What did Mussolini and Hitler have in common?
Both right wing, fascist (cooperation, national level)
What was different about Stalin compared to Mussolini and Hitler?
Left wing, class background important, communist
What is the top priority of fascism?
Power (get and then remain), will change ideology to get power
What are some beliefs of fascism?
Antidemocratic, believe democracy is weak, believe in firm, authoritarian, 1 man state to look out for all and unquestioned authority, hate communists, highly nationalistic – easy way to get support is to appeal based on nationalism
What are tactics used by fascists?
Rule by fear and terror to make people afraid to oppose
What do fascists really desire?
Win over hearts and minds, want to be respected, loved, & believed in (use propaganda, control what info gets out to public)
What are the different views of communists and fascists?
F: nationalistic, class conflict
C: world-wide, class separation
How did Mussolini get power?
Gov got sick of him complaining, so eventually gave in, knew had a lot to repair so gave him his change and would continue fixing when he gave up
What was the good and bad side of the lateran treaty?
Gained the support of the Italian people, but hurt the economy, paid for land already owned
How did the Lateran treaty emphasize the workings of fascism?
Mussolini only focused on immediate praise, did not look at long-term consequences
What was the next attempt by Mussolini to regain popularity?
Conquest of Ethiopia, use military to gain support, but failed and nationally embarrassed, so uses all weapons (tanks, aerial bombing) despite that Ethopians only had spears, humanitarian embarrassment that League of Nations should have stepped in, no support for Mussolini
Why was Stalin the least likely to take over after Lenin?
Only part of circle, reputation for doing dirty job s and well, looked down upon
How did Stalin gain control?
Appointed general secretary of as no one wanted that position, managed to make it the most powerful position in the country, establishes filing system and hiring of bureaucracy->can hire and fire all, see almost all documents, know all, aimed to blackmail others after Lenin’s death
How does Stalin gain credibility?
Distribute misinfo propaganda, portrayed self as successor picked by Lenin
What often occurs in a time of crisis? Where was this seen?
Voters turn to opposite party, seen when turned to Nazi’s
Why also did voters turn to Hitler?
Emphasized nationalism, good at suggesting can undo situation
What did Hitler do once he gained office?
Destroyed democracy, established dictatorship
How did Hitler justify move to repress communists?
Frame as criminal who burned Germany’s parliamentary building, said communists attempting to come to power
What was occurring in Russia that tied in with communists repression in Germany?
Stalin starving Russians, but blame communists, Nazi demanded parliament pass Enabling act: part of process to create evil image of communism and how waiting to strike, Hitler granted extra power to deal with threat
How did Hitler’s anti-Semitic measures begin?
When he was denied acceptance to art academy, he blamed in on two jews on board -> not entitled citizens of Germany, unequal race
What did Hitler believe about the Jews?
Part of global group to control policies, believed not nationalists, not loyal to country, only their group, began laying discriminatory laws – no one is to have sexual relationships with a Jew
What was a benefit to having Hitler?
40% unemployment to 8-10% during Hitler’s time, Audubon built, could solve the nation’s ills
How does Hitler cause aggression in Europe?
Repudiates Treaty of Versailles, publicly announced rebuilding of Germany’s army above restrictions, then sends troops into demilitarized zone (western border of Germany, by France), BR and FR become very upset, decided upon “Policy of Appeasement” to avoid war, allow Hitler’s attempts within reason, but Hitler pushes more when demands lands given to other countries after WWI, agree would give him Czech back, but no more territorial ambitions. Hitler takes whole country. BR and FR warn will respond with force, Hitler wanted Poland. BR and FR made agreement with Poland that if Hitler attacks, they will help Poland. When Hitler invades, WWII begins in Europe.
What were the two alliances in WWII?
Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan (knew Germany saw them as inferior, best opportunities to gain territories claimed by BR and FR in Asian Pacific on side with Axis (enemy of my enemy is my friend)).
Allies: BR, China, FR (USSR and US later)
How did the Nazi’s conquer Poland?
With Blitzkrieg strategy
What is the Blitzkrieg strategy?
Throw everything at enemies, all resource tool overwhelm them, to get to surrender sooner (navy blockades, subs)
What is the purpose of the Blitzkrieg?
To prevent two front war on Germany, not fight anywhere long enough for that to occur, keep moving along quickly, no opportunity for others to attack
Why wouldn’t the Blitzkrieg work on Britain?
An island, so have to establish aerial supremacy before invasion can be launched.
Why did the Nazi’s fail at conquering Britain?
Hitler changed plans, instead of hitting target with aerial, decided to bomb civilians to intimidate Br people to pressure gov to surrender, but Br more determined not to give in, as Germany not bombing, Br air force able to recuperate and Germany must give up
Where does Hitler turn next?
USSR because always wanted to conquer b/c hatred between fascist and communists and bring all territory under Germany
Why was Hitler successful at first at invading Russia?
Because of Stalin’s purges
How does Japan upset Am?
Turns attempts on Philippines, territory of Am as well as colonies of BR and FR and other us territories in Pacific
How does Am respond?
Restrict flow of military-related goods exported to Japan, complete embargo of military goods
How did the US have Japan in a catch 22?
US will not send goods unless Japan ends conquests, but need to conquest to get goods, but that will start war with US
How does Japan start war on US? Why?
Pearl Harbor, banking on taking of navy with island, Am will decide not worth rebuilding and give some goods back; know if go to war Am will win, but if surprise will prevent war, goods in exchange for peace
Why did Hitler’s anti-Semitic policies escalate?
Gained more territory, along with it came more Jews, and thus more fear by Hitler
What is Hitler’s first systematic containment policy?
Force all Jews to starve in ghettos
What change did Hitler make when he felt the Jews were not dying fast enough in ghettos?
What leads to the facturalization of Mao’s government?
After failure of Great Leap Forward, some officials think Mao should start listening to them, become upset
How does the facturalization lead to the Cultural Revolution?
Mao feels undermined, stated felt need to educate and enthuse people about communism, internalize and fully support his system, actually which to neutralize questioning moderates and reconsolidate position, full power, no questions
What leads Mao to end this campaign?
When chaos erupts between enforcers and citizens
What is the “Final Solution” for Hitler?
After the battle of Stalingrad, what were the allies waiting for?
Br and Am to launch second front on Germany, occur on D-Day
How does the war end in Asia?
US victory at Midway, steady advance across ocean to Japan, bombing campaigns, achieved surrender by dropping atomic bombs
How many more causalities occurred in WWII vs. WWI?
WWI: 10-15 million overall, 1-1.5 civilians
WWII: 50 million dead, 22-23 million soldiers, 27-28 million civilians
Why was the US and USSR not on the same side in the Cold War as in WWII?
Iron Curtain: soviets in charge of Eastern Europe, Stalin still trying to manipulate political systems in Eastern states, remain independent, but take orders from USSR. As a result, BR and FR form iron curtain, drawing western countries together; Stalin criticizing Am for manipulating west Europe, cited billions given to countries after war, accuse of buying countries off
Why was the Berlin Wall built?
Stalin saw the fleeing of many eastern Germans to West Berlin, wanted to prevent losing citizens.
What was the aim of the women’s rights movement after the Cold War?
Rights in workplace and upper management positions, reproductive right (maternity leave, childcare)
What occurred and was the purpose of the European integration?
Establish common currency, no boarder checks, no one European state as powerful as used to be, so join together to have greater influence
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