Face Negotiation Theory 5/4/09 7:50 PM Key Terms: Sophists: teachers of public speaking (rhetoric) in ancient Greece Rhetoric: the available means of persuasion Audience analysis: an assessment and evaluation of listeners Ethos: the perceived character, intelligence and goodwill of a speaker Logos: logical proof; the use of arguments and evidence in a speech Pathos: emotional proof; emotions drawn from audience members Syllogism: a set of propositions that are related to one another and draw a conclusion from the major and minor premises Enthymeme: a syllogism based on probabilities, signs, and examples Probabilities: statements that are generally true but still require conjecture Signs: statements that identify reasons for a fact Examples: statements that are either factual or invented by the speaker Invention: a canon of rhetoric that pertains to the construction or development of an argument related to a particular speech Topics: an aid to invention that refers to the arguments a speaker uses Civic spaces: a metaphor suggesting that speakers have ?locations? where the opportunity to persuade others exists Arrangement: a canon of rhetoric that pertains to a speaker?s ability to organize a speech Introduction: part of an organizational strategy in a speech that includes gaining the audience?s attention, connecting with the audience, and providing an overview of the speaker?s purpose Body: part of an organizational strategy in a speech that includes arguments, examples and important details to make a point Conclusion: part of an organizational strategy in a speech that is aimed at summarizing a speaker?s main points and arousing emotions in an audience Style: a canon of rhetoric that includes the use of language to express ideas in a speech Glosses: outdated words in a speech Metaphor: a figure of speech that helps to make the unclear more understandable Delivery: a canon of rhetoric that refers to the nonverbal presentation of a speaker?s ideas Memory: a canon of rhetoric that refers to a speaker?s effort in storing information for a speech Forensic rhetoric: a type of rhetoric that pertains to speakers prompting feelings of guilt or innocence from an audience Epideictic rhetoric: a type of rhetoric that pertains to praising or blaming Deliberative rhetoric: a type of rhetoric that determines an audience?s course of action How Rhetorical Theory Developed (p. 388) Citizens hired Sophists to understand principles of persuasion Sophists created public speaking handbooks Aristotle criticized the Sophists? handbooks because of Too much focus on the judicial system Lack of attention to logic Wanted to attain a logical, realistic and rational view of society Assumptions 1. Effective public speakers must consider their audience communication is a transactional process speakers should be audience- centered and use audience analysis in the process of forming their speech the audience is a group of individuals the audience determines the speech?s end and object 2. Effective public speakers utilize a number of proofs in their presentations Use ethos (ethics/creditability), logos(logic) and pathos (emotion) to appeal to the audience Syllogism A set of propositions that are related to one another and draw a conclusion from the major and minor premises Deductive argument: there is a logical conclusion Example: Major premise: a high percentage of alcohol-related fatalities involve college-age drinkers Minor premise: college students have the wisdom and education to not drink and drive Conclusion: therefore, you can use your experience and wisdom to take the lead and drive sober Enthymeme A syllogism based on probabilities, signs and examples Leaves room for audience to fill in the blanks Example: Some politicians are crooked and deceitful (premise) Therefore, Senator Sara Collier may be crooked or deceitful (conclusion) Five Rhetorical Canons Invention: integration of reasoning and arguments in speech Using logic and evidence in speech makes a speech more powerful and more persuasive Arrangement: organization of speech Maintaining a speech structure?introduction, body, conclusion?bolsters speaker credibility, enhances persuasiveness, and reduces listener frustration Style: use of language in speech Incorporating style ensures that a speech is memorable and that a speaker?s ideas are clarified Delivery: presentation of speech Effective delivery complements a speaker?s words and helps to reduce speaker anxiety Memory: storing information in speaker?s mind Knowing what to say and when to say it eases speaker anxiety and allows a speaker to respond to unanticipated events 3 types of rhetoric Forensic Rhetoric: pertains to speakers eliciting feelings of guilt or innocence courtroom speaking Epideictic Rhetoric: discourse related to praise or blame Ceremonial speaking Deliberative Rhetoric: concerns speakers who must determine a course of action?something should or should not be done Political speaking Extra Credit Questions Noble Self = focused on one?s own needs and control Rhetorically Sensitive = focused on relationships with others Rhetorical Reflector = focused on needs of others The Rhetoric 5/4/09 7:50 PM Key Terms Substance: the general nature of something Identification: when two people have overlap in their substances Division: when two people fail to have overlap in their substances Consubstantiation: when appeals are made to increase overlap between people Guilt: tension, embarrassment, shame, disgust or other unpleasant feeling Order or hierarchy: a ranking that exists in society primarily because of our ability to use language The negative: rejecting one?s place in the social order; exhibiting resistance Victimage: the way we attempt to purge the guilt we feel as part of being human Mortification: one method of purging guilt, by blaming ourselves Scapegoating: one method of purging guilt, by blaming others Redemption: a rejection of the unclean and a return to a new order after guilt has been temporarily purged Pentad: Burke?s method for applying Dramatism with five points for analyzing a symbolic text like a speech or a series of articles. Helps determine why a speaker selects a rhetorical strategy for identifying with an audience Act: one point of the pentad; that which is done by a person Scene: one point of the pentad; the context surrounding the act Agent: one point of the pentad; the person performing the act Agency: one point of the pentad; the means used to perform the act Purpose: one point of the pentad; the goal the agent had for the act Attitude: a later addition to the pentad; the manner in which the agent positions himself or herself relative to others Dramatistic ratios: the proportions of one element of the pentad relative to another element Assumptions 1. Humans are animals who use symbols Some of what we do is motivated by animal nature, some is motivated by symbols Of all symbols, language is most important 2. Language and symbols form a critically important system for humans similar to linguistic relativity- Sapir-Whorf hypothesis When people use language, they are used by it as well When a culture?s language doesn?t have symbols for a given motive, speakers of that language are unlikely to have that motive. 3. Humans are choice makers. Agency, the ability of a social actor to act out of choice Burke?s ?New? Rhetoric Supplements the traditional approach ?Old? rhetoricpersuasion, ?New? rhetoric identification Substance: the general nature of something Identification: when 2 people overlap in their substances Division: when 2 people fail to have overlap in their substances Consubstantiation: when appeals are made to increase overlap between people Cycle of Guilt & Redemption Guilt: central motive for all symbolic activities; tension, embarrassment, shame, disgust or other unpleasant feeling Order/Hierarchy: created through our ability to use language; a ranking that exists in society primarily because of our ability to use language The Negative: comes into play when people see their place in the social order and seek to reject it; exhibiting resistance Victimage: way we attempt to purge the guilt that we feel as part of the human condition Mortification: one method of purging guilt, by blaming ourselves Scapegoating: one method of purging guilt, by blaming others Redemption: involves a rejection of the unclean and a return to a new order after guilt has been temporarily purged The Pentad Act: what is done by a person Scene: the context surrounding the act Agent: the person performing the act Agency: the means used to perform an act Purpose: the goal the agent had for the act Attitude: the manner in which the agent positions himself or herself relative to others Dramatistic ratios Proportions of one element of the pentad relative to another element How to apply the Pentad: By isolating any two parts of the pentad and examining their relationship to each other, determines a ratio Dramatism 5/4/09 7:50 PM Key Terms Paradigm shift: a significant change in the way most people see the world and its meanings Rational world paradigm: a system of logic employed by many researchers and professionals Narration: an account to which listeners assign meaning Narrative rationality: a standard for judging which stories to believe and which to disregard Coherence: a principle of narrative rationality judging the internal consistency of a story Structural coherence: a type of coherence referring to the flow of the story Material coherence: a type of coherence referring to the congruence between one story and other related stories Characterological coherence: a type of coherence referring to the believability of the characters in the story Fidelity: a principle of narrative rationality judging the credibility of a story Good reasons: a set of values for accepting a story as true and worthy of acceptance; provides a method for assessing fidelity Overview Humans are storytelling animals and narrative logic is preferred over the traditional logic used in argument. Narrative logic, or the logic of good reasons, suggests that people judge the credibility of speakers by whether their stories hang together (have coherence) and ring true (have fidelity). Narrative Paradigm allows democratic judgment of speakers because no one has to be specifically trained in persuasion to be able to draw conclusions based on the concepts of coherence and fidelity Narative Paradigm Assumptions vs. Rational World Paradigm Humans are storytellers -- Humans are rational beings Decision making and communication are based on ?good reasons? -- Decision making is based on arguments Good reasons are determined by matters of history, biography, culture and character -- arguments adhere to specific criteria for soundness and logic Rationality is based in people?s awareness of how internally consistent and truthful to lived experience stories appear ? Rationality is based in the quality of knowledge and formal reasoning processes The world is experienced by people as a set of stories from which to choose among. As we choose, we live life in a process of continual re-creation ? The world can be reduced to a series of logical relationships that are uncovered through reasoning Narrative Rationality Standard for judging which stories to believe and which to disregard Coherence A principle of narrative rationality judging the internal consistency of a story STRUCTURAL COHERENCE: type of coherence referring to the flow of the story Lack structural coherence when one part does not seem to lead to next, or it is unclear MATERIAL COHERENCE: referring to the congruence between one story and other related stories If one story does not match with the others, the one that doesn?t match seems to lack material coherence CHARACTEROLOGICAL COHERENCE: believability of the characters in the story Anything that is out of character of a person, you would reject because it does not possess characterological coherence Fidelity A principle of narrative rationality judging the credibility of a story Logic of good reasons: presents a listener with a set of values that appeal to her or him and form warrants for accepting or rejecting the advice advanced by any form of narrative 2 series of questions on p. 382 Narrative Paradigm 5/4/09 7:50 PM Key Terms Causal argument: an assertion of cause and effect, including the direction of the causality Transmissional perspective: a position depicting the media as senders of messages across space Ritual perspective: a position depicting the media as representers of shared beliefs Violence Index: a yearly content analysis of prime-time network programming to assess the amount of violence represented Cultivation differential: the percentage of difference in response between light and heavy television viewers Mainstreaming: the tendency for heavy viewers to perceive a similar culturally dominant reality to that pictured on the media although this differs from actual reality Resonance: occurs when a viewer?s lived reality coincides with the reality pictured in the media First order effects: a method for cultivation to occur; refers to learning facts from the media Second order effects: a method for cultivation to occur; refers to learning values and assumptions from the media Overview The media (esp. television) play an important role in shaping how we see the world We get much of our information from mediated sources, not direct experience Media cultivates common social beliefs Heavy TV viewers perceive the world as more violent Assumptions 1. Television is essentially and fundamentally different from other forms of mass media only medium that is ageless and combines pictures and sound, requires no literacy, can be free and requires no mobility 2. Television shapes our society?s way of thinking and relating tv doesn?t persuade us, but it paints more or less a convincing picture of what the world is like 3. The influence of television is limited. Observable, measurable, independent contributions of tv on culture is small. Ice age analogy: a position stating that television doesn?t have to have a single major impact, but influences viewers through steady limited effects Cultivation Analysis- 4 step process 1. Message System Analysis detailed content analyses of television programming in order to demonstrate its most recurring and consistent presentations of images, themes, values and portrayals 2. Formulation of Questions about viewers? social realities developing questions about people?s understandings of their everyday lives 3. Surveying the Audience questions from step two be posed to audience members and that researchers ask these viewers about their levels of television consumption 4. Comparing the social realities of light and heavy viewers Cultivation differential: percentage of difference in response between light and heavy tv viewers Heavy viewers are those who watch the most in any sample of people that are measured, whereas light viewers are those who watch the least 2 Ways Cultivation occurs Mainstreaming= heavy users perceive similar reality different from actual reality Resonance= lived reality coincides with media view of reality Cultivation Effects First order effects= learning facts Second order effects= learning values Mean World Index Most people are just looking out for themselves You can?t be too careful in dealing with people Most people would take advantage of you if they got the chance Heavy TV viewers view the world as ?meaner? and are more fearful 3 B?s of TV Blurring: traditional distinctions are blurred Example: educated people see the world similarly to those who have less education Blending: ?Reality? is blended into a cultural mainstream Example: we agree on what?s real Bending: the mainstream reality benefits the elite Example: we all want to buy more products Cultivation Analysis as a Critical Theory Concerned with power & social change PROD (Proportional Representation of Diversity) index Examined the representation of cultures in the media Minorities are underrepresented Critique of theory: humanistic (critical) assumptions but uses scientific methods Cultivation Theory 5/4/09 7:50 PM Key Terms Mass Society Theory: the idea that average people are the victims of the powerful forces of mass media Limited effects: the perspective replacing Mass Society Theory; holds that media effects are limited by aspects of the audience?s personal and social lives Individual Differences Perspective: a specific approach to the idea of limited effects; concentrates on the limits posed by personal characteristics Social Categories Model: a specific approach to the idea of limited effects; concentrates on the limits posed by group membership Fraction of selection: Schramm?s idea of how media choices are made: the expectation of reward divided by the effort required Parasocial interaction: the relationship we feel we have with people we know only through the media Diversion: a category of gratifications coming from media use; involves escaping from routines and problems Personal relationships: a category of gratifications coming from media use; involves substituting media for companionship Personal identity: a category of gratifications coming from media use; involves ways to reinforce individual values Surveillance: a category of gratifications coming from media use; involves collecting needed information Utility: using the media to accomplish specific tasks Intentionality: occurs when people?s prior motives determine use of media Selectivity: audience members? use of media reflects their existing interests Imperviousness to influence: refers to audience members? constructing their own meaning from media content Activity: refers to what the media consumer does Activeness: refers to how much freedom the audience really has in the face of mass media Early Mass Communication Theories: Mass Society Theory: media as a ?magic bullet? that influences mass audience (victims) Critique: discredited because social science and simple observation could not confirm the operation of all-powerful media and media messages Most people were not directly affected by media messages and when they were influenced, they were not influenced similarly ?Limited effects? theories: media has limited influence due to: Individual Differences Perspective: concentrates on the limits posed by personal characteristics Social Categories Model: concentrates on the limits posed by group membership Overview People actively choose media to satisfy specific needs (gratifications) Media have a limited effect because of user control People are self-aware ?What do people do with media?? Stages in U & G Research Stage One: Extending Needs and Motivation Theory (Maslow) Hierarchy of Needs: Self actualization, ego/self respect, social/belonging, security/safety, biological/physical Fraction Of Selection= Expectation of Reward/ Effort Required Stage Two: Typologies representing reasons for media use: E.g, connection vs. separation Stage Three: Linking specific reasons for media use with variables E.g., relationship between motivation, interpersonal attraction, and parasocial interaction in talk radio Uses & Gratifications Theory 5/4/09 7:50 PM Key Terms Face: a metaphor for the public image people display Face concern: interest in maintaining one?s face or the face of others Face need: desire to be associated or disassociated with others Positive face: desire to be liked and admired by others Negative face: desire to be autonomous and free form others Facework: actions used to deal with face needs/wants of self and others Tact facework: extent to which a person respects another?s autonomy Solidarity facework: accepting another as a member of an ingroup Approbation facework: focusing less on the negative aspects of another and more on the positive aspects Self-identity: personal attributes of another Face-saving: efforts to avoid embarrassment or vulnerability Face restoration: strategy used to preserve autonomy and avoid loss of face Individualism: a cultural value that places emphasis on the individual over the group Collectivism: a cultural value that places emphasis on the group over the individual Face management: the protection of one?s face Avoiding: staying away from disagreements Obliging: satisfying the needs of others Compromising: using give-and-take to achieve a middle-road resolution Dominating: using influence or authority to make decisions Integrating: collaborating with others to find solutions Imperative for Intercultural Competence Economic Technological Demographic Peace Culture as an Iceberg Customs, Beliefs, Values, Assumptions left behind? most important= behaviors Ways in Which Cultures Differ Individual vs. Group Task vs. Relationship Egalitarian vs. Hierarchical Informal vs. Formal Direct vs. Indirect Verbal vs. Nonverbal Future vs. Past Time structured vs. Time fluid Overview (Ting-Toomey) Cultures manage conflict negotiation differently Cultures manage face differently Individualistic cultures: self-face and direct styles Collectivistic cultures: other-face and indirect styles
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