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Role of experience (1st powerful speaker to disagree with his teacher and innate/ inborn theory)
a. Learning and observable events (easier to record—don’t need to interact with subject
a. “Something” is true if it works (working truth criterion—William James) ex. taxes
a. Identify the physical, environmental events that produce behavior change
b. Simple in that it uses a small number of behavioral principles
Simple but useful in that it yields successful applications
· accounts for behavior by studying cognitive processes such as the way a person attends to, interprets, and uses available information
“ A change in behavior due to experience.”
amount without errors.
a. E.g., multiplication problem Motivation to start the problem
· the variable being manipulated by the researcher; usually some sort of experience or environmental event
o Part of the experiment that is being CHANGED
o Hours studied, cups of coffee consumed
·variables that are allowed to vary freely; usually some kind of behavior
o Variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
o an experiment in which a group of experimental subjects is compared with a control group of individuals who have been treated identically in every way except that they haven't received the experimental manipulation.
o Participants exposed to different levels of the DV
o an experiment in which the same set of subjects is compared before and after an experimental manipulations and the subjects serves as their own controls
o Experience all levels of the IV
· The control that makes the experiment seem artificial is necessary to isolate the effects of the IVs; more complicated behavior would be realistic but less revealing
· They allow us to better see the impact of the IV/determine the causal relationship b/t variables
· You can obtain exactly the participants you want: age, sex, species, genes, hereditary, etc.
· Phenomena can be studied for long periods of time (years, species' lifetime)
· Complete control intra- & extra-experimentally
·what reflex response occurs as a RESULT of conditioning
salivation to metronome
· The procedure of pairing a neutral stimulus with a well-established CS
· ex. wasp stings you so you're afraid of wasps and then this gang of wasps all hangs out around a trash can so you become afraid of trash cans
· CS occurs alone (i.e., w/o the US)
· Must be: (1) novel, and (2) without feedback
· They help determine whether or not learning has occurred
· the CS and the US overlap (the US appears before the CS has disappeared)
o Example - hearing thunder before lightening has disappeared from view
·the CS and US coincide exactly (both stimuli begin and end at the same time)Example - ringing a bell and puffing air into the eye at exactly the same time
·The CS follows the US
o Example - puff of air into the eye and THEN the buzzer
· refers to the closeness in time or space between 2 events; in Pavlovian conditioning, contiguity usually refers to the interval between the CS and the US
·Occurs when 2 stimuli are presented together but only one becomes the CS
--Ex. More likely to develop aversion to stronger-tasting food item than to a milder-tasting item that was consumed at same meal
·Intensity - strong stimuli overshadows weak stimuli (ex. loud tone and dim light, dim light will be overshadowed by loud tone)
·Species differences (pigeons notice visual stimuli more than auditory; rats notice auditory more than visual)
·Failure of a CR to appear as a result of prior presentation of the CS in the absence of US
-The more the CS is presented before conditioning, the more likely it is that the subject will pay less attention to it than if it had not been previously presented.
· A stimulus will become a CS more rapidly if it has been paired with another stimulus that has since become a CS paired with a US
· 1. Pair 2 neutral stimuli (flash of light & bell ring)
· 2. Pair one of the neutral stimuli (bell ring) with the UCS of food
· 3.Then the light flash alone will elicit salivation, thought the light flash & food were never directly paired
·ITI=inter-trial interval; the gap between successive trials (where 1 trial = 1 pairing of CS/US)longer ITIs are more effective than shorter ITIs; best ITI = 20-30 sec
---McDonalds has successfully used classical conditioning on almost the entire world to associate their golden arch logo with hunger for food.
--Every present day advertisements use classical conditioning to pair their product (US) with a certain behavior response (CR)
The tendency to blame food for illness, even if the food had nothing to do with the illness, is called the Garcia Effect. John Garcia gave rats a radiation treatment that made them sick after they drank sweetened water in a red-lighted room. He found that after getting sick the rats would then avoid sweetened water, but they would not avoid red light.
--Task difficulty varies with species
--learning to walk a balance beam vs. learning to walk a tightrope
Depend on a number of variables including: degree of contingency, contiguity, reinforcer characteristics, task characteristics, motivation operations
spontaneous recovery (operant behavior)
-- Extinction often increases frequency of emotional behavior- particuarly aggression.
RENWAL (operant behavior)
if a student's inappropriate comments are suddenly ignored by the teacher, the student may initially increase her rate or volume of inappropriate comments. The student's increase in behaviors can be thought of as "trying harder" to get the teacher's attention. If the teacher's attention (reinforcement) is consistently withheld, then the student's inappropriate comments will eventually decrease.
Why extinction-induced response variability is important for organisms to learn new behaviors?
positive vs negative punishment
•punishment, when properly used, can have very beneficial effects
•punishment is powerful
•punishment is fast
•can reduce frequency of punished behavior & have positive side effects
•for example, autistic & retarded people who injure themselves become more outgoing and seem to happier after the self-injurious behavior has been suppressed with punishment
-- A fixed ratio schedule refers to applying the reinforcement after a specific number of behaviors. Spanking a child if you have to ask him three times to clean his room is an example. The problem is that the child (or anyone for that matter) will begin to realize that he can get away with two requests before he has to act. Therefore, the behavior does not tend to change until right before the preset number
Rich- reinforcer is easily obtained.
Lean- reinforcer is difficult to obtain.
Functional Communication Training (form of DRA)
•e.g., signing and not biting
•Desirable forms of communication
•E.g., children using cards that are signs for certain things; PECS
shaping desired behavior (usually works best with immediate reinforcement) -- animal does good behavior, you click, and give them a reward; pretty soon the click alone is a reward
•Elephants at the zoo need to have their calluses cut off every now and then. One particular elephant is very aggressive, so the trainer had a large steel gate built in the park with a hole large enough for an elephants foot. He shaped the desired behavior.
•A --> SR
A=sit B=roll over C= shake fading
oMust reinforce right after the behavior so that the animal does not get confused with what behavior you are reinforcing
to explain a person's behavior in terms of:
· An application of operant conditioning that involves earning tokens for performing desired behaviors, which can then be exchanged for positive reinforcers.
· Positive behaviors all earn points, which can be exchanged for rewards within a point system, appropriate (positive) behaviors earn points
· Inappropriate (negative) behaviors result in the loss of points-aka response cost component of system
Seligman was interested to see if the tone that sounded were already a CS for fear, might the dog jump the barrier and avoid shock on the 1st trial. The results shocked everyone bc the dog didn’t attempt to escape the shock at all. This was phenomenon was then called learned helplessness bc the inescapable shock seemed to teach the dogs to do nothing, to be helpless. Like Seligman’s dogs, many depressed people simply endure their pain and do nothing.
Introduced children to a clown named Bobo. Bobo spit out marbles at fixed intervals regardless of what the children did. Researchers told children that “sometimes Bobo will give marbles” and that they should take any marbles Bobo might provide and put them in a box. When they had collected enough marbles, they would be able to trade them for a toy. Found that 7 out of the 12 children developed superstitions. Some sucked their thumbs, swung their hips back and forth, and touched Bobo or kissed him on the nose.
A problem is a situation in which reinforcement is available, but the behavior necessary to produce it is not.
Taught pigeons (a) to push a small box toward a green spot that was placed at various points in the chamber (b) to climb on a box that was already beneath a toy banana. In addition, each bird spent time with the banana until the bird neither jumped nor flew toward the banana. Researchers hung they toy banana from the ceiling out of reach of the pigeon and placed the box elsewhere in the chamber. Researchers didn’t train the bird to push the box toward the banana. Solution appeared in each of the three birds in about a minute.
Explanation: Epstein’s experiment demonstrates that insightful problem solving is largely the product of a particular learning history. The solution appeared suddenly after a period of “contemplation” as is supposed to happen in insightful problem solving. Insight depended on the reinforcement of previous separate behaviors required for a solution.
o A- Antecedent (discriminative) stimulus
o B-Behavior (response)
o C- Consequence (reinforcer, punisher)
Is the tendency for behaviors to occur in situations different from the one in which the behavior was learned. Sometimes defined more narrowly as the tendency to respond to stimuli not present during training.
Ex. In Pavlovian Cond. A dog may learn to salivate to the sound of a tuning fork vibrating at 1000 cycles per second. After this training, the dog may then be found to salivate to the sound of a tuning fork vibrating at 950 cps to 1100 cps even though it was never exposed to these stimuli. The CR spreads or generalizes to stimuli somewhat different from the CS.
Ex. In pav. disc training one stimulus (designated CS+) is regularly paired with a US, and another stimulus (designated CS-) regularly appears alone. We might put food into a dog’s mouth each time a buzzer sounds and give the dog nothing when a bell rings. Result will be that the dog will salivate at the sound of the buzzer but not at the sound of the bell. The dog discriminates between the buzzer and the bell and behaves diff in diff situations.
Ex. Training- one stimulus (designated S+ or Sd) typically indicates that a behavior will have reinforcing consequences, and another stimulus (S-) indicates the behavior will not have reinforcing consequences. A rat receives food each time it presses a lever, but only if a lamp is on. Result will be that when the lamp is on (S+), the rat presses the lever, and when the lamp is off (S-) it does not press. Rat discriminates between light on and light off and behaves differently in the two situations.
Describe generalization gradients following training with reinforcement and extinction.
· The effects of reinf. generalize, but so do the effects of extinction and punishment. Generalization is not limited to reinforced behavior; changes in behavior produced by extinction and punishment also spread beyond the training situation (extinction of one tone generalized to tones that resembled the extinguished)
Learned behavior sometimes generalizes on the basis of an abstract feature
In a study by Razran he had 3 adults chew gum etc to make them salivate. As they ate, they watched the words style, urn, freeze, etc flash on a screen. Then he presented the words alone and collected saliva in cotton balls, the heavier the cotton the stronger the CR. Then words that were either homophones or synonyms were introduced. Result: There was even more generalization based on word meanings rather than based on the sounds. Racial prejudice involves semantic generalization.
under behavior of some sort of relationship between the stimuli (stimuli relation); behavior is under, the relation of the stimuli in relation to one another;
•relation depends on what the stimuli are ... “lighter than,” “louder than,” “fewer than”
•in the example on the powerpoint slide, it is picking “fewer than”
Describe the procedures and results related to transposition. Discuss transposition in the context of generalization.
•Initial training involves simultaneous presentation of S+ and S- (stimuli are presented at the same time/concurrently)
•The S+ is “correct” (associated with reinforcement) and the S- is “wrong” (no reinforcement); both stimuli presented at once
•Generalization may involve the spread of a learned relation
-if they pecked the RED key they were CORRECT (S+)
-if they pecked the GREEN key they were INCORRECT (S-)
-if they pecked the GREEN key they were CORRECT (S+)
-if they pecked the RED key they were INCORRECT(S-)
Present (as probes) novel Picasso and Monet paintings
Presence or absence of drug
o Interoceptive stimulus control- Internal dug effects (e.g. increased heart rate)
o Exteroceptive stimulus control- External drug effects (e.g. wobbling, sweating)
The S+ and S- alternate randomly. When the S+ appears, the behavior is reinforced; when the S- appears the behavior is on extinction. Ex. Rat placed in a chamber with a lever. Above the lever is a disk that can be illuminated by either of two bulbs, one red and one green. When the disk is red, lever pressing produces food, whenever it is green, lever pressing has no effect.
o S+ and S- always presented together
--e.g. to teach a kid what a circle is (have another shape present so that they can compare)
--response to S+ produces reinforcer (if S-, then nothing).
Matching to sample
- MTS but sample absent when comparison stimuli are presented after a short delay
Mismatching- a bird may be required to peck a disk different from the sample.
•goal is discrimination without errors
•an error is operationally defined as a response to S-•stimulus encouraging a response to S+
•Slow and systematic removal of prompts
DOE Improved performance in discrimination training as a result of different consequences for different behaviors. Ex. Distinguishing which lever produces reinforcement with a tone or a click. One group always produced one food pellet or five pellets. The other group produced food regardless of lever. Consistent differences in outcome for each behavior resulted in faster discrim and fewer errors.
Stimulus control plays an important role in smoking relapse.
example: you are used to doing it at the same time everyday. Your routine becomes a signal to crave a cigarette.
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