The main dependent variable in problem solving research
The tendency to use objects and concepts in the problem environment in only their customary and usual way
Refers to a bias to solve problems in a particular way, using a single specific approach, even when a different approach might be more productive
A deep understanding of a situation or problem often occuring suddenly and w/o warning
attempts to explain how we solve problems using analogy
There are 3 important factors
1. Similarity - the two problems must be somewhat alike for us to see/use the analogy
2. Structure - we must establish a parallel structure btwn the two problems so that we can map elements of one onto the other we are trying to solve
3. Purpose/goal - the goal described in the problem determines the likelihood we will use the analogy and how we develop it to solve the problem.
Characteristics of Problem Solving
Goal directednesss - solving a problem is working toward some end outcome
Sequence of operations - problem solving involves a series of steps that are separate.
T/F: Neuroimaging research suggests that the L hemisphere is involved with solving probs by analogy and R hem. is associated with solving probs by insight.
Problem solving heuristic that uses repeated determination of the difference btwn the current state and the goal or subgoal state and then applies an operator that reduces that difference
T/F: Automating component of problem-solving solution cam improve problem solving by freeing up some WM capacity
T/F: Problem solving is not something can be improved by practice
The linguistic principle that there is no inherent connection btwn a symbol and the concept or object to which it refers
What linguistic feature do we share with animals?
Chomsky identified an important distinction btwn what?
Competence and performance
The level of language structure that deals with the analysis of word order and grammaticality
More than one sound produced at the same time
T/F: In Chomsky's theory of language the deep structure represents the words that make up the sentence and the surface structure represents the underlying meaning of the sentence
the connection btwn symbol and meaning is arbitrary, we can change those connections and invent new ones.
we assign names to all the objects in our environment, to all the feelings and emotions we experience, to all the ideas and concepts we conceive of.
the ability to talk about something other than the present moment
language is a productive and inherently novel activity, that we generate utterances rather than repeat them.
We create sentences we do not repeat them.
language conveys meaning
EX: the sounds of human language carry meaning, whereas other sounds that we make, say coughing or clearing our throats, are not part of our language b/c they do not usually convey meaning in the normal sense of the word
the complete set of rules that will generate all acceptable utterances and will not generate an y unacceptable, ill-formed ones.
A "theory" of language that specifies the structure and organization, allows us to deduce the sentences we use. ie: language has infinite set of sentences, grammar is a finite set of rules that generate those sentences.
NP: Noun phrase
VP: Verb phrase
N: Noun (boy, girl, dog)
D: Determiner (an article such as the or a)
V: verb (chassed, kissed, bit)
The boy chased a girl - sentence.
2nd NP: a girl where D: a and N; girl
Another way to do the tree
Problems with P-S rules alone
Difficulty with some kinds of ambiguity
a shared, structured, symbolic system of communication. Rule-governed, rules are implicit, and has infinite ends from finite means.
Characteristics of Language
Semanticity- has meaning, Abritrariness - Symbol/sound but NO concept, Flexibility: Symbol/sound can be changed, Naming: We assign names to everything, Displacement: Out of sight, (not) out of mind, PRoductivity: Infinite output from finite means
Similarities and Differences: Animal Communication
academic discipline that is interested in human cognition (memory, attention, etc. )
the study of language as it is learned and used by ppl
ex: language as a means of communication
sound structure of language
IE: units of speech sound
ie: units of meaningful speech
Free Morphemes: can stand on their own and serves as words ie: Book, tie
Bound morphemes: morphemes that need to belinked to another morpheme ie: -s(books), un-(untie)
The rules for combining phonemes into permissible morphemes/words. We know it from experience, our parents teach it to us and we just "know" it.
ie: /b/ + /a
sentence structure/grammar, or the arrangements of words in a sentence to show their relationship to one another.
Word order (S_V_O in English) The boy chased a girl
Sub = performing the action
object= receiving the action
Syntax: Word order
Word order (S_V_O in English) The boy chased a girl
Sub = performing the action
object= receiving the action
Syntax: phase order
also used to convey meaning
Bill told the men to deliver the piano on
Syntax: Number Agreement
match subject and verb, also a clue to meaning
The mother of the girls who were...
The mother of the girls who was... gramma
Cognition and Syntax Bock (1982)
word and sentence meaning
The smallest unit of speech
two sounds that are physically disctinct, but not distinguished by the language (eg: the [p] in "spin" vs. the [p] in "pin"
The smallest unit of speech sound that makes a difference to meaning
eeg: /p/ in "pin" vs. /b/ in "bin"
English has approximately 40 phonemes- Consonants differ on 3 dimensions: place of articulation, manner of articulation, and voicing
Vowels differ on 2 dimensions: placement in the mouth and tongue position in the mouth
all the sounds falling within a set of boundaries are perceived as the same, despite phyiscal differences among them.
ie: In English speakers discern no real difference btwn the hard /k/ sounds in cool and keep the are perceived categorically, that is, perceived as belonging to the same category, the /k/ phoneme.
Context (top-down processing) is very important for speech perception. Words outside of a context are hard to identify when bottom-up processing is difficult (background noise during shadowing task)
Examples of Speech perception
Ungrammaticial: Around accidents country honey the shoot. (NO CONTEXT)
Grammatical but meaningless: Accidents carry honey btwn the house (SOME CONTEXT)
Grammatical and meaningful: Accidents kill motorists on the highways. (Good context)
perceiving phonemes that are consistent with the context
ie: It was found that the *eel was on the axle
It was found that the *eel was on the shoe.
It was found that the *eel was on the orange.
It was found that the *eel was on the table.
Speech perception: Context
both visual and auditory contexts can contribute to perception
a perceptual phenomenon which demonstrates an interaction btwn hearing and vision in speech perception. It suggests that speech perception is multimodal, that is that is involves info from more than one sensory modality.
example of McGurk effect
experienced when a video of one phoneme's production is dubbed with a sound recording of a different phoneme being spoken. Oft. the perceived phoneme is a 3rd intermed. phoneme.
EX: a visual /ga/ combined with a audio /ba/ is often heard as /da/.
Transformational Grammar (Chomsky)
Transformational rule: Operating btwn deep and surface structures
Deep structure:underlying "meaning":underlying syntactic rep. of a sentence with bare-bones lexical entries (words)
Surface structure:words you hear or read:syntactic relations of sentence elements as expressed in the sentence
Get adam to make pic on p. 344 to use in flashcards
Problems with the Transformational Grammar approach
Did not put much emphasis on meaning
Major comp. were viewed to be the syntactic rules, as if we: 1st decide what phrase constituents to use, then decide what we want to talk about
Psych's became dissat. with Chomsky's approach and lack of emphasis on language use.
Cognition and Syntax: Automatic Processing
Children use reg word order: By relying repeatedly on the same syntax, they can reduce processing load which makes language production easier for them as they are learning.
Adults tend to use the same synactic structures with reg as well: The same syntax can be called into service easily and automatically, reducing WM load. Also evid. of 1 syntx priming another.
Cognition and Syntax: Linguistic Planning
We tailor the syntax of our sentences to the aviliabilty of info as we are planning what to say.
More accesible info tends to occur earlier
info that is wellknown/recent discussed is easier to find and integreate into our utterances
less accessible info occurs later, to give us time to retrieve it from the lexicon
C&S: Linguistic Planning cont
We begin speaking when the first part of our utterance is planned out
the end has yet to be planned and we do it on-line as we are speaking. This can lead to false starts, hesitations, and re-starts. Can also result in a burden on WM
our mental dicitionary of words and their meanings
After rapidly pattern rec/identifying a word, we automatically access it meaning (ie: stroop effect, Lexical decision task, and priming)
Also more than meaning:
part(s) of speech
how a word can be used in a sent
other words that can be used w/it and in what way, in what sorts of relationships
some words have more than one meaning
Neutral: We had trouble keeping track of the count.
Dominant meaning: My dog wasn't included in the final count.
subordinate meaning: The vampire was disguised as a handsome count.
context helps us determine which meaning is intended.
Lexical Ambiguity resolution
Context helps us resolve ambi. (neut. dom, and sub contexts) Which meanings are activated/suppressed?)
Some ppl are better at suppressing inappr. meanings than others
good readers suppress inapp. meanings faster than poor readers
poor readers may have comp prob's b/c mult. meanins stay activated longer.
Garden Path sentences
the early part of the sentence sets you up so that the later phrases in the sentence don't make sense given the way you assigned case roles in the first part. As we comprehend language, we assign words to syntactic categories (or case roles) based on their meaning.
EX: Garden Path sentences
After the musician has bowed the piano was quickly taken off the stage. (No GP)
After the musician has played the piano was quickly taken off the stage.
The (V) played suggests that the piano is the semantic recipient of play. When you read played, your semantic role assign. for piano was recipient. But then you read was quickly and realized you had made a mistake in interp.
GP sentences cont
Eye fixation can be used to determine how ppl are parsing and processing words in GP sentences
Language in Normal Brains - Syntax
ERP patterns show differing activation patterns for words that are semantically anomalous (John buttered his bread with socks) vs. ones that are syntacally anomalous (John hoped the man to leave).
Syntax is process sepearately during lang. comp.
Lang. in Norm Brains - Acquisition
Ss were taught a new, artificial lang
Early in training, ERP patterns to the new words were sim to what is observed with nonsense material
after 5 wks of training, ERPs looked like those obtained with Eng. words
Lang in Norm. Brain - Individual Differences
Ss were asked to verify sentence-picture stimuli using either verbal or visual strategies (the star is above the plus).
Verbal strategies activated lang areas.
visual strategies activated parietal areas
Activation was reduced when Ss were high in either verbal or visual ability
Indv. diffs/strengths resulted in reduced work for the brain
Speech production difficulties AKA: expressive or productive aphasia
less impairment for lang. comprehension
brain area affected is toward the rear of the left frontal lobe (Broc's area) adjacent to the motor cortex.
Speech commp difficulties, including reptition, naming, reading, and writing
AKA: receptive or comprehension aphasia
speech is fluent and syntactically correct with intact inflection and pauses
content words are unintelligible, incorrect subs, or invented nonsense words
brain area affected is toward the rear of the left temporal lobe (wernicke's area)
unable to repeat what is heard
Can understand and produce speech (Broca and Wern are intact)
Brain area affected seems to be the main connection btwn BRoca and Wern. areas - the arcuate fasciculus
the connection btwn comp and prodcution is disrupted
Circle: Broca's Aphasiah
Oval: Wernicke's Aphasia
Bridge: Conduction Aphasia; arcuate fasciculu
When ppl spend large amts of time trying to learn info that is too far beyond their current level of knowledge, but end up with little to no new learning
Mental Structure-building framework
Comprehension is the process of building mental structures
1. Laying a foundation
Dave was stuying hard for his stat's midterm (about: Dave, studying)
2. mapping info - additional word and concept meanings ar eadded as they are encountered (spec: he's studying for stat test, inferences added eg: enrolled in a clas)
3. Shifting to a new structure - when a different idea is encountered, we shift to a new structure
Mental Structure Building - enhancement/suppression - like spreading activation
Dave was studying hard for his statistics midterm. Because the professor had a reputation for giving difficult exams, the students knew they’d have to be well prepared. Dave wanted an A on that test. Concepts that are encountered again are enhanced
Concepts that are not encountered are suppressed
Comprehension - Overview
Comprehension is a very vague term for our ability to make sense of written and spoken language
Compreension - Tasks
Recall/accruacy vs/ online tasks
early studies focused on reading a passage and then measuring what is remembered (eg: sach, 1967 - verbatim vs. gist info)
Online tasks attempt to measure an underlying cognitive process as it occurs
see how performance changes depending on the conditions under whic hSs are req. to perform
draw conclusions abt the underlying process in the various conditions
Comprehension - taks - Reading times
eye tracking/ gaze duration, moving window
Assumptions: Reading times reflect an underlying process, aspects of comp thatS is prepared for take less time (and read more quickly), If an aspect of comp requires a lg involvement of mental resources reading times are longer
Comp. - tasks- Probe tasks-RT
Ss read some text and are asked to make a decision about a word presented later (Y/N recog., LDT or Naming)
RT is assumed to measure some aspect of the underlying cog process
inferences are drawn abt what aspects of the task affect cog
Comp. Tasks - Think alound proceedure
Ss verbalize their thoughts as they read a passage of text
Ss tell what is "going through their minds"
this info can be used to find interesting passages or parts of the text
Can indicate what might be useful to investigate further using other tasks
Comp. Tasks - Neural Imaging
Techniques that have good temporal resolution are usefule (fMRI & ERP)
Can determine what parts of the brain are active during certain types of processing
monitoring how well we are understanding something and wherhter we will remember it later
Usefule for increasing accuracy of meta-comp judgment:
JOLs - wait b/4 making the judmnt
Re-read info for mult. exposures (or read b/4 attending lecture)
Generate a summary to reveal what you know or don't know
Online measures of comprehension have become increasingly common in the study of reading processes
Memory tests after reading a passage arent sensitive enough
Eye trackinb Methodology
1. Recovrd eye movenments and durations as ppl read a passage on the screen
2. Moving window shows one word at a time as eyes move across the screen.
how long eye fixate on a word
Typically the dependent variable in reading tests
Measure: Fixations and saccades
Assumptions of eye-tracking
Immediacy assumption - we interpret each content word of a text as its encountered
Eye-mind assumption - pattern of eye movements and gaze durations reflects the complexity of underlying cognitive processes
Basic effects from eye tracking research on reading- 1
people use regressive eye movements to find referents and determine case roles
Ex: The tenant complained to his landlord about the leaky roof. The next day, he went to the attic to get his luggage.
Ex: The tenant complained to his landlord about the leaky roof. The next day, he went to the attic to repair the damage.
Basic effects from eye tracking research on reading- 2
People do not fixate on every content word
Only about 85% of content words are fixated
Basic effects from eye tracking research on reading- 3
Function words (of, the) not usually fixated
Function words fixated about 35% of the time
Readers will often skip content words when
1. The text is simple for them to read
2. Skimming or speed reading
3. If the word is very predictable based on the context
Saccades and gaze durations facts
Saccades take about 30ms
Gaze durations can vary greatly depending on the reader and the complexity of the text
A word fixation may be breif but ppl often fixate repeatedly on the same word
mental processing prbly cont during saccades as well
Important variables in reading
1. Word frequency, syntactic structure, context
2. Topic, plausibility, theme
Relatedness of par. and infomative intro par.
3. Discourse Structure
understanding of reference and the resolution of ambiguity
4. Phonology (especially in lower-skill readers)
finding connections btwn elements in a passage & finding the words that refer to other concepts in a sentence
relating a current word or expression to something earlier
what comes first
Dave was studying hard for his midterm
Dave = antecedent
His = anaphor
Does reference help reduce redundancy
3 Types of direct reference
Identity- using the same word
I saw a dog outside. The dog was digging in my yard.
Synonymy-using a synonym
i saw a dog outside. The mutt was digging in my yard.
Pronoun-using a pronoun
I was a dog outside. It was digging in my yard.
2 more types of direct reference
Advantage of 1st mention-characters/ideas mentioned 1st retain a special sig.
more pronounced when character is mentioned by proper name (e.g.; Jim) that when unnamed (e.g.; The janitor cleaned Beth's office.)
Advantage of clause recency-later mentioned items also show an advantage briefly, but it fades quickly
1 typs of direct reference
Definite (the) vs. Indefeinte (a, some) articles
Definite articles convey given info (something we already know or has already been mentioned)
Definite articles make sentences more coherent and sensible
We can more easily map later info onto what was mentioned previously
When ppl combine info from the text with their prior semantic and episodic knowledge, they create a mental simulation of what is being described
comp is a search for meaning
we do activate semantic/episodic memories
but we also actively build a mental model in order to understand the causal nature of what is being described in a text
Situation Models have 2 processes:
1. We draw inferences to elaborate on the info presented in the text
2. we update our situation model as the events/circumstances change
Implications vs. Inferences in Situation Models
Implication-something a speaker/writer doese that is an intended conclusion or connection (but is not mentioned explicitly)
Inference -something a listener/reader does to draw a conclusion or make a connection
EX: a professor says "the next exam is on Wed. and it covers a lot of material
constructing a connection btwn concepts in order to achieve coherence in text (to make sense of it)
Binds two units of language together
EX: I dropped an egg on the floor. It was my last one so I had to go to the store.
Inference: the egg broke
In constructing a situation mode we include:
Events/descriptions/etc/ as described by the text
Also infrences we draw
Proved by experiment by Zwaan, Stanfield, Yawley (2002)
Zwaan, Stanfield and Yawley 2002 experiment
Ppl read short descriptions of situations, and then were presented pics of objects.
Their task was to indicate whether pictured objt had been in the description they read.
The critical manipulation was whether the pic either matched or mismatched the perceptual characteristics of the objt in the description
Zwaan, Stanfield and Yawley 2002 experiment example
The critical sentence could be either the ranger saw the eagle in the sky or The ranger saw the eagle in its nest followed by a picture of either an eagle with its wings outstretched or perched.
Results of Zwaan, Stanfield, and Yawley 2002 exp. results
Found that ppl responded faster when the pic matched the description.
That is, even though they saw an eagle in both pics the eagle with its wings out stretched "match the "eagle in the sky" description better so ppl responded faster in that condition.
Thus, ppl seemed to be activating perceptual qualities of objts during the comp process itself
Updating our situation Model
As we comprehend something we must constantly update our model to reflect our current understanding of the situation
5 deminsion to our models
When disruption occurs along one of the 5 deminsios we must update what?
Our situation model
This updating process takes time
we can manipulate dimensions of a sit and measure the time it takes ppl to respond to something in memory that relates to the model
Do we take into account what is plausible when constructing and updating our model?
EX: While chopping wood with his lg axe, he painted the fence white
While whistling a lively folk meoldy, he painted the fence white.
Slower reading times for the first sentence
Conversations are Joint Actions
They are carried out by two or more ppl
The results is more than the sum of the individual contributions
EX: Imagine 2 ppl paddling a boat or dancing together
what they do together is diff than if they were each doing their part alone
Joint actions have Adjaceny Pairs
Conversations typically occur as a pair of turns taken by each participant
Rules for turn-taking
1. The speaker picks the next speaker
2. if the speaker doesn't pick, someone else may speak
3. the speaker may continue but doesn't have to
1. Long pause at the end of a sentence
2. Comment directed to another person
3. Drop in pitch or loudness of utterance
4. Establishing direct eye contact with another person
A way of selecting the next speaker
1. looking away, no direct eye contact during a pause
2. trailing off mid-sentence without completing thought
3. Withholding endings such as "you know'
Grice's Maxims - Conversational Rules 1-4
Relevance: make contribution relevant/related to topic
quantity: be as informative as required, but no more so
Quality: Be truthful/accurate (do not mislead, exaggerate)
Manner and Tone: Be clear; avoid obscurity, ambigutiy, =vagueness; be breif; be polit; don't interrupt