members to Washington to serve in Congress and controlled several state legislatures, including the entire state of government of Massachusetts.
A: The idea promoted by Ford, who published these “Protocols” about immigrating Jews, was that Jewish leaders were part of a secret plan to take over America by manipulating the banking system and the media.
A: Birth of a Nation was the first full-length motion picture ever made in America, and it was taken from the book The Clansman, a Historic Romance of the Ku Klux Klan, by Thomas Dixon Jr. It was a movie that glorified the Klan and portrayed blacks as nothing better than savages. The movie grossed $18million at a time when a nickel bought dinner, and a penny bought a newspaper, and was estimated to have been seen by 50million people.
A: The Klan started in 1865 by ex-confederate soldiers in order to uphold the southern way of life in which the northerners opposed. Over time they grew to be a strong hate group, even expanding those they hated from blacks to Catholics and Jews as well. They grew vastly in numbers following the 1920’s and “Birth of a Nation”, and became increasingly violent with time. It simmered down from the 20’s but up roared again in the 60’s as a reaction to the Civil rights movement. The Klan’s membership has wax and waned over time, but it has proved to be resilient, and a force that will not easily go away.
A: Some of the beliefs of the Christian Identity include:
- The bible being literally true
- Specific focus on the first and last books of the bible, Genesis and Revelation. Genesis explains how things came to be as they are today, and Revelation shows what lies ahead.
- They believe the serpent in the Garden of Eden story was actually Satan and Eve taking the apple was Satan impregnating eve, and that when they had to children; Cain and Abel, Cain was the offspring of the Devil and Abel of God.
- Also adopted a belief of British Israelism and believe the 10 lost tribes of Israel were parts of people of Britain that then came to the United States, thus stating that the founding fathers of America were part of the lost tribes of Israel, aka God’s Chosen people.
- Believe the Declaration of Independence and Bill or Rights are sacred documents, written under the direction of God.
A: Leaderless resistance is an organizational strategy in which domestic terrorist groups work in small decentralized units of a dozen or fewer members. They do this to protect themselves from police investigations, and by doing so these units plan operations independently, keeping their plans secret from anyone not part of their small working unit.
A: 1) If we try to ban hate speech such restrictions in the U.S. have been ruled to be in conflict with the constitutional protection of free speech.
2) A second problem with banning hate speech is the lack of empirical evidence that it has much affect on the spread of hatred.
3) Even if it is reasonable to ban speech that targets minorities or immigrant groups, it is another matter to ban speech critical of the government.
4) Finally, there is the issue of deciding what constitutes hate speech and what groups are to be included. Ex. Would it include blacks who make derogatory comments about whites, or Jews about Christians?
A: One of the biggest problems with prosecuting hate crime cases is that it is necessary to know not simply what someone has done, but why it was done. Another problem is deciding what offenses should be included in the hate crime legislation. A final problem is that the hate crime law doesn’t help against small cells of domestic terrorists or against individuals acting on their own.
A: Some modern forms of slavery in America include: Sex industry slaves and Field working slaves.
A: 50,000 each year
A: 1) There has been a dramatic increase in population since the end of World War II.
2) That same population growth has occurred at the same time as rapid social and economical changes.
3) The greed and chaos caused by the political and economic instability has allowed slavery to grow unnoticed.
4) Slavery has become very profitable. Not because slave holders make expensive things, but because the modern slave is so cheap.
5) The international community, perhaps complacent following the victories of the abolition movement of the nineteenth century, has not noticed the presence of new slavery.
A: Under Old Slavery: Legal ownership was asserted – High purchase cost – Low profits – Shortage of potential slaves – Long-term relationship – Slaves maintained – Ethnic differences were important.
Under New Slavery: Legal ownership avoided—very low purchase cost – very high profits – Surplus of potential slaves – Short-term relationship – slaves disposable—Ethnic differences not important.
A: New slavery has taken 3 forms.
Chattel slavery: is the oldest and closest to the old slave system, under this form a person in captured in war, or is born, or is sold into permanent slavery. Occurs most often in Northern and Western Africa and represents the smallest amount of slavery.
Debt bondage: the most common form of modern-day slavery. Under this system, a person pledges or sells himself or herself into slavery as a surety against a loan, sometimes a loan as small as $25. However, with high interest and all kinds of hidden costs, the debt is never reduced, and the person becomes trapped in slavery. Most common in India and Pakistan.
Contract Slavery: A phony contract for work is drawn up, and the workers are taken to a labor site far removed from their homes and isolated from their families. There, they are enslaved. This is most common in South-east Asia, Brazil, and some Arab states.
A: Slavery in Mauritania is a harsh kind of chattel slavery. In Mauritania ownership is illegal but upheld by courts, there is a relatively high purchase cost, relatively high profits, shortage of potential slaves, they have a long-term slave/master relationship, slaves are maintained, and important ethnic differences are accented.
A: The slaves in Pakistan and India are debt-bondage slaves. The work done is mostly brick making, and tons of it.
A: There have been some attempts to rid India of debt bondage, but several factors stymie such reforms. The most promising attempts to “rehabilitate” those in debt bondage have occurred in India. An investigative reporter exposed the existence of bonded slavery in Tamil Nadu. Officials swept in, released 321 bonded laborers, and gave them 500 rupees to go home. A law had been passed setting up vigilance committees to spot bonded laborers, register them, cancel their debts, protect them from their former masters, and send them to their original homes with a small amount of money. However, much corruption has grown up around the rehabilitation programs. Despite its failings, India remains the only example of a country trying to deal with the problem of modern slavery.
A: The form of slavery most common in these two countries is contract slavery.
A: Raphael Lemkin was a polish scholar who studied Nazi efforts to wipe out the Jews and Gypsies in Europe during WWII. He created the word “genocide” in 1944, combining the Greek genos (race, tribe) and the Latin cide (killing).
A: Article II
In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group’
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring Children of the group to another.
A: One problem with the UN definition is that it omits the mass killing of political and social groups, thus excluding a substantial number of contemporary genocides, a second problem is that it’s unclear how many people must die for a “genocide” to take place, a third problem is that the UN definition requires there to be intent. In other words, it is essential to know what was in the minds of the killers. (Weisheit & Morn 149-150)
A: Some categorize genocides by the motivations of the perpetrators, others make distinctions among genocides based on characteristics of the victims, others focus on types of perpetrators, and still others focus on society.
A: (1) In times of war, normal restrictions on government behavior are lifted and the state is granted authority to take actions that might otherwise not be allowed, in times of war citizens of the state are more likely to support this expanded authority
(2) The perceived threat to society posed by a group, such as the Jews in WWII Germany, may seem much greater in times of war, when people are quite naturally sensitive to any threats to their national security.
(3) The leaders of a country at war may find that the presence of a hated group is a useful tool for mobilizing the masses.
(4) The horrors of genocide may be less immediately apparent to other countries, whose focus is on the war and who might well be initially fooled by claims that the killing is an act of war rather than of genocide. Thus other countries are reluctant to intervene.
Chalk and Johnassohn’s typology assumes there are four types of genocide based on motive:
(1) Eliminate a real or potential threat;
(2) Spread terror among real or potential enemies;
(3) Acquire economic wealth; or
(4) Implement a belief, a theory, or an ideology.
(Weisheit & Morn, 151)
A: From Lecture notes: War, Colonization, and Decolonization.
A: Main groups involved were the Christian Armenians and Muslim Turks
- Young Men Killed First
- Others put on Death March
- 1,500,000 killed
- Art, Literature, & Culture destroyed
- Names of places changed (wanted no record that Armenian’s had ever existed)
- Property Seized by Turks
- A: Hutu President killed April 1994 – genocide begins & lasts for 13 weeks.
- Hutu attacked and killed as many Tutsi as possible
- UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda)
- Government gave food to those willing to kill Tutsi
- Those who killed Tutsi could keep their property
- Machetes were used to hack people to death
- Radios guided killers
A: In Armenia 4 people were facing charges for the entire thing, and then they didn’t even have their charges pressed against them, and nothing really ever followed that up, and as for Rwanda irony took place the killing never stopped and following the “end” the RPF was killing Hutu by the thousands.
- A: In order to prevent genocide people MUST pay attention to early warning signs such as,
- Strong group feelings with one group feeling superior to others
- Political machinery must be in place to organize killing
- There must be ambitious leaders who will capitalize on the genocide
- They must be able to act without interference from others within and outside of the country.
Also they must get powerful nations to act FAST.
A: Environmental justice describes injustices in the way natural resources are used.
A: It first became a public issue in the US in 1971. That is when the Council on Environmental Quality issued a report that was among the first to mention the possible link between toxic risk and income; i.e. environmental racism- the belief that race and income are intertwined with living conditions.
A: The United States consumes approximately 30percent of all raw materials used by the human population in any given year.
A: The available fresh water is ½ of 1% of all the water on the earth.
A: Desalination is the process to remove salt from seawater. This process is not very efficient because it requires tremendous amounts of energy and labor.
A: It is estimated that 80% of the disease in the Third World is caused by contaminated water and that as many as 10million people each year die as a result.
- 100-200 gallons required to grow 1 pound of corn
- 2,000-8,500 gallons required to raise 1pound of beef
- 500 gallons required to raise a pound of chicken
- ¾ of world fisheries are over fished
- Many fish are contaminated with mercury and prescription drugs
A: Some consequences of privatizing water are that it gets exploited like nothing else, the rich pay less and the poor pay more. Sometimes families earning less than $100 per month are charged as much as $20 per month for water.
A: The Riparian rights refer to the right of landowners to use water that flows through or near their property.
A: Because it is essential for life, wars have been fought over access to water. There are water shortages, and water is targeted.
- There is a Water shortage
- They share a Common Supply
- Drawdown from Aquifer
- They face Population Growth
A: The long term trend is that water tends to be used by countries as either a military weapon, a military target, or political tool.
A: Some of the other natural resources are: timber, mining, and radioactive waste.
A: First, natural resources are, in general, most available to those with the greatest economic resources. The gap b/w rich and poor in access to resources grows in direct proportion to the scarcity of natural resources. As resources become scarcer the poor eventually are priced out of the market. Second, murder, rape, and war all become tools for getting valuable resources. Third, efforts to protect the environment can themselves be unjust and even deadly as seen by the Earth Liberation Front (ELF). Finally, there is the issue of using the environment as a terrorist tool. For example, sabotaging just two dams on the Colorado River would “cause major damage to the water supply systems of more than 25 million people in the lower Colorado River basin”. (Weisheit & Morn 179)
A: First, the problem must be one with which the public can relate, an issue that touches their daily lives. Second, the educator must have an effective medium for reaching the public. This means that the educational materials must be presented in a way that the public can understand—for example presenting complicated medical issues in everyday language. Third, the public must believe the problem is one for which there is a solution.
A: Uncle Tom’s Cabin – the brutality of life under slavery. The Jungle – the horrendous sanitary and working conditions in meat packing plants that led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act. Unsafe at Any Speed – disclosed the unwillingness of the automobile industry to incorporate even the simplest lifesaving safety measures into the construction of automobiles.
A: The purpose of Silent Spring started the modern environmental movement. The idea for the book was triggered by a letter from a friend who had observed a mosquito control plane flying over her bird sanctuary spraying the insecticide DDT. The insecticide killed the bugs…along with her birds. From there Rachel Carson went in depth on studying the horrors of what pesticides could do and the harm they were doing to the environment, and thus Silent Spring spread the awareness.
A: In 1848; Author Henry David Thoreau.
A: Gandhi believed that using violence to achieve justice COULD in SOME cases work, but not in that of India, and the situation they were in.
A: Gandhi fasted as a mean to tell his supporters to stop violence at any costs, if violence went on, Gandhi didn’t eat, when it stopped, he then started again. Gandhi almost welcomed the idea of going to jail; he saw it as a time to gather himself and his thoughts, etc. Throughout his lifetime he spent 2,338 days in jail (6.4 years).
- A: Dr. Martin Luther King,
- Louis Sullivan (famous for using businesses to improve minority conditions)
- Rukus Society
- Electronic Civil Disobedience (Hacktivism)
A: Civil Law: Offense is a private matter, Law mediates between 2 parties, Individual brings action to the attention of the court, and Individual receives fines or damages.
Criminal Law: Crime is a public offense, Law punishes guilty, State brings wrong to the attention of the court, State usually does not appeal, and sentence or fine is paid to the state.
A: First, Alinsky assumed that people always act out of self-interest and that one way to gain their cooperation was to appeal to their self-interest rather than to higher moral principles.
Second, Alinsky firmly believed that communities and groups could only produce long-term change if residents were committed to that change – a desire for change must come from the local community itself.
Third, Alinsky’s tactics centered around the idea of power. Unlike Gandhi, Alinsky saw conflict as a positive force essential to a free society. He believed the challenge was always to find ways to pressure those in power to make concessions.
Fourth, Alinsky believed that ethical standards of right and wrong must change to fit the times.
Fifth, Alinsky used humor as a weapon. Gandhi often used gentle humor to endear himself to those with whom he was negotiating. Alinsky also used humor, but he relied more on ridicule and humor at the expense of the Haves as a tool to gain their cooperation.
Sixth, Alinsky knew that for unconventional tactics to work they had to be unanticipated by the Haves.
FINALLY, Alinsky always organized communities with specific objectives in mind and specific ways in which the Haves could meet those objectives.
A: He organized the “fart-in” at the Kodak Theater. It showed them real good.
A: The Strategy for achieving justice used by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch is that of drawing public attentions to injustice by means of educating the Public. The hope is that those committing the injustices will be shamed into changing their behavior, or that the publicity will bring pressure to change.
A: “Prisoners of Conscience” are people imprisoned for expressing their religious or political beliefs.
A: 100 year anniversary of the Civil War, ending slavery in America. Also the 100th anniversary of freeing the surfs in Russia. In 1961, Peter Benenson launched a yearlong campaign to free religious and political prisoners around the world; he called the campaign “Appeal for Amnesty, 1961”.
A: Human Rights Watch monitors governments and political groups, rather than individuals acting on their own.
A: By all means Roger Baldwin grew up pretty much as a spoiled rich kid, he did jail time for dodging the draft and was always known for his strong beliefs in individual liberties. He founded the ACLU, the American Criminal Civil Liberties Union.
A: WWI was going on in the U.S. and because of that many basic civil rights, including freedom of speech, had little meaning. In fact in 1918 the Sedition Act made it a crime to criticize the government.
A: It’s inaccurate to describe the ACLU as a liberal organization because they have followers and opposition on both the Liberal and Conservative side. It is much more accurate to describe the ACLU as Libertarian; which are those who place the highest values on liberty even at the expense of equality. (Weisheit & Morn, 20). Or even more so as absolutist; because of its absolute commitment to the Bill of Rights.
A: The primary strategy used by the ACLU to achieve justice is to take cases to court. They take on the issues that challenge individuals liberties and rights by the government.
A: Operation Rescue (anti-abortion group), Greenpeace (environmental organization), and Ruckus Society ( trains people in the skills of nonviolent civil disobedience to help environmental and human rights organizations achieve their goals).
A: “Bearing witness”, a notion taken from the Quakers in early America, guides Green peace in their work under this notion. “Having observed a morally objectionable act, one cannot turn away in avoidance. One must either take action to prevent further injustice, or stand by and attest to its occurrence.” (Weisheit & Morn, 213).
A: Solidify members by having them engage in actions that reinforce their commitment to the organization. Advances their cause. Nobel embattlement group.
A: Bill of Rights in England & 1689
A: The Lieber code was the source for modern military law & has been used as the basis for military codes in other countries. It was created in 1863 and ordered by President Abe Lincoln ordered Lieber to create it.
A: -Discussion of what martial law is & when it applies to occupied territories.
- What occupying armies are forbidden from doing to property, civilians, and enemy soldiers.
- How deserters, traitors, spies, & POWS are to be handled
- Flags of truce, prisoner exchanges, &procedures for reaching a peace settlement.
A: - The rules of war- rules for engagement, treatment of prisoners, & civilians.
1. Guidelines for treatments of sick/wounded combatants on land
2. Guidelines for treatments of sick/wounded combatants at sea
3. Guidelines for handling POW’s
4. Treatments of civilians in occupied territories.
A: Failure to establish an enforcement mechanism gives little meaning to it all.
A: -Germans & War Criminals
- All prosecutors & judges were nationals of allied powers. All defendants and their lawyers were German. The defense was given limited facilities to prepare & little notice of prosecution evidence.
A: They laid the groundwork for later efforts @ defining war crimes for conducting war crime tribunals for the principle that individuals could be held accountable for the acts of nations & that “I was just following orders” isn’t an acceptable defense for atrocities. It is also argued they inspired the developments of the UN & the rise of NGOs that pursue human rights.
A: - serious efforts to include perspectives of many cultures / countries.
- Prohibitions against slavery & torture
- Right to marry, work, join labor unions, have rest & leisure, free education & the enjoyment of the acts.
- Addressed human rights violations within nations –important step for global justice.
A: - individuals & organizations can directly bring charges against a courtesy before the court.
- Successful at persuading member nations to incorporate basic human rights protection into their law.
A: Bosnia war crimes
A: Rwanda Genocide
- Inadequate financial support from UN member nations
- Only handled tiny fraction of cases within jurisdiction
- No evidence these courts have done much to prevent genocide
- Not clear if they’ve helped heal emotional wounds of war
A: -Small but important step to global justice
- Educative function, making it clear to the world that shared definitions of unacceptable behavior exist & holding up examples in which these shared rules have been violated.
- Clarified the boundaries of behavior that falls within the jurisdiction of international courts through their decisions in the individual cases.
- No q’s about fairness or challenges to authority
- -> success if viewed as steps in a long journey rather than a final destination.
A: The most extreme cases of human rights violations.
4 types: 1- Genocide
2-Crimes against humans
4-Crime of aggression
A: Common law adversarial system
1. Cases can only be pursued if sent to court through UN security council made up of worlds super powers or w/permission of nation where atrocities occurred
2. Jurisdiction of court & rules that govern it can’t be modified until 7 years after it’s put in place.
3. No one can be charged for actions that took place before their country ratifies the same statute.
4. States have ability to ratify ICC but anytime after that can receive a 7yr exempt from the jurisdiction of the court.
5. Individuals can be charged w/international crimes, but nations, political groups, & corporations could not.
6. Court cannot proceed in cases prosecuted within a nation unless it was a show trial or if it avoided justice.
A: No representatives & no judges on the court
A: Sometimes used in conjunction w/prosecutions, where others have been conducted rather than as prosecutions. Shared belief that a full accounting of atrocities in the recent past is necessary to reach closure & move forward.
Allows offenders to publicly describe crimes in full in exchange for amnesty.
Focus= healing & reconciliation.
A: Expand the crimes they consider.
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