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what are Piagets 4 cognitive stages
what is conservation
what are 3 types of memory
in operant conditioning, what does reinforcement do
what are the 4 parts of the cerebral cortex
what is figure-ground
what is the cannon bard theory
Studying large groups of people to learn about various aspects of personality is the:
a) nomothetic approachb) idiographic approachc) trait approachd) comprehensive personality research approach
John is usually shy, but at the party he became quite talkative. This deviation from his norm is considered a:
a) stateb) traitc) internal locus of controld) being tipsy
Kayla wants to go scuba diving instead of rock climbing b/c she knows how to dive and is confident in her abilities. She probably has...
a) an openness to new experiencesb) an internal locus of controlc) an external locus of controld) spontaneity
Raising people's self esteem generally has little effect on aggressive behavior and can lead to decreased performance in school or on the job.
Which is not one of the 5 personality traits?
a) conscientiousnessb) introversionc) agreeablnessd) openness to new experiencese) neuroticism
Chris wants to become a chef, and practices his skills daily by preparing meals for his family. He probbaly has high:
a) agreeablnessb) openness to new experiencesc) neuroticismd) conscientiousness
Jim and Nick are twin brothers. It's likely that:
a) they will be exempt from an unshared environmentb) both will exhibit similar personality traitsc) the parents personalities have greatly influenced Jim and Nick'sd) there is no correlation
The differences in personality that occur over age are fairly predictable.
Your grandma is 65. It's likely that she is:
a) more neurotic than you areb) more conscientious than you arec) more willing to do something newd) less agreeable than you aree) both a & d
Woah! That fortune cookie describes your personality perfectly: "You can be shy at times, but you love a good laugh"; Wow, whats the likelihood? Either you're really lucky or you fell prone to:
a) specialized personality readingb) deceptionc) projective techniqued) Barnum effect
A test in Cosmogirl that proves what kind of flirter you are is probably:
a) a standardized personality testb) a realistic intrepretation of you as an individualc)an MMPI testd) extremely inaccurate portrayal of you
"I have chest pain several times a week" is an item you'd probably find on:
a) a standardized testb) a Thematic Apperception testc) the Rorschach testd) the MMPI
The MMPI can identify lying.
The Rorschach Inkblot technique is a projective technique.
The Rorscach Inkblot test:
a) has very good ratingsb) has a reliability near 96%c) has serious problemsd) is standardized
The Thematic Apperception test:
a) tests your response to previously encountered stimulib) involves studying an abstract pattern and saying what it looks likec) often involves projecting yourself into the 20 pictures youre asked to tell the story aboutd) is poor at measuring power and affiliation needs
Responding just as quickly to the word "flower" as the word "slaughter" in the implicit association test may mean:
a) you think violence is neither pleasant nor impleasantb) you are an idealistic thinkerc) you dislike slaughter more than flowersd) you crave attention
Criminal profiling has promising results
Anxiety has increased over the decades.
The results from projective techniques:
a) are promisingb) are generally easy to interpretc) are not very predictabled) are quite predictable & difficult to interprete) b & c
What is not a characteristic of a psychological disorder?
a) they suggest severe personal distressb) they are self-defeatingc) they are untreatabled) they are dangerous
The most widely used classification scheme for psychological disorders is:
a) the MMPIb) the DSM-IV-TRc) the Rorschach Inkblots testd) the Thematic Apperception test
Tom is afraid to go into crowds. He has a phobia known as:
a) Ambulophobiab) Agoraphobiac) Social phobiad) Metrophobia
Features of this include autonomic overarousal, excessive vigilance, and motor tension:
a) generalized anxiety disordersb) panic disordersc) acute stress disordersd) psychomotor retardation
Laura wakes up from nightmares about a crash she was involved in 6 months before. She is most likely suffering from:
a) generalized anxiety disorderb) panic disorderc) posttraumatic stress disorderd) acute stress disorder
Phobias symobolize conflicts originating in childhood, according to:
a) the social cognitive theoryb) the psychodynamic perspectivec) the learning theoryd) the biological approach theory
Anxiety disorders tend to run in families.
If you wanted to reduce your anxiety, you might take:
a) Emtricitabineb) Docosanolc) Benzodiazepinesd) Olanzapines
Jane went to work this morning and never returned; 5 days later you find out she's been located in New York and has no idea who you are. She's suffered from:
a) dissociative fugueb) schitzophreniac) conversion disorderd) bipolar disorder
Lindsey insists that she is sick, even though her physicians regard her as healthy. Lindsey has:
a) a conversion disorderb) la belle indifferencec) hypochondriad) major depressive disorder
Bipolar disorder is a type of ________ disorder.
a) personalityb) anxietyc) moodd) dissociative
Women are more likely than men to be diagnosed with depression.
Psychomotor retardation is a symptom of:
a) schizophreniab) conversion disorderc) avoidant personality disorderd) major depression
The dogs given an electric shock in Seligman's experiment on depression exhibited...
a) persistent efforts to escape the shockb) learned helplessnessc) unpredictable behaviord) manic, aggressive behavior
Blaming something on your own personality suggests:
a) stable attributionb) global attributionc) unstable attributiond) internal attribution
Research into depression focuses on underutilization of the neurotransmitter _____ in the brain.
a) melatoninb) estrogenc) dopamined) serotonin
Paranoid, disorganized and catatonic are all types of:
a) schizophreniab) anxiety disordersc) personality disordersd) dissociative disorders
Nathan thinks he's Jesus, really. He's suffering from:
a) a stupor, characteristic of catatonic schizophreniab) delusions, characteristic of paranoid schizophreniac) dissociative identity disorderd) schitzotypal personality disorder
Psychological views of schizophrenia hold that:
a) behavior is the same as infantile behaviorb) it occurs b/c of sexual assault as a childc) it occurs b/c the ego is overwhelmed by sexual or aggressive impulsesd) it occurs b/c the person has been reared in a socially awkward situation
People with schizophrenia have less gray matter, larger ventricles and smaller brains.
Schizophrenia is affected by overutilization of serotonin in the brain.
Personality disorders are inflexible and maladaptive.
Jack has few friends and doesn't care to pursue a relationship. He probably has:
a) schizotypal personality disorderb) schizoid personality disorderc) antisocial personality disorderd) avoidant personality disorder
Many theoretical explanations of personality disorders are derived from the:
a) biological modelb) learning modelc) psychodynamic modeld) socioeconomic model
This type of therapy assumes disorders stem from unresolved, unconscious conflict.
a) cognitiveb) behaviorc) psychodynamicd) humanistic
Jim receives therapy in which he lies on a couch and talks about what's on his mind, using free association. He's experiencing:
a) psychoanalysisb) resistancec) transferenced) client-centered therapy
As a child, James' parents scolded him for crying out. In his psychoanalyst therapy session his therapist offered him a suggestion that went beyond his beliefs. He felt the therapists was scolding him. He's experiencing:
a) wish fulfillmentb) transferencec) interpretationd) resistance
The underlying cause of a dream is known as its:
a) manifest contentb) latent contentc) wish fulfillmentd) frame of reference
Modern therapists using psychodynamic therapies:
a) focus on insight aloneb) emphasize the idc) use directive methodsd) focus on conscious material
Carl goes to therapy where his therapist sits across from him, nods frequently and encourages the patient's goals. Carl goes to:
a) psychodynamic therapyb) behavior therapyc) cognitive therapyd) client-centered therapy
In this type of theory, clients perform exercies to heighten their awareness of their current feelings and behaviors, isntead of exploring the past. This is an example of:
a) client-centered therapyb) psychodynamic therapyc) Gestalt therapyd) Rogers therapy
"The diaogue", "I take responsibility" and "playing the projection" are exercises used in:
Behavior therapists differ from others in that they:
a) don't foster insight into childhood origins of problemsb) believe dreams are the "royal road to the unconsciouness"c) use participating methods as a form of therapyd) tend to avoid building warm, therapeutic relationships
If you have a phobia of flying, you may reduce your fear through a behavioral-therapy process known as:
a) systematic desensitizationb) modelingc) aversive conditioningd) biofeedback training
The "token economy" concept is part of what?
a) modelingb) operant conditioningc) observational learningd) classical conditioning
Instead of studying 2 hours at a time, you build up to it in 20 min intervals. This is an example of:
a) systematic desensitizationb) functional analysisc) hierarchy effectd) successive approximations
Jessica uses a diary to keep track of when she feels depressed and her prior activities leading up to that point. She's using:
a) functional analysisb) internal locus of controlc) biofeedback trainingd) cognitive therapy
Sara's therapist suggests her problems stem from her own thinking and how she selectively perceives her world. She's taking:
a) psychodynamic therapyb) humanistic therapyc) behavior therapyd) cognitive therapy
Thomas went on a date with Chelsea, who doesn't wish to see him again. Thomas just knows he's doomed now to a life of solitude. He engaged in:
a) selective perceptionb) overgeneralizationsc) magnificationd) absolutist thinking
Experiments on therapy methods are generally easy to arrange and control.
The belief that we must have the love and approval of those who are important to us is an example of:
a) selective perceptionb) absolutist thinkingc) irrational beliefsd) humanistic errors
Client-centered therapy fosters insight and self-actualization
Therapy can be successful b/c of nonspecific factors such as the relationship between the client & therapist.
Research on the effectiveness of therapy has been encouraging.
Psychodynamic and client-centered therapies are effective with people with psychotic disorders.
People with schizophrenia are often given:
a) antianxiety drugsb) oxazepemc) antipsychotic drugsd) antidepressants
Antidepressants work by:
a) increasing the concentration of serotonin in the brainb) increasing the concentration of dopamine in the brainc) preventing the reuptake of dopamine in the braind) increasing the activity of an enzyme that breaks down noradrenaline and serotonin.
The severing of a section of the frontal lobe of the brain is known as:
a) electroconvulsive therapyb) prefrontal lobotomyc) psychosurgeryd) both b & c
Cognitive therapy is as effective as, or more effective than, antidepressants.
Client-centered therapy uses a directive approach.
________ is the process of forming impressions of others.
a) judgingb) person perceptionc) attributionsd) stereotyping
Good looking individuals are viewed as more competent than less attractive individuals.
"Dumb jocks" and "conservative jerks" are examples of:
a) social schemasb) discriminationc) stereotypesd) both a & c
James swears that all freshman girls are easy, when in fact he's only met 2 who come off that way. He fell prey to:
a) illusory correlationb) spotlight effectc) external attributionsd) none of these
Sonya failed her chemistry test and you swear its because she didn't do all her homework assignments. You're ascribing the failure of the test to:
a) her specific level of intelligenceb) self-serving biasc) external attributionsd) internal attributions
Observer's bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others behavior is known as:
a) internal attribution biasb) defensive attributionc) fundamental attribution errord) self serving bias
After failing an essay you blame your grade on the strict grading scale, but in truth the professor felt your arguments in the paper were weak. You fell prey to:
a) self-serving biasb) actor-observer biasc) defensive attributiond) hindsight bias
Similarity in personality is a key determining factor in interpersonal attraction.
Jack and Mary have been together for 6 weeks and believe they are completely in love. Sure, they fight often, but they quickly make up. They can't get enough of each other. They have:
a) passionate loveb) compassionate lovec) companionate loved) intimacy
Someone who finds it difficult to trust their partner and who doesn't like being very close to them probably had parents who:
a) were supportive & responsiveb) fought with each otherc) were inconsistent in their reactions to the childd) were unresponsive and distant
Men are generally more interested in seeking youthfulness and physical attractiveness b/c:
a) of social demandsb) of reinforcement by their buddiesc) of testosteroned) of evolution
Mate poaching, when someone tries to attract another person who is already in a relationship, occurs more often in men than women.
Saying that abortion makes you angry is an example of:
a) cognitive attitude componentb) behavioral attitude componentc) affective attitude componentd) global attitude component
Celebrity endorsements are an example of:
a) evaluative conditioningb) classical conditoningc) operant conditioningd) both a & be) both a & c
In Festinger & Carlsmith's study on attitude change, the participants who were given $1 to lie rated the task __________ than those who given $20 to lie.
a) more enjoyableb) less enjoyablec) equally enjoyabled) less worthwhile
This occurs when people yield to real or imagined social pressure:
a) spotlight effectb) social roletakingc) obedienced) conformity
John has frequent seizures, but he feels safe going to the fair because it's true that lots of people will stop and help him if he's in trouble.
Group polarization involves widening the gap between factions in a group.
Social loafing is inevitable.
The results of the Stanford Prison Stimulation, in which participants were told to act like guards and abuse the "prisoners" if need be, were:
a) proof that the fundamental character of humans is peacefulb) shocking because of the disobedience of the guards to do as they were toldc) eye opening because of the tyrannical way the guards actedd) disproving of social roles
The type of ability displayed by gifted musicians is said to be what kind of intelligence?
True or false:
The knowledge possesed by scientists and superior problem solvers is known as logical mathmatical intelligence.
True or False:
If you have spatial intelligence you are a great mathmatician.
If you can easily infer others' moods, temperaments, or intentions then you have superior interpersonal intelligence.
An achievement test measure the ability to learn in a particular area.
What is predictive validity?
Why is the standardization of testing important?
Why is the IQ score useful?
Are the IQ's for twins similar?
True of False:
If your IQ is above 100, you are said to be gifted.
What enables us to adapt to ever-changing environments?
a) expertiseb) problem-solvingc) intelligenced) attention
The use of psychological tests to measure intelligence is known as what:
a) psychometricsb) heuristicsc) longitudinal studiesd) heritability
The natural/biological ability to solve problems, reason and remember is known as _______ intelligence.
Who argued that the traditional conception of intelligence needs to be broadened to include special abilities or talents?
a) Sternbergb) Galtonc) Gardnerd) Flynn
The 3 types of intelligence, according to Sternberg's Triarchic theory, are:
a) emotional, cognitive, creativeb) emotional, practical, analyticalc) analytical, emotional, cognitived) analytical, creative, practical
A(n) ________ test measures your ability to learn or acquire knowledge in a particular subject.
Conceptualizing intelligence simply in terms of adaptability tells us much about what accounts for individual differences.
A procedure for analyzing the relationships, or correlations, among test scores is known as what?
a) heuristicsb) aptitude testc) factor analysisd) psychometrics
What does the "g" factor measure?
a) specific intelligenceb) general intelligence
The components of a good test include all of the following except:
a) accuracyb) reliabilityc) validityd) standardization
Construct validity refers to...
a) the measure of the consistency of the test resultsb) the degree to which the content of a test variesc) the degree to which the test predicts the outcome accuratelyd) how well a test applies to a particular theoretical scheme
How do you calculate IQ?
a) chronological age DIVIDED BY mental age, times 100b) mental age DIVIDED BY chronological age, times 100c) neither
Your friend has a deviation IQ of 125 from other people her age. This means she is:
a) below averageb) averagec) above averaged) a sevant
The normal IQ ranges from:
a) 65-115b) 80-120c) 70-130d) 75-125
The ability to generate ideas that are original, novel & useful are characteristics of:
a) functional intelligenceb) cognitive intelligencec) analytical intelligenced) creativity
Tacit knowledge (practical knowledge about how to perform well on the job) bears little relationship to the "g", or general intelligence factor.
Crystallized intelligence may decline with age, but fluid intelligence is said to remain constant.
Who termed the phrase: "nature vs. nurture"?
To establish a genetic basis for a psychological or physical characteristic, you must control for the effects of the environment.
The IQ scores of identical twins:
a) vary, depending on the environmentb) are quite similar, regardless of the environmentc) generally tend to be either above or below averaged) vary, regardless of the environment
Heritability, which measures the role genetic factors play in producing intelligence differences, applies only to individuals.
Your African American friend has just taken a test that was said to measure general intelligence instead of just problem solving. Now he's worrying about the results. He has suffered from:
a) test biasb) stereotype threatc) heritabilityd) all of these
African American children reared in economically advantaged White households tend to hold _____ IQs than the national African American mean score.
a) the sameb) significantly lowerc) significantly higherd) slightly higher
Intelligence is mainly determined by...
a) genesb) the environmentc) a mixture of (a) and (b)d) social/ethnic/emotional skills
What do current models of selective attention emphasize?
What are stored at the preconscious level?
What stage does sleepwalking usually occur in?
What are the 4 basic categories of drugs?
The process of thinking, gaining knowledge and dealing with knowledge is known as?
a) learningb) cognitionc) understandingd) studying
We naturally organize items into hierarchies.
If someone asks you to think of a person named "Holly", it's likely that your next thought will be that of the Holly bush, will might remind you of Christmas time, and then Christmas trees, and baking cookies, and so forth...
This is an example of:
a) multiple attention allocation b) preattentive processesc) spreading activationd) generative thinking
The frequent failure to detect changes in part of a scene is known as:
a) shifting attentionb) the attentional blinkc) preattentive processd) change blindness
A brief period of time after perceiving a stimulus during which it is difficult to attend to another stimulus is known as:
You and your friend are playing slapjack, and you just slapped a jack--hardly one second later the next card is flipped over and it's another jack, but this time you're not so quick to respond and your friend slaps it before you realize what happened. This is most like:
a) the attentional blinkb) the change blindness phenomenonc) a shift in attentiond) the spreading activation theory
Experts are usually born with some creative talent that is naturally manifested as they get older.
Expertise requires about how many years of concentrative practice?
a) 2b) 8c) 10d) 20
The ability to look at a pattern and recognize its important features quickly is a characteristic of:
a) Wernicke's aphasiab) Expertisec) Cognitive developmentd) Attentive processing
Which of these is not a phase of problem solving?
a) testing the hypothesisb) understanding the problemc) gathering a good research participant groupd) checking the results
You and a friend are playing chess, and it's your turn to move. You have 5 minutes to move, and in that time you consider every possible move and finally come to the best one. You have used...
a) an algorithmb) a heuristicc) creativity
You are taking a test that is going to help determine your career path. You are doing this based on what?
a) heuristicsb) algorithmsc) base-rate info d) categorization
Whenever we face a new problem, we must devise a new solution instead of relying on a memorized or practiced solution.
Creativity is basically the same thing as expertise.
Your friend is holding a small grapefruit, but you're not really paying too much attention. You see from a distance that its orange and round, so you assume its an orange. You fell prey to what?
a) representative heuristicb) availability heuristic
You decide to drive your own car instead of getting on the bus, because you assume riding the bus is more dangerous (only poor, homeless people ride the bus, right?); but actually, buses have a lower accident rate than cars. You've fallen prey to the:
The tendency to accept one hypothesis and then look for evidence to support it is known as:
a) representative heuristicb) availability heuristicc) functional fixednessd) confirmation bias
Assuming something only goes a certain way without considering other approaches is known as:
You go to the football game because you paid for it even though it's cold and rainy and you'd honestly rather not go. This is an example of:
a) confirmation biasb) functional fixednessc) sunk cost effectd) availability heuristic
The ability to express new ideas is known as:
a) creativityb) productivityc) intelligenced) cognitive reasoning
The system for converting a deep structure (underlying logic or meaning of a sentence) into a surface structure (the actual sentence) is known as what?
a) fixational grammarb) transformational grammarc) language acquisition deviced) productivity
This is characterized by inarticulate speech and difficulties using and understanding grammatical devices (video in class)
a) Wernicke's aphasiab) Broca's aphasia
Children who are exposed to as much language as possible may have an increased vocabulary but not an accelerated rate of progression through the stages.
By what age can a child speak like an adult?
a) 3 yearsb) 3.5 yearsc) 4 yearsd) 4.5 yearse) 6 years
A child who doesn't learn a language while young is permanently impaired at learning one.
When we're reading a page of print, are our eyes moving in a jerky or smooth fashion?
While reading, quick eye movements are known as:
a) fixationsb) saccades
We can only see during fixations, not during saccades.
The difficulty of selectively attending to the colors of the ink instead of the color spelled out is known as what?
a) color-blindness effectb) change-blindness effectc) Stroop effectd) blindsight effect
Our single pool of attentional resources can be divided among multiple tasks.
What 2 main purposes does consiousness serve?
a) monitoring and explainingb) monitoring and controllingc) controlling and explainingd) controlling and predicting
Reading is an automatic process, not readily subject to consious control.
Where are automatic behaviors stored?
a) preconsious levelb) subconsious levelc) relaxed wakefulnessd) consious level
This involves the ability to detect information without realizing it:
a) awarenessb) blindsightc) subliminal perceptiond) subconsious detection
How many neurotransmitters are there responsible for sleep?
a) 0b) 1c) 2d) indeterminable
What are the 2 main possibilities as to why we sleep?
a) preservation & protectionb) restoration & preservationc) restoration & protectiond) adaptation & protection
The process of restoring our depleted resources and dissipating accumulated wastes is known as:
a) restorationb) preservation
Circadian rhythms are biological cycles that repeat every ____ hours.
a) 8b) 16c) 24d) 25
As people acclimiate to an environment without time cues, their subjective days average how many hours?
The view that sleep is chemically induced has been conclusively supported.
During what period of sleep do we normally exhibit alpha waves?
a) relaxed wakefulnessb) Stage 1c) Stage 2d) REM sleep (Stage 5)e) a & d
Which stage of sleep is most like relaxed wakefulness?
a) Stage 1b) Stage 2c) Stage 3d) Stage 4e) Stage 5
Dreams are only associated with REM sleep.
What kind of waves characterize deep sleep?
a) alphab) betac) thetad) delta
Difficulty falling asleep, waking up during the night or waking up too early in the morning is known as what?
a) relaxed wakefulnessb) sleep apneac) insomniad) narcolepsy
The uncontrollable urge to fall asleep periodically during the day is known as what?
a) narcolepsyb) sleep apneac) relaxed wakefulnessd) insomnia
Narcoleptics can lose consiousness for how long during a sudden sleeping spell?
a) 1-2 minutesb) 10-15 minutesc) 30-45 minutesd) 1-2 hours
Somnambulism is also known as what...
a) narcolepsyb) sleep apneac) narcoticsd) sleepwalking
We all have dreams every night.
What belief is that dreams result from subjective organization and interpretation of neural activity?
a) problem-solving viewb) activation-synthesis viewc) none of the above
These are anxiety-arousing dreams...Children are more susceptible than adults.
a) night terrorsb) nightmares
The stimulating paradigm is a research technique for determining the effects of what?
a) meditationb) drug usec) sleep deprivationd) hypnosis
Which is not a factor determining the ease of hypnosis in an individual?
a) social factorsb) skill of hypnotistc) effectiveness of procedured) what the individual is being asked to doe) the individual's age
The state of awareness that depends on techniques for altering consiousness through contemplation is known as:
a) dreamingb) meditationc) hypnosisd) relaxed wakefulness
Which is not a basic drug category?
a) autonomic nervous system depressants b) central nervous system depressantsc) hallucinogensd) narcotics
Dependency on narcotics occurs because narcotics mimic neurotransmitters in the way they act at ____________ .
a) the thalamusb) the hypothalamusc) the synapsesd) the cortexe) the preconsious level
Which category of drug is charcterized by pain relief, relaxation & sleepiness?
a) narcoticsb) central nervous system depressantsc) central nervous system stimulantsd) hallucinogens
Opium is a...
a) narcoticb) depressantc) stimulantd) hallucinogen
The most widely used and most well known CNS depressant is...
Withdrawl from chronic intoxication of this type of drug may include convulsions, hallucinations and death.
Amphetamines, which stimulate the release of neurotransmitters into brain synapses, are a type of what?
The most powerful natural stimulant is...
Tobacco is a type of...
a) stimulantb) depressantc) narcoticd) hallucinogen
This type of drug interferes with the transmission of serotonin in the brain.
Marijuana is a...
Physical symptoms like tremors and creeping of the skin, and perceptual symptoms such as hallucinations and an altered sense of time can occur after taking which hallucinogen?
a) marijaunab) ecstacyc) LSDd) PCP
what are the 3 stages of prenatal development
what is the sensorimotor stage
what is the major criticism of kohlbergs theory of moral development
what is an example of a predictive hypothesis
what are examples of quasi-experiments
how does chunking information help us remember
how is priming used to reveal implicit memories
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