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Which of the following can be used to distinguish a nematode worm from an annelid worm?
1. type of body cavity
2. body wall muscle organization
3. presence of segmentation
4. number of embryonic tissue layers
5. shape of worm in cross-sectional view
In terms of alternation of generations, the internal parts of the pollen grains of seed-producing plants are most similar to a
Arrange the following structures, which can be found on male pine trees, from the largest structure to the smallest structure (or from most inclusive to least inclusive).
4. pollen cone
5. pollen nuclei
Which of the following is true concerning flowering plants?
Angiosperm double fertilization is so-called because it features the formation of
D) one embryo involving one sperm cell and of endosperm involving a second sperm cell.
Which of the following flower parts develops into a seed?
What is thought to be the correct sequence of these events, from earliest to most recent, in the evolution of life on Earth?
1. origin of mitochondria
2. origin of multicellular eukaryotes
3. origin of chloroplasts
4. origin of cyanobacteria
5. origin of fungal-plant symbioses
B) kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.
Darwin analogized the effects of evolution as the above-ground portion of a many-branched tree, with extant species being the tips of the twigs. The common ancestor of two species is most analogous to which anatomical tree part?
B) a node where two twigs diverge
B) the legless condition found in various types of extant lizards
Which mutation should least require realignment of homologous regions of a gene that is common to several related species?
A) 1-base substitution
The reason that paralogous genes can diverge from each other within the same gene pool, whereas orthologous genes diverge only after gene pools are isolated from each other, is that
B) having an extra copy of a gene permits modifications to the copy without loss of the original gene product.
If the genes of yeast are 50% orthologous to those of humans, and if the genes of mice are 99% orthologous to those of humans, then what percentage of the genes of fish might one validly predict to be orthologous to the genes of humans?
Which of the various species concepts distinguishes two species based on the degree of genetic exchange between their gene pools?
What was the species concept most used by Linnaeus?
Rank the following from most general to most specific:
1. gametic isolation
2. reproductive isolating mechanism
3. pollen-stigma incompatibility
4. prezygotic isolating mechanism
B) 2, 4, 1, 3
The biological species concept is inadequate for grouping
B) asexual organisms.
Which example below will most likely guarantee that two closely related species will persist only as distinct biological species?
A) geographic isolation from one another
Races of humans are unlikely to evolve extensive differences in the future for which of the following reasons?
I. The environment is unlikely to change.
II. Human evolution is complete.
III. The human races are incompletely isolated.
Among known plant species, which of these have been the two most commonly occurring phenomena leading to the origin of new species?
1. allopatric speciation
2. sympatric speciation
3. sexual selection
What definition of evolution would have been most foreign to Charles Darwin during his lifetime?
B) change in gene frequency in gene pools
What evolutionary agent is most consistent at causing populations to become better suited to their environments over the course of generations?
D) Natural selection
A trend toward the decrease in the size of plants on the slopes of mountains as altitudes increase is an example of
A) a cline
Rank the following 1-base point mutations (from most likely to least likely) with respect to their likelihood of affecting the structure of the corresponding polypeptide:
1. insertion mutation deep within an intron
2. substitution mutation at the 3rd position of an exonic codon
3. substitution mutation at the 2nd position of an exonic codon
4. deletion mutation within the first exon of the gene
C) 4, 3, 2, 1
In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is 0.4. What is the percentage of the population that is homozygous for this allele?
In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of allele a is 0.1. What is the percentage of the population that is heterozygous for this allele?
You sample a population of butterflies and find that 42% are heterozygous at a particular locus. What should be the frequency of the recessive allele in this population?
E) Allele frequency cannot be determined from this information.
In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of allele a is 0.2. What is the frequency of individuals with Aa genotype?
Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances (catastrophes), was Cuvier's attempt to explain the existence of
D) the fossil record.
What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?
A) Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations are unchanging.
Which group is composed entirely of individuals who maintained that species are fixed (i.e., unchanging)?
A) Aristotle, Linnaeus, and Cuvier
Darwin's mechanism of natural selection required long time spans in order to modify species. From whom did Darwin get the concept of Earth's ancient age?
D) Charles Lyell
In Darwin's thinking, the more closely related two different organisms are, the
D) more recently they shared a common ancestor
Natural selection is based on all of the following except
B) individuals adapt to their environments and, thereby, evolve.
Which of the following must exist in a population before natural selection can act upon that population?
A) Genetic variation among individuals
Which statement about natural selection is most correct?
A) Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring, and thus contribute more to the next generation's gene pool, than do poorly adapted individuals.
Charles Darwin was the first person to propose
A) a mechanism for evolution that was supported by evidence.
Which of the following statements is an inference of natural selection?
C) Subsequent generations of a population should have greater proportions of individuals that possess traits better suited for success.
Sporophytes of both gymnosperm and angiosperms protect embryos within ______, and they also protect male gametophytes against desiccation using ______.
A water sample from a hot thermal vent contained a single celled organism that had a cell wall but not a nucleus. What is the most likely taxonomic classification?
What organism represents the common ancestor of photosynthetic plastids found?
Group of species on a taxa with no common ancestor
Which of these is characterized by the sudden appearance of many diverse animals forms in the fossil record?
What four things will promote speciation?
What will promote maintenance of genetic variation in a population?
Frequency dependent selection
A drought in Australia reduced the abundance of pastoral grass seed for an indigenous finch species. The finches resorted to eating tougher seeds from endemic shrubs. Over several generations the beak size of the finch increased from .5 cm to .55 cm in depth in males and .4 cm to .43 cm in depth for females. This is an example of what?
The smallest unit of evolution is
A whale flipper and a bat wing are examples of what?
A nerve impulse is an electrical charge generated by movement of ions across a neuron’s
If the adrenal cortex were to be removed, which group of hormones would be most affected?
Melatonin has been found to participate in all of the following
Monitoring day length
Testosterone is an example of
The SA node generates an electrical impulse from its location in the
Average blood pressure is lowest in which structure?
Air flows in only one direction through the lungs of which animal?
Hox genes are found in?
Homeotic “homeobox” gene clusters do what?
At which developmental stage should one be able to first distinguish a diploblastic organism from a triploblastic?
In fleshy fruits, the pericarp develops from which part of the flower?
1 seed leaf
Flowers x 3
Where does double fertilization occur?
Which feature is common to mosses and ferns?
Mosses are ______ dominant
What land plant produces flagellated sperm and has a sporophyte dominated life cycle?
How do plant cells develop?
In plants what is produced by meiosis?
What is a consumer?
What is a primary producer?
Green algae often differ from land plants in that some green algae are?
What occurs in a parasitic relationship?
Penicillin attacks what?
What is true of gram-negative bacteria?
What is an endospore composed of?
What is the flagellum made up of?
What supports the hypothesis that the ‘Cambrian Explosion’ was associated with the appearance of predator-prey relationships?
What provides evidence of the common ancestry of all life?
T/F? The Cambrian explosion and many animal phyla evolved before land plants
The geological phenomenon that provides an explanation for the biogeography of placental and marsupial mammals is
What is cryptic coloration?
What is aposematic coloration?
What is Batesian mimicry?
What is gene flow?
The largest unit within which gene flow can readily occur in is a?
How can you tell if a species has evolved into a completely separate species?
Cannot mate together
Produce sterile offspring
What is a homologous structure?
What is an example of two homologues structures?
A bottleneck will usually result in?
What best describes the logic of hypothesis-based science?
One example Darwin used to illustrate the response of species of organisms to selective pressure was?
The fact that human men grow beards while females do not is likely related to?
What is natural selection based on?
Genetic variation exists in populations
Better-adapted individuals leave more offspring
Individuals who survive longer leave more offspring
Populations tend to produce more individuals than the environment can support
Who initiated the idea of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics?
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