which of the following aspects of homeostasis does the kidney play some role in controlling?
E - All of the above removing metabolic waste electrolyte balance fluid balance
if there is a deop in the Po2, which hormone would be secreted by the kidney?
what hormone is required for the kidney to activate Calcitriol?
what is the functional unit of the kidney?
movement of fluid through the semipermeable membrane, by hydrostatic force which excludes substances based on size is ________
none of the above (filtration)
1 - water filtration, sodium filtration, and glucose re-absorption by active transport (same for capsule) 2 - water filtration, water reabsorption under the influence of ADH, Water reabsorption due to osmotic pressure 3 - sodium filtration, water reabsorbtion due to osmotic pressure 4 - hydrogen ion secretion, water reabsorption under the influence of ADH, Water reabsorption due to osmotic pressure 5 - urine excreted
the juxtaglomerular apparatus plays a role in which of the following events?
A - release of Renin
An increase in hydrostatic pressure in the afferent arteriole would do what to kidney filtration?
A blockage in the kidney would do what to kidney filtration?
a decrease in the osmotic pressure in the afferent arteriole would do that to the kidney filtration?
we can override parasympathetic signals to which muscles of the urethra so that micturition takes places at an appropriate time?
at what level of the spinal cord does the micturition reflex take place?
chloride ions are reabsorbed passively with which ion?
what is the epithelium of the urinary bladder?
what is the third layer of the bladder referred to as?
what type of receptors in the hypothalamus, sensing changes in extracellular fluid concentration, drive the desire for fluid intake?
which of the following are ways in which water is lost from the body?
(all of the above) sweating, expiration, urination
what effect does the secretion of ADH have on water loss?
It decreases water loss
What hormone of the adrenal cortex responds to increased plasma potassium concentrations?
What hormone is secreted in the response to a drop in plasma sodium concentrations?
what is pH a measure of?
which of the following would not be a source of hydrogen ions?
which of the following directions would the bicarbonate buffering system shift if the blood were too alkaline?
CO2 + H2O --->H2CO3--->H+ + HCO3
the carboxyl end of an amino acid (-COOH) can participate in buffering by which of the following?
Two of the above
parathyroid hormone is responsible for the regulation of which of the following ions?
which of the following are considered transcelluar fluids?
respiratory acidosis may be caused by which of the following?
(two of the above) hyperventilation decreased surface area for gas exchange
metabolic alkalosis might be caused by which of the following?
over consumption of antiacids
hyperventilation might result in which of the following?
climbing quickly to a high altitude might result in which of the following?
if you are walking in the desert with no water to consume, which of the following will happen to extracellular fluid volume?
if you consume an isotonic beverage, what will happen to intercelluar fluid volume?
if you drink several alcoholic beverages, what will happen to intercellular fluid osmolarity?
If you drink deionized water, what will happen to intercellular fluid volume?
what is the Renin/Angiotensin pathway and under what circumstances renin would be released?
which lymph vessels are described as microscopic, closed-end tubes?
what is the lymphatic vessel that would be found after an efferent lymphatic vessel in the lymphatic pathway?
which of the following does NOT influence lymphatic flow?
lymph node contraction
several lymph vessels lead into the lymphnode and lymph exits through a single vessel. Which of the following statements is true regarding this arrangement?
it slows lymph flow, so that it may be filtered
which of the following are functions of the lymphatic system?
all of the above immune surveillance collect interstitial fluid fat absorption
which of the following are considered lymphatic organs
infections may be caused by bacteria, protozoa, spores and other invaders. What is the term used to describe these miroorganisms?
specific immunity relies on which of the following to mount its response?
the body recognizing self from non-self
lack of receptors, differences in pH confer this mechanism
part of the first line of defense, which includes the mucous membranes
enzymes of the body participate in this defense
natural killer cells
secrete perforins destroying infected cells
bodies attempt to wall of infection
cells which engulf and digest particles
attempt to change the bodies set point for temperature
protein molecules arranged on cell surfaces, in patterns specific to the individual is referred to as the ______________
major histocompatibility complex
one of the things accomplished by antibody/antigen binding is aggulatination. we used blood typing in lab to illustrate this response. if you had a sample of blood and saw the aggultination pattern below, what type of blood would you be testing?
most numerous in circulation, fights bacteria virus and toxins
responsible for mismatched blood reaction
released in allergic response, defend against parasites
function largely unknown, b-cell activation
found in exocrine secretions, including human milk
insertion of pore, disrupts ion distribution, osmotic splitting of membrane
coats pathogen to increase likelihood it will be phagocytized
clumping of antibody/antigen complex
attacts immune system cells to regions of infection
alters pathogen t make them harmless
which of the following statements regarding immunity is true?
two of the above
what is the term used for a small molecule that alone, does not initiate the immune response? Penicillin and Poison ivy are examples.
what is the order of T-cell activation?
marcophage ingests pathogen macrophage displays part of the antigen t-cell contacts displayed antigen helper t cells secrete interleukin cells proliferate and differentiate
b-cells generally require another step before they can actively participate in the immune response. Helper T cells secrete which fo the following tha cause the b-cells to be fully active?
which of the following is true of the cellular immune response?
it involves cell to cell contact
how would the immunity derived from a vaccination be classified?
artificially acquired active immunity
how would the immunity derived from an injection of gamma globulin be classified?
artifically acquired passive immunity
when the amount of interstitial fluid overwhelms the ability of the lymphatic system _______ is the result
which of the following might be responsible for the condition described in the question above?
all of the above removal of lymph tissue release of histamine starvation severe enough to reduce the concentration of plasma proteins
a donor heart valve from a pig would be an example fo what kind of transplant type?
which cell types are responsible for producing antibodies during the primary immune response?
plasma b cells
which of the following are theorized reasons for theproduction of antibodies?
all of the above insertion of host portein onto a viral surface during replication remaining fetal tissue in maternal circulation coincidental similarities to host cell surface proteins and pathogen
describe how aids virus invades a host cell
what is meant by describing the urinary system as something that discriminates?
what is the hormone responsible for stimulating red blood cell production?
what is the hormone/enzyme secreted by the kidney, responsible for helping regulate blood pressure?
what is the term that describes the position of the kidneys with respect to the serous membrane of the abdomen?
Filtration is driven by the hydrostatic pressure of the blood, and causeswater and small molecules to be filtered, while blood cells and large molecules likeproteins do not pass through the filter.
define tubular secretion
Process whereby selected molecules are actively transported from the blood into the filtrate
describe the urinary reflex
the brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, squeezing urine out of the bladder through the urethra.
on which endocrine gland would you find receptors for growth hormone releasing hormone?
which hormones would be released to cause a rise in prolactin?
Prolactin releasing hormone
which hormone is released by positive feedback?
what causes OT to be secreted and what is the mechanism for cessation of secretion of that hormone?
the uterus and vagina stretches causing release of OT which cause uterine contractions to move the baby out. Once bay and afterbirth are delivered OT release is stopped.
which hormones are synthesized in the posterior pituitary gland?
what hormone is responsible for release of andrenal coticotropic hormone?
name the two hormones that stop the release of hormones of the anterior pituitary?
SS, GHIH, and PIH
what does the term tropic hormones mean?
that they are influencing hormones
the use of tubes and secretion on to surfaces are roles of the ________ glands
which of the following describes hormones
(two of the above) they are chemical messengers they are secreted into body fluids
which of the following statements regarding Fat Soluble Hormones is ture?
(two of the above) they are usually cholesterol based they are able to pass through the plasma membrane
what is the purpose of the second messenger system?
to carry information across the plasma membrane
an increase in the number of receptors on target cells is an example of ________
adrenocortico tropic hormone
prolactin releasing factor
What is GHRH target
anterior pituitary gland
CRH target ______
most cells in the body
the hormones of the posterior pituitary gland are unique in that they are
secreted by a neurosecretory mechanism
which of the following hormones is synthesized in the pituitary gland?
which of the following hormones is released into the hypophyseal portal system?
thyrotopin releasing hormone
which of the following statements is true of melatonin
it is secreted from the pineal gland
in response to stress, which hormones would you expect to be secreted
all of the above ACTH CRH Norepinephrine
which layer of the adrenal gland secretes epinephrine?
what portion of the thyroid gland is responsible for secretion of calcitonin?
what element is bound to the amino acid tyrosine for the production to T3 and T4
what hormone is the antagonist to parathyroid hormone
which of the following hormones is not synthesized by the hypothalamus?
which of the following would not play a role in the secondary messenger system?
secretion of GHRH would result in which of the following?
none of the above
which of the following hormones would you expect to see secreted due to a drop in blood pressure?
water soluble hormones are derived from which of the following?
two of the above protein peptides
which of the following hormones would you expect to see secreted if plasma concentrations of sodium drop?
which hormone has its receptors on bone, muscle and adipose tissue?
which of the following hormones would help increase blood plasma volume?
two of the above ADH adlosterone
which hormone has as one of its effects, the inhibition of osteoclasts?
after a meal, which hormone is released to aid in transport of glucose in to the cell?
if you block the effects of ADH which of the following would result?
two of the above
if a person experienced Down-regulation of action of T3 and T4 which of the following statements would be true?
all of the above the number of T3 and T4 receptors would be decreased the levels of TSH would drop the levels of TRH would drop
which layer of the adrenal cortex secretes mineralcorticoids
a drop in blood glucose levels would result in the release of which of the following hormones?
an increase in blood calcium levels would result in the release of which hormones?
an increase in circulating levels of T3 and T4 will result in which of the following?
inhibition of TSH secretion
you have a subject whose cortisol levels have fallen. to determine the cause of this, you inject the subject with ACTH. If coritsol levels increase due to this, which of the following statements can you determine to be true?
the adrenal cortex is able to bind ACTH
if the same subject you then inject with CRH and blood glucose levels fail to rise, which of the following statements can you determine to be true?
the anterior pituitary is not binding with CRH
which of the following would not be involved in regulating blood glucose levels?
the thyroid gland has a specific arrangement. what is the glycoprotein material in the center of the follicle called?
which endrocrine gland contains islet cells?
which of the following statements is true of the stress response?
it the sympathetic nervous system
which of the following statements is true regarding the activation of antiotensinogen?
all of the above angiotensin converting enzyme plays a role renin plays a role aldosterone is secreted in response to its activation
which of the following systems might participate in increasing plasma calcium concentrations?
all of the above endocrine urinary integumentary digestive
the nnermost layer of a vessel is called the
which of the following is included as an important role of the endothelium of vessels?
it contains smooth muscle and is responsible for mechanical contraction of vessels
what is teh immediate result of a reflex initiated by pain receptors when a vessel is cut or broken?
which of the following are cofactors in the conversion of prothrombin
which of the following statements is true about prothrombin
two of the above
which of the following would limit thrombin formation?
which of the clotting mechanisms is initiated by tissue damage?