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Final Exam: Comprehensive
Final Exam: Comprehensive
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America: A Narrative History (Eighth Edition) (Vol. 2)
The South emerged from the Civil War with a strong, diversified economy.
The Fifteenth Amendment freed the slaves
Waving "the bloody shirt" meant referring to the Civil War and the southern rebellion in order to discredit political opponents
In the North, the Civil War especially elevated the power of:
Emancipation had what impact on the South?
It left the South's labor system in disarray
At the end of the Civil War, the newly freed slaves were given:
medical and legal assistance from the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
On what basis did President Lincoln claim the right to direct Reconstruction?
Lincoln claimed constitutional provisions pertaining to presidential power gave him the authority.
Why did Congressional Republicans write the "Wade-Davis Manifesto"?
to protest Lincoln's veto of the Wade-Davis Bill and accuse Lincoln of exceeding his constitutional authority
Johnson's Proclamation of Amnesty excluded the people he blamed for leading the South into secession. They were:
the wealthy planters, merchants, and bankers
During Reconstruction, all of the following are true about African American involvement in the political arena during Reconstruction EXCEPT:
several African Americans were elected as governors
Northern voters supported Grant mainly because of his:
Why was the 1876 Supreme Court decision in
United States v. Cruikshank
(which pertained to the Colfax Massacre) significant?
It decided that states' rights trumped federal authority when it came to protecting freed blacks from white terrorists.
All of the following are reasons why Republicans lost control in the South EXCEPT:
black voters switched to support the Democrats
What happened after the end of Reconstruction?
The protections of black civil rights crumbled under the pressure of restored white rule and unfavorable Supreme Court decisions.
Power sources (such as water, coal, wood, electricity, and oil) were more expensive in the United States than in other nations around the world
The number of inventions registered at the U.S. Patent Office remained fairly constant through the nineteenth century.
Most Americans experienced a rising standard of living in the late nineteenth century.
By the 1880s, most states had outlawed child labor.
Anarchists oppose all forms of government.
Interconnected transportation and communications networks were essential to the origins of the Second Industrial Revolution in the United States because:
they facilitated the emergence of a national and even international markets for American goods and services
Crédit Mobilier is indicative of the type of shady big business financial practices that occurred during the Gilded Age because it
bribed officials and grossly overcharged for its services
The work of Cornelius Vanderbilt helps emphasize that:
business consolidation put the control of railroads in few hands
What was one main reason electric motors were significant to the industrialization of the late nineteenth century?
They freed factories to locate wherever they wished and not just by waterfalls and coal deposits.
During the Gilded Age, the rich were getting richer and:
many other people were at least better off
For industrial workers in Gilded Age America:
working and living conditions remained precarious
All of the following statements are reasons why child labor was problematic EXCEPT:
child laborers took well-paying jobs from legal immigrants
Why was there a growth of craft unions during the Civil War?
The war sparked an increased demand for skilled labor.
How did the AFL differ from the Knights of Labor?
The AFL was a federation of national organizations, each of which retained a large degree of its autonomy, while the Knights organization was more centralized.
Marxism, one strain of socialism, was imported to the United States mainly by:
wrote The Gospel of Wealth
Eugene V. Debs
Was a presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America
Henry Clay Frick
was president of the Homestead Steel Works
was prince of railroad robber barons
was a labor organizer executed for murder
Organized Working Party of California
J. Pierpont Morgan
consolidated steel industry into the United States Steel
Terrence V. Powderly
led the Knights of Labor
John D. Rockefeller
founded Standard Oil
founded a mail-order business
Under the Bourbons, there was a well-planned and effective effort to disenfranchise African American voters.
In the 1880s, southern politics remained surprisingly open and democratic
The frontier Indian wars began with the closing of the frontier in 1890.
The Homestead Act of 1862 encouraged the development of thriving western farms.
Perhaps the ultimate paradox of the Bourbons' rule was that their paragons of white supremacy tolerated:
a lingering black voice in politics
The very poor generally did not migrate to the West because:
they generally could not afford the expense of transportation, land, and supplies
All of the following groups were prominent in the West during the late nineteenth century EXCEPT:
Buffalo soldiers were:
black soldiers who served in the West
states were created from the western territories in the years 1889–1890. These states were not admitted before 1889 because:
Democrats in Congress were reluctant to create states out of territories that were heavily Republican
Following the 1867 "Report on the Condition of the Indian Tribes," Congress decided that the best way to end the Indian wars was:
to persuade the Indians to live on out-of-the-way reservations
"Cowtown" refers to:
towns that grew up in the West as a result of the expanding cattle industry
Why was the expansion of railroads significant to the growth of the cattle industry?
As the railroads increased the ability to ship huge numbers of western cattle, more "cowtowns" were established in the West.
Range wars erupted by the late nineteenth century because of:
conflicts over land and water rights between ranchers and farmers
The fight for survival in the trans-Mississippi West made men and women:
more equal partners than were their eastern counterparts
The spread of mass transit was a major factor in the growth of the suburbs
Ellis Island was opened in 1910 primarily to handle an influx of Asian immigration.
Padrones were hiring agents who secured jobs for immigrants in return for a share of their wages.
Major league baseball, integrated in the 1880s, was the first professional sport to treat blacks and whites equally (at least on the field).
Which region of the United States had the greatest
of urban dwellers?
the Far West
One of the reasons mass transit was significant to developing cities was because:
it allowed larger numbers of people to become commuters and live away from the central city
After 1890, most immigrants were:
from southern and eastern Europe
immigrants threatened traditional American culture
Why was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 significant in American immigration history?
It was the first federal law to restrict immigration on the basis of race and class.
Facing severe restrictions in their free time, married working women often:
found fellowship with other women on the public streets while tending to other responsibilities
Baseball could lay claim to being the most democratic sport in nineteenth century America because:
people of all social classes attended the games
During the Gilded Age, voter turnout was significantly higher than it is today.
Politics in the late nineteenth century were dominated by a series of strong presidents.
Through the Gilded Age, the Democrats controlled both houses of Congress.
In the civil rights cases (1883), the Supreme Court upheld the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
W.E.B. Du Bois emerged as the leading black critic of Booker T. Washington's accommodationist philosophy.
Mugwumps tended to oppose civil service reform
The Farmers' Alliances accepted female and black members.
Which of the following individuals was NOT one of the leaders in the Farmers' Alliance movement?
George H. Pendleton
The Mississippi plan of disenfranchisement included all the following EXCEPT a:
provision disqualifying anyone who owned less than $300 in personal property
Economic prosperity was returning to the country by 1897 because of:
the inflationary impact of various gold discoveries around the world
When Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner labeled the post–Civil War era the "Gilded Age," they implied that it was characterized by:
widespread greed and corruption
Which of the following would most likely have been a Gilded Age Republican?
Which of the following would most likely have been a Gilded Age Democrat?
a union veteran
Alfred Thayer Mahan wrote
The Influence of Sea Power upon History
In an act of terrorism, Spaniards in Cuba blew up the battleship
Spain refused to consider practically all of the American demands concerning Cuba before the United States declared war.
The treaty that ended the Spanish-American War and gave the United States the Philippines narrowly passed the U.S. Senate.
Western imperialism in the late nineteenth century was stimulated by all of the following EXCEPT:
the fear that Bolshevik ideas might advance around the globe
Alfred Thayer Mahan:
argued that sea power was essential to national greatness
What is "yellow journalism"?
It refers to sensationalist news coverage that was designed to sell papers and manipulate public opinion.
The de Lôme letter:
referred to President McKinley as a weak and cowardly leader
One reason the United States went to war against Spain was that:
there was strong support among the American people for going to war
The Teller Amendment:
disavowed any American designs on Cuban territory
was the Filipino rebel leader
The Platt Amendment did all of the following EXCEPT:
provide for the American annexation of Cuba
Which of the following statements about the American acquisition of Puerto Rico is true?
The Jones Act of 1917 made residents of Puerto Rico U.S. citizens.
The Open Door policy:
proposed that foreign powers keep the China trade open to all nations on an equal basis
The Hay-Herrán Treaty:
concerned America's right to build a canal in Panama
Theodore Roosevelt took a strong, activist approach to the presidency.
The phrase "Square Deal" is associated with Theodore Roosevelt.
One of Taft's major issues became his support for high tariffs.
William Howard Taft finished second in the presidential election of 1912.
The muckrakers saw their primary objective as:
exposing social problems to the public
In the area of conservation, Theodore Roosevelt:
used the Forest Reserve Act to withdraw over 170 million acres of timberland from logging
Of the four presidential candidates in 1912, the one most likely to advocate government ownership of big business was:
A major factor in Woodrow Wilson's victory in the 1912 presidential campaign was the fact that:
the Republican party had split in two
Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom platform:
proposed vigorous anti-trust action to break up corporate concentration
Many immigrant groups in the United States supported the Central Powers in the European War.
Due to their belief in "freedom of the seas," the British allowed Americans to trade with Germany
The so-called Arabic Pledge involved Wilson's stand to stop North Africa's fall into chaos during the war.
The Zimmermann telegram, sent to the Mexican government from the White House, was intercepted by the Germans.
Former president Theodore Roosevelt was one of the biggest supporters of the League of Nations.
Henry Cabot Lodge led the Senate Republicans who demanded amendments to the Treaty of Versailles.
In an effort to topple Victoriano Huerta's dictatorial government in Mexico, President Wilson:
sent the military to occupy the port of Veracruz
killed a number of Americans in an attempt to provoke American intervention in Mexico
When news of the European war first reached the United States:
most high government officials were pro-British
President Wilson's response to the sinking of the
was a series of notes demanding that Germany stop such actions and pay reparations
Which of the following is true of the
It secretly carried weapons and ammunition in its cargo.
The Revenue Act of 1916:
was primarily to raise money to pay for war preparations
The Zimmermann telegram:
asked for help from Mexico in the case of war between Germany and the United States
In the 1920s, people of Latin American descent became the fastest-growing ethnic minority in the United States.
The NAACP favored militant protests over legal challenges as a way to end racial discrimination.
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were:
two Italian-born anarchists sentenced to death and executed even though there was doubt as to their guilt
The immigration quota laws passed in the 1920s:
favored immigrants from northern and western Europe
The 1924 immigration law:
set strict yearly limits on the number of immigrants allowed into the country
By the 1910s, the Anti-Saloon League:
had become one of the most effective pressure groups in American history
Which amendment to the constitution is known as the prohibition amendment?
The movement of southern blacks to the North:
was called the Great Migration
Which of the following did W.E.B. Du Bois say in his opposition to Marcus Garvey?
He is "the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race. . . . He is either a lunatic or a traitor."
The NAACP emphasized:
legal action against discrimination
The 1920s "New Era" was created by advances in all the following EXCEPT:
Unlike baseball, football tended to attract more:
As president, Warren Harding was actually more progressive than Woodrow Wilson in his attitudes and policies toward African Americans.
The Kellogg-Briand Pact endorsed future wars.
Businessmen flew "Hoover flags" to show their support for the president's hands-off approach to the Depression
The "Bonus Expeditionary Force" was organized to secure the U.S.–Mexico border.
The result in the presidential election of 1920 might be attributed to:
the fact that Americans in the 1920s were "tired of issues, sick at heart of ideals, and weary of being noble"
The "Ohio gang":
was a group of President Harding's friends who were named to political office
The tariff policy of the early 1920s:
made it harder for other nations to sell to the United States
In 1926, one warning sign for the economy surfaced when a real estate boom collapsed in:
Which of the following was NOT a cause of the Depression?
The gold standard caused a tightening of currency supplies worldwide
Of all the causes of the stock market crash of October 1929, the greatest culprit was:
the weak foundation of the 1920s economy
How many people were out of work in early 1933?
Hoover's early efforts to end the Depression included:
asking businessmen to maintain wages and avoid layoffs, in order to keep purchasing power strong
The greatest failure of the New Deal was its inability to:
restore economic prosperity and end record levels of unemployment
What made the dust storms worse than normal was the transition during the early twentieth century from:
widespread scattered subsistence farming to industrial agriculture
The Indian Reorganization Act:
attempted to reinvigorate traditional Native American cultures
In the case of
Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States
, the Supreme Court:
overturned the National Industrial Recovery Act
Which of the following statements about the Social Security Act is NOT true?
It was based on a progressive tax that took a larger percentage of higher incomes
By the end of 1937, which group had coalesced against the New Deal?
a bipartisan conservative bloc
The conservative Democratic opposition to the New Deal in the late 1930s:
was heaviest in the South
In 1932 what was the percentage of American's unemployed:
To earn the federal payments for reducing crops:
many landowners took their leased lands out of production
One drawback of the Tennessee Valley Authority was that:
it forced people to move if their land was needed for dams and lakes
In the case of Norris v. Alabama, the Supreme Court:
ruled that the systematic exclusion of blacks from juries denied Scottsboro defendants equal protection of the law
The 1937 economic slump was caused in part by:
a sharp decrease in government spending
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