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Which Enlightenment thinker argued in favor of separating and sharing political power?
Madame du Châtelet
believed women's limited contribution to science was the result of unequal education.
Catherine's attempts to reform Russian education and local governments was ended by
Pugachev's uprising of serfs.
Typical Senegambian communities were
small, self-perpetuating agricultural villages.
Labor on the royal farms of Songhai was supplied by
Timbuktu included many non-natives, such as Muslim scholars from Cairo, and what group that controlled gold working?
Most West African marriages were
The industry of West Africa with the most specialization was
By the eleventh century, the Swahili peoples had
converted to Islam.
The ideological justification for slavery adopted by African rulers from Islamic societies was that
it was acceptable to enslave prisoners of war.
Scholars have determined that the transatlantic slave trade
destabilized the political structure of many African states.
elite Ottoman slave soldiers.
Much of Ottoman expansion in the sixteenth century was due to
their use of gunpowder
Who was the founder of the Mughal Empire?
In 1639 Shah Jahan founded a new Indian capital city at
As a symbol of his religious tolerance, in 1579 Akbar
abolished the jizya in India.
The actual purpose of the Dutch East India Company was to
take over the spice trade from Portugal.
In the Ottoman and Safavid Empires, who dominated the silk trade
The Ming emperor Chengzu moved the capital from Nanjing to
The Ming built the Great Wall because
they could not agree on how else to deal with the Mongols.
Civil Service examinations involved writing an essay on a passage of
the Classic of Filial Piety.
Why did Taizu and the Ming plant nearly a billion trees?
The trees were used to produce timber for ships and helped the agricultural revolution.
The Qing Dynasty was founded by the
Under the Tokugawa, many samurai were transformed from warriors into
idle urban consumers.
Merchants in Tokugawa Japan
had economic wealth but no political power.
Elite wives in Tokugawa Japan
could not initiate divorce and were rarely allowed to remarry
One of the special privileges enjoyed by European nobility in the eighteenth century was
an exemption from taxes.
In the Americas, the Seven Years' War was a border dispute between the colonies of
Britain and France.
The Coercive Acts of 1774
closed the port of Boston.
The Anti-Federalists opposed the American Constitution because they thought it
made the federal government too strong.
What kind of king was Louis XVI?
Shy and well-intentioned
In elections to the Estates General, the third estate was represented primarily by
lawyers and government officials.
What did Louis XVI's advisors urge him to do in response to the demands of the National Assembly?
Disband the Assembly by force
Mary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Man was intended as a reply to
Reflections on the Revolution in France.
During the Reign of Terror, the dominant person on the Committee of Public Safety was
The Continental System created by Napoleon was designed to blockade whose ships?
In the English putting-out system, what did merchants do with raw materials?
LOANED them to local cottage workers to work at home.
By the seventeenth century, the British were heating most of their homes with
What was James Watt's fundamental improvement of the Newcomen steam engine?
He added a condenser to the engine.
By reducing the cost of shipping freight, the railroad
created national markets.
The British economist Thomas Malthus argued that
population always grew faster than the food supply.
What did Edwin Chadwick see as a positive effect of industrialization on the working people?
He believed that industrialization allowed working people to buy more necessities and minor luxuries.
The Factory Act of 1833 required that children under nine years of age in the factories
were to be enrolled in schools.
Robert Owen, the British industrialist,
favored the organization of a single national labor union.
At the Congress of Vienna, the victorious allies
were guided by the principle of the balance of power.
Austria's foreign minister, Metternich, dominated the politics and policies of
the German Confederation.
Early French socialists focused on
Marx believed that what class would rise up in revolution?
Industrial factory workers
The belief in unrestricted private enterprise with no government interference is
What kind of government emerged in France in the aftermath of the revolution of 1848?
A conservative government led by an emperor
In a plan to force Austria to give up its territory in Italy, Cavour secured a secret alliance with
From Bismarck's point of view, the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 was aimed at
getting southern German states to accept German unification.
Herbert Spencer argued that
humans' economic struggle was determined by "the survival of the fittest."
Russia felt obliged to modernize after it lost
the Crimean War.
Economically, the British sought to replace the African slave trade with trade in
Thanks to the spread of Islam in the Sudan,
women had greater access to education
The principle by which the European powers established their claim to an African territory was known as
Leopold and the companies of the Congo made a fortune in the trade of
Afrikaners made their Great Trek northward in 1836
out of resentment of black equality.
Rudyard Kipling came up with the idea of a “white man's burden” after
America seized the Philippines.
In the 1870s Great Britain was motivated to engage in imperialism because
its lead in industrial domination was declining.
The series of Ottoman reform decrees issued in 1876 were known as the
The Suez Canal was built by
a French company.
The British East India Company ruled with the assistance of
After the Great Revolt of 1857, British rule changed in that
India was ruled directly by the British government.
The United States took over the Philippines during a war with Spain over
Under extraterritoriality, British subjects in China
only answered to British law.
In the Boxer Rebellion, the Boxers blamed China's problems on
foreign missionaries who criticized the nation.
During the Meiji reforms, who was stripped of their powers and lost their stipends by 1876?
The primary cause of the Russo-Japanese War was
imperialist desires in Manchuria.
In the nineteenth century, the bulk of Indian emigrants were
persons of European descent born in Latin America.
The revolution led by Toussaint L'Ouverture
was the first successful uprising of a non-European people against a colonial power.
During neocolonialism in the late nineteenth century, the trend in Mexico was to
concentrate land ownership
Who financed and controlled the Panama Canal?
The United States
John L. O'Sullivan's phrase “manifest destiny” referred to the
spread of the United States over the continent of North America.
The Emancipation Proclamation
declared free all slaves in the rebellious states.
The United States government gave 130 million acres of land to what industry in the nineteenth century?
The railroad industry
The colony in Australia was founded to
provide a solution to overcrowded English prisons
Which of the following was one of the Serbian grievances against the Austrian Empire?
The annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1908
In the First and Second Balkan Wars,
the Ottoman Empire suffered major territorial losses
The Schlieffen war plan of Germany called for first capturing
Italy entered the war on the Allied side
in order to gain territory from the Austrians.
Germany stopped its submarines from sinking merchant vessels without warning after
the sinking of the Lusitania in May 1915.
At the end of the war, how were women in Britain, Germany, and Austria rewarded for their war efforts?
They were given the right to vote.
What was the 1916 Easter Rebellion in Ireland?
Irish nationalists agitating for self-rule
The “spirit of Locarno” referred to the belief that
enduring international stability and peace was possible.
The mandate system in the League of Nations
showed that the Europeans were committed to maintaining the imperial system.
Mustafa Kemal's political party system in Turkey was modeled on the system of the
The establishment of the Jewish state in Palestine was called for in the
moral and social betterment were intimately connected to the national movement.
The May Fourth Movement was directed against
warlords and imperialists.
In the 1920s and 1930s, ultranationalists in Japan
were violently anti-Western.
In China, the Long March was
a tactical retreat that saved the Communists from likely defeat.
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