categories and rules people use to classify physical environment
Natural resources (soils, water, game & plants) and conditions (seasonality, temperature, disasters & diseases)
how groups adapt to an area by Darwinian model. ex - short, stout eskimos of cold climates compared to tall, lanky maasai of hot areas.
technology, group cooperation and social learning. Has helped humans to come to live on every environment on the earth.
Cultural ecology or Ecological Anthropology
the study of the way people use their culture to adapt to particular environments, the effects they have on their natural surrounding, and the impact of the environment on shaping that culture.
A form of cultural adaptation
Also known as livelihood systems, includes hunting/gathering/foraging, agriculture, herding/pastoralism and industrialism.
Hunting and Gathering
A traditional subsistence strategy that involves foraging. Allows for great security and much leisure time and creates a generally egalitarian society. Sustainable living.
A subsistence strategy that involves herding animals
An abundance of wealth
Original Affluent Society
A term for hunter/gatherers' societies used because the people are wealthy in comfort, security and ease of life where material goods are a burden instead of an indicator of wealth.
Ahimsa / Sacred Cows
A practice in India meaning "non violence, cause no pain" in which cows are not eaten or killed. (On the surface it seems as though the starving people should eat the cows, when in reality the Indian economic system depends on them.)
A sustainable form of agriculture in which slash and burn techniques are used in combination with fishing and hunting.
growing many types of crops simultaneously to prevent from erosion, nutrient depletion of the soil, variety of diet, success of crops, etc.
A livelihood system in which there is no depletion of natural resources and the environment remains unchanged.
An economy in which people produce only what they themselves can consume or trade for the resources they need to survive.
An economy in which people produce for the market and earn money to buy what they need and want.
A black market in which things are bought and sold illegaly, exists only in capitalist economies.
Refers to the process of rendering material items useful for human consumption (foraging, agriculture, industry).
Allocation of goods and services
transfer of goods and services between 2 people or groups based on role obligation (ie gift giving)
tranfser of goods or services between 2 people or groups for a commonly accepted currency
exchanges made based on strengthening relationships
exchanges of necklaces and armbands in the Trobriand society with the purpose of strengthening relationships with those on other islands.
A practice of abundant gift giving practiced in place of violence by which disputes are solved.
A large gift consisting of pigs, money and other valuables given from one tribe to another in Kawelka society by a headman.
An economic system originating in medival Europe, consisting of producing goods for a market.
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