Unconscious personality component that is driven by a pleasure principle. (Selfish)
Conscious personality component that operates by a reality principle. It tries to compromise.
Personality component that acts as a ?watchdog?- suppressing drives as hard as the id pushes them.
Define Ego Defense Mechanisms
Your psyche is in constant conflict, never fully at peace. The go must reduce anxiety using various defense mechanisms (unconsciously). However, different personalities rely on different defense mechanisms.
Define the ego defense mechanism Repression (common).
You push painful thoughts into the unconscious mind. You "forget.?
Define the ego defense mechanism Rationalization.
You justify your actions or ideas. ?I only cheated once because??
Define the ego defense mechanism Projection.
You unconsciously attribute your own motivations to others. (Instead of admitting ?I hate him? you say ?Well, he hates me.?)
Define the ego defense mechanism Displacement.
You vent frustrations against non-threatening targets. (child abuse, etc)
Define the ego defense mechanism Reaction Formation.
You act in a manner opposite to your true feelings. (If you have a
crush you might act hostile towards them.)
Define the ego defense mechanism Sublimination.
You spend your ?bad? energy on socially acceptable activities. (To quit
smoking you chew gum.)
Define the ego defense mechanism denial.
You refuse to accept reality.
Developed a theory, focusing on social needs, not sexual urges. People
strive for power, money, admiration, etc.
Developed a "wacky? theory. We strive to achieve spiritual enlightenment.
Share a collective unconscious.
Created a feminist theory to Freud?s "penis envy.?
Created Humanistic Psychology; proposed that people are basically good.
Took Carl Rogers idea but claimed that strive to become self
actualized. (this is not well defined)
Define Cognitive-Behavioral Approach:.
Personality is shaped by learning NOT hidden conflicts
What are the three main assumptions of the "Trait Based Approach"?
1) Basic personality traits are relatively stable and predictable over time. 2) Basic personality traits are relatively stable across the situation. 3) People have various traits to different degrees. This creates endless variety.
How can you measure the traits?
The Big 5! 1. Extroversion (loner joiner) 2. Agreeableness(ruthless softhearted) 3. Conscientiousness(lazy hard working) 4. Neuroticism (calm worried) 5. Openness to Experiences (uncurious curious)
What are the pros of the Big 5 approach?
It provides a nice system for describing a person.
What are the cons of the Big 5 approach?
It does little to actually explain the personality.
What are the two main methods of Personality Assessment?
Objective tests, which are the most reliable, and projective tests which are less reliable.
What are objective tests?
Standard Tests (always administered and scored the same way) MMPI is widely used. It contains 550 True/false items.
What are projective tests?
-Not so standardized -People try to interpret ambiguous images. This provides clues about the person. -The Rorschach ink blot test -The Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT) is similar to Rorschach but with pictures and you need to make up a story about the images. -Less rigid than standardized tests but the answers people give are super hard to interpret!
We have countless attitudes and ideas about people, places, and products. Most of the time, people are not fully honest or aware of our attitudes.
Define Cognitive Dissonance
-Sometimes, people behave inconsistently with their sttitudes. -Theory, developed byFestinger. o Def: A feeling of anxiety that comes over you when behaviors and attitudes conflict. CD atypically arises when you freely allow.
What are two types of conformity?
1. Public Conformity: may give a socially desirable answer 2. Private Acceptance: you may actually be convince by the group.
What are reasons for conforming?
-Ambiguity: If uncertain you are more likely to conform -Unanimity of majority: if everyone else agrees, you are more likely to conform. -Size of majority: the larger the group, you are more likely. -Gender: had NO difference.
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