LYMPH SYSTEM Another set of vessels in the body that runs other fluids Collect and return interstitial fluid to the blood Launch immune responses Absorb lipids from the digestive tract Connects to the circulatory system Thoracic Duct connect at the base to the subclavian veins on the left side Right Lymphatic Duct to Subclavian Veins Anatomy Lymph vessels that conduct Lymph(fluid) ? lymph tissue ? organized into lymph nodes Contains H2O, white blood cells, salts, Flow: Interstitial Fluid enters capillaries when the muscle contracts, capillaries become veinules then to veins which become Subclavian veins Capillaries (dead ends) become Veins Lymph nodes Cellular , sponge-like Valves (direct flow) to prevent back flow Organs Thymus Some white blood cells Spleen Partly lymph tissue, breakdowns the products of Red Blood cells Tonsils and Adenoids Checking the fluid coming in and destroying the bacteria coming in Peyer?s Patches In the intestine, white blood cell are here and the get rid of bactieria Blood Pressure BP force originally generated by the heart BP = Blood Flow * Peripheral resistance Varies with various factors Blood Flow ? Cardiac Output Blood Volume - amount of blood being moved ADH ? kidneys retain water, aldosterone/ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide? to lower blood volume Salts ? lots of NaCl makes blood hypertonic ? increases blood volume Cardiac Output = Heart Rate * Stroke Volume Stress increases the number of strokes per sec Starlings Law of the Heart If the veins deliver more blood to the heart, the heart pumps more blood Peripheral Resistance Blood Viscosity ? resistance to flow Vasoconstriction/ diameter Laminar vs. Turbulent Flow Laminar ? flow in the middle easier, decrease in P.R. ? larger diameter Turbulent Flow ? flowing on the side of the tube - friction ? increase in P.R. ? smaller diameter Arterioles ? increase peripheral resistance Greatest P.R. Can control arteriole diameter ? vasoconstriction High to Low Pressure - Arterioles Systolic Pressure ? heart contracted -120 Diastolic Pressure ? heart not contracted ? 80 Systolic Pressure ? Diastolic Pressure = Pulse Pressure 120/80 If Diastolic higher ? system always under that higher P.R. Atherosclerosis Cholesterol deposits in arterioles, arteries get damaged, inflamed, and narrow as a result of lipid deposits Arteriosclerosis Build up of cholesterol based plaque Highest place of pressure More turbulent flow = increase in BP Also lose the elasticity of the artery Less plaque = less resistance Positive Feedback Obesity - Increase in peripheral resistance More adipose tissue, BP upstream, heart has to work harder HDL takes cholesterol to liver How to get Blood back to the heart Starling?s Law of Heart Osmotic Pressure Arterial end of the capillary 40 mmHg pressing outwards, against the walls Osmotic = -28 mmHg Net is ?Out? Filtration P: refers to fluid in blood gets from capillary beds ? interstitial fluid ? loose pressure, some comes back in via lymph system Venous End of capillary 15 mmHg pressing outwards Osmotic = -28 mmHg Net is ?In? - Absorption Comes in can?t go backwards, so must go forward Not 100% retrieval of what was lost from blood comes back into blood at venous end What isn?t returned goes into the lymph system ? 10 % Elephantitis Tissue swell b/c of what is lost is not back into the vascular system over time Caused by philarious Parasitic worms in lymph node Breathing Negative pressure in the thoracic cavity ? pulls blood back into the heart ? ports air into the lungs Skeletal Muscle Action When standing constantly and not moving ? less action ? leads to fainting Veins are not able to accept anymore blood With action the blood is being pushed out and there is not a pool of blood BLOOD Hematocrit Blood Volume ? 8% of body weight 45% blood cells and platelets 55% liquid - plasma Higher than 45% - leukemia, blood cancer, infections Lower than 45% - anemia PLASMA 92% water, 7% proteins, and 1% salts and minerals Proteins Fibrinogen Clotting proteins Repairs rips and tears When the proteins involve have been removed from the plasma ? remaining liquid = serum Globulin ? alpha, beta, and gamma Alpha ? include hormones and proteins to transport them; prothrombin and Lipoproteins ? HDL Beta ? includes other lipoproteins that transport fats and cholesterol and proteins that transports vitamins and minerals Gamma ? contains many antibodies that provide immunity to diseases such as measles and infectious hepatisis Albumin Big molecule ? hard to move around Regulates blood volume Need to maintain proper osmotic pressure Increase in B.V. ? increase in Albumin ? hypertonic so water comes in - actively transporting albumin from the interstitial fluid to the capillary bed Hormones, glucose, wastes (urea), fatty acids, glycerol Clotting Proteins >30 clotting factors Hemophilia ? factor VIII ? one clotting factor is absent The cut vessel or tissue comes in contact with one of the clotting factors which triggers the complex process Prothrombin Made by the liver Vitamin K ? Thrombin Prothrombin will be converted to Thrombin which then activates Fibrinogen Fibrinogen Soluble Converted to Fibrin Threads ? in soluble Serum Removes thrombin and fibrinogen CELLULAR COMPONENTS Red Blood Cells Erythrocytes ? allows us to carry oxygen to the tissues No nucleus Produced within in the red bone marrow of certain bones ? vertebrae, ribs, breastbone, skull bones, and long bones Hemoglobin picks up CO2 and carries it back to the lungs ? only 20% 80% of CO2 is carried back to the lungs by bicarbonate Functions Carry oxygen ? helps maintain a good concentration gradient Red Blood Cell Life Cycle Multipotent cells of bone marrow constantly produce RBC Live for 3 months = 120 days If O2 levels are low Erythropoietin released from the kidneys Kidneys detect O2 levels if not enough, secrete erythropoietin Negative Feedback on the multipotent cells to produce more RBCs ? more oxygen Destroyed and Recycled Liver ? highly vascular Spleen ? has WBCs that eat dead and dying blood cells Anemia ? deficiency in hemoglobin White Blood Cells Leukocytes Immunity Also come from multipotent cells ? triggered by a different hormone Granular Leukocytes ? large and lobed nuclei Neutrophils ? principle phagocytic cell ? seeking out and ingesting bacteria Eosinophils ? detoxify foreign proteins and substances ? increase in number during allergic reactions and parasitic infections Basophils ? deep blue ? play a role in allergic reactions ? contain histamine ? dilates blood vessels, also released in injured tissue and allergic responses ? contain heparin ? prevents blood from clotting in the blood vessels Agranular Leukocytes ? lack large distinctive granules and their nuclei are rounded Lymphocytes ? specialized to produce antibodies to attack foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses Monocytes ? largest WBCs ? become enlarged ? macrophage ? engulf bacteria, dead cells, and debris Leukemia Form of cancer in which various kinds of WBCs multiplies rapidly within the bone marrow ? many of the cells do not mature Thrombocytes In mammals ?platelets from bone marrow ? megakaryocytes pinch off to form platelets Fibrin ? sticky ? forms blockage ? keeps blood enough time for mitosis Cells that contribute to clot Sacs of cytoplasm, no nucleus When rip/tear: platelets become sticky Very complex process to get clots ? only when needed More than 30 different chemical substances interact in this complex process Immunology Pathogens invade tissues ? bacteria, viruses, worms, venom, something that makes you sick 2 types of defenses Specific ? Adaptive ? requires several days Puts a lot together to go after 1 particular pathogen (e.g. chicken pox) Non Specific ? Innate or Natural - Rapid Doesn?t care what pathogen is attacking, just trying to keep anything that doesn?t belong away Danger Model Self vs. Non Self Having the right shape PAMPs ? pathogen associated molecular patterns Toll-like receptors If pattern is same then the specimen is ok, otherwise pushes pathogen out Pathogens make proteins, molecule not usually in the body If it detects molecule, but it doesn?t make it, molecule doesn?t have the right shape, and then it attacks Major Histocompatibility Complex: set of genes, huge variation in expression (MHC) Glycoproteins in cell membrane Self vs. Non self: how to detect if cell belongs in the body ? primarily determined by protein found in the cell membrane Human Leukocyte Antigen Group (HLA) MHC in humans Make your protein, protein on cell membrane has unique protein shape Class 1 MHC Proteins ?name tags? All cells have MHC proteins on embedded on membrane Can bind foreign antigens If cell is infected, cell takes place of antigen (pathogen) and puts part of it on class 1 MHC, now cells around it know that you may have to kill me Class 2 MHC proteins Only found on particular immune cells ? ?antigen presenting cells? (APCs) Captures something and takes parts of the bacteria and puts them on Class 2 MHC proteins Not affected but present what they found Macrophages Dendritic Cells B-lymphocytes Macrophages go out and find bad guy and eats it, puts part of the pathogen on the class 2 MHC ?trophy case? Defense Systems Always working, respond to anything Non Specific ? innate immunity Physical Barriers Skin, mucus, earwax, stomach, eye lashes? Soluble Molecules Molecules found in variety of places and ready to work against general groups of things Cytokines Help stimulate cellular activity of immune system and inflammatory response Interferons Prevent viruses from self replicating Stimulate macrophages to destroy tumor cells and host cells Interleukins Communication molecules ? cause WBCs to become active Increase in activity ? increase in phagocytosis ? stimulating parts of immune system Complement Activated when it interacts with antibody stuck w/ antigen ? coats the surface so antigen won?t bind to our cells Group of proteins always in the blood Lyse viruses, bacteria, and other cells They coat pathogens ? making them slippery so that phagocytes phagocytose them more easily Attract WBCs to the site of the injury Phagocytosis Function of white blood cells ? engulf microorganisms, foreign matter, or other cells Neutrophils: most common WBC, primary phagocytes in body Can eat a certain amount then die (puss) Monocytes Come from bone marrow. Only in children ? differentiated Macrophages (APC): in liver, spleen, tissues ? internal, lymph nodes Amoeboid like movement Dendritic Cell (APC): found in the lining of body, moving around looking for agents getting in and digests them Toll ? Like Receptors In vertebrates ? on all phagocytes On macrophages, recognize certain PAMPs and respond by producing cytokines Bind w/ odd molecules produced by antigens Combination of these receptors firing and MHC 1 ? wrong stimulates cells to do phagocytes Respond to PAMPs and incorrect MHC 1 Macrophages: epitote (piece of antigen) ? placed on MHC 2 Regular cells is infected ? place epitote on MHC 1 Epitote is important for specificity Natural Killer Cells ? attack cells w/o MHC 1 Some pathogens destroy MHC 1 so immune system passes it by i.e. cancer, infected cells Attack Membranes Perforins Makes holes into the cell membrane Puts Granzymes into cell ? apoptosis ? cell death Also attack cells with antibodies attached Inflammatory Response Caused by release of Histamine ? basophils, mast cells Mast Cells: lining in digestive system and nasal cavity Histamine released by mast cells (book)/ basophils (lecture) cells Bradykinin Activated when there is damage to the tissue Floating in capillaries Combo of Bradykinin and Histamine in blood causes inflammatory response Response begins immediately after pathogen invasion/ physical injury Vasodilation: increase in blood flow ? increase in blood to area ? redness, warm ? bring phagocytes, nutrients, antibodies Increase capillary permeability Antibodies and fluid pass from blood into inflamed area Increase in volume of interstitial fluid ? edema (inflammation) Increased phagocytosis ? increase in blood flow ? increase in blood flow ? increase in number of neutrophils and other phagocytotic cells Interleukins - cause fever Epinephrine shots for bee sting ? all capillaries dilate Specific Defenses Adaptive or acquired immunity T ? Lymphocytes ? Thymus Gland, mostly in lymph nodes B ? Lymphocytes ? Bone Marrow, mostly in lymph nodes Helper T-cells( TH) Respond to antigens presented by APCs Aka CD4 Cells ? match w/ class 2 receptors Epitote has particular shape on APC and TH TH Cell Activation - clonal proliferation Helper TH cell is activated by specific foreign antigen ?MHC complex presented by APC Activated TH cell increases in size and divides by mitosis Differentiate in into: Memory T cells ? formed next time you get this pathogen Active T cells ? secrete cytokines ? looking for Tc Cells Antibody Mediated Immunity B ? Lymphocytes Toll ? like receptors, APC, respond to PAMPs Source of antibodies Competent T Cell finds B ? Lymphocytes that have receptors to match this shape Not too smart, needs to activated by TH cells TH cell independent Goal is clonal proliferation TH cell dependent ? needs to be activated Most of B Cells will not do anything unless activated Goal is clonal proliferation Makes a lot of copies of B Cells Plasma Cells: secrete specific antibodies Memory B- Cells: used for the second we get infection Antibodies Globular proteins, we have genes that make them Have differences in binding site shape 1 B Cell makes many antibodies of 1 single variation Variable Region Constant Region: sequence of amino acids always same ? shape is always the same Effects Precipitation Immobilizes antibody Agglutination Clumping of blood, not easy to move Activates Complement ? when an antibody is attached to an antigen Make it easier to see, allows someone lese to see and eat in Increase in Phagocytes Not killing itself Only on the outside of cells, unhelpful when pathogen is inside the cell B- Cell activation Pathogen invades ? APC phagocytizes pathogen ? foreign antigen-MHC complex displayed on APC surface - TH cell binds w/ foreign antigen-MHC complex ? activated TH interacts w/ B cell that displays the same antigen ? B cell activated ? cloning of B cell ? B Cell differentiates becoming plasma cells ? plasma secretes antibodies ? antibodies form complexes w/ pathogen ? destroy pathogen Cell Mediated immunity T ? Lymphocytes TH Cell (Helper) aka CD4 cells ? regulatory cells Cytotoxic T cells aka CD8 Cells Tc Cells ? activated by cytokines responding to antigen MHC 1 Complex Infected cell MHC 1 ? MHC 1 antigen complex ? specific Tc cell activated by this complex ? Tc Clones ? Tc migrates to area ? Tc Releases proteins that stimulate destruction of target cells Perforins, Granzymes - aptosis help against cancer cells These attack tissue transpian 2nd infection attacked more vigorously Naturally Acquired Active Immunity Induced form the environment Active b/c you made Tc Cells Development of memory cells Artificially Acquired Active Immunity ?Attenuated? ? dead/ weak infection agent won?t cause harm Vaccinations Development of memory cells Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity Some one is giving ?passive? immunity Nursing babies Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity Anti-venom Artificially created antibodies - which get degraded Respiration The problem Gas exchange Oxygen and CO2 Oxygen ? b/c its terminal ? electron acceptor in electron transport chain CO2 ? builds up equilibrium in carbonic buffer ? acidic solution ? need to dispose it Mechanism Always diffusion ? high partial pressure in the air to lower partial Pressure in our lungs and blood Blood ? interstitial fluid ? tissue ? blood Earth Atmosphere ? 21% O2 - PO2 = 160 mmHg Mostly nitrogen At sea level: (.21)(760mmHg) = 160mmHg PCO2 = 0.23 mmHg Dalton?s Law of Partial Pressure All will add up to 760 mmHg at sea level At equilibrium Partial pressure in air = partial P in water Gases will dissolve in water a lot less gas available in the water Fick?s Law of Diffusion Amount of gas that diffuses ? difference in partial pressure increase ? gas diffuse faster Increase in surface area Maintain a big concentration gradient to keep blood moving through Systems of Gas exchange If thinner than 1mm ? just diffusion ? (Phylum Platyhelminthes) If thicker than 1mm ? circulatory system and respiratory system ? earth worms Respiratory Systems Characteristics Thin walled Moist Richly vascularized Surface across which exchange takes place must be thin and moist so gas exchange can go from source to sink easily Mammalian System - Humans Anatomy Nares/ Nostril ? hairs block certain particles Nasal Cavity Conchae ? projections ? increase SA and humidify the air Ciliated epithelium ? below nostril ? beat toward pharynx to stomach to destroy crud Bernoulli effect ? air comes from small opening, diameter behind nostril increases ? decrease in velocity of air Pharynx ? leads to esophagus and Larynx Larynx ? voice box Epiglottis closes off larynx when swallowing food Trachea Bronchi (2 branches) Bronchioles ? ?mucus escalator? ? conducting zone Toxins in cigarettes kills ciliated epithelium, so hacking cough Asthma ? smooth muscle constrict when bad is coming through ? throughout the lung Alveoli ? end of bronchiole Respiratory zone Thin walled ? 2 thin cell layers separate the air in alveolus and the blood ?tiny little balloon? Gas exchange occurs here Small and delicate ? too much water can cause it to collapse Emphysema Crude gets down in the alveoli, a lot less surface area for gas exchange Pulmonary Surfactant Like cholesterol Respiratory distress syndrome 6 ? 7 months ? like soap has both non-polar and polar ends ? water molecules aren?t coherent ? take your first breathe Ventilation Positive pressure(frogs) Swallowing air into respiratory system Use positive P, put pressure behind air and pushing volume of air in ? using tongue and muscles in pharynx Negative Pressure Inspiration ? breathing in Expiration Intercostal muscle ? muscles between ribs ? used with diaphragm to get more air in and out When diaphragm pulls down ? volume increase ? pressure decreases ? so oxygen goes in Rib cage opens a little ? diaphragm pulls down Controlled by autonomic system Medulla oblongata CO2 must go out or else the pH levels will mess up pH decreases ? faster breathing Excretion Getting rid of metabolic wastes Homeostatic Functions ?same position? Automatic tendency of an organism to maintain steady state E.g. body temperature Osmoregulation Kidneys try to keep osmotic balance ? regulating water and salt Excretion of metabolic waste Liver ? urea (getting rid of N) ? kidney ? urine Bile pigments ? digestive system ? feces (also excretion) Cell respiration ? water ? skin ? sweat CO2 ? lungs ? exhale Breathing out also metabolic waste Urine combination Nitrogenous waste Protein breakdown When amino acids metabolize ? amino group cleave off first Deamination ? ammonia NH3 ? toxin ? 3 ways to get rid of it Leave it as NH3 Change to urea - humans Change to uric acid ? birds If Aquatic animal Excrete ammonia across body and gills Insects, Birds, some reptiles NH3 to uric acid Less water to carry around Mammals, most amphibians Ammonia to urea by the liver Urea cycle Human Urinary System Kidney ? urine from ureter ? bladder ? urethra Kidney 25% of blood goes to kidneys ? highly vascularized Two layers Outer - Cortex Inner ? Medulla Nephron ? urine is made Tubes gather together in the renal pelvis ? ureter ? out Cortical nephron ? connecting to the cortex ? small glomeruli Juxtamedullary nephron ? gathers into the collecting duct ? into the renal pelvis to ureter ? large glomeruli Glomerulus located in Bowman?s Capsule Filtration Blood comes into the Glomerulus capillaries, BP causes plasma component out into the beginning of nephron tubules Filtration Pathway Bowman?s Capsule ? Proximal convoluted tubule ? Loop of Henle ? Distal convoluted tubule ? Collecting Duct Renal Tubule Renal Corpuscle 3 processes Filtration Bowman?s capsule Glomerulus Amount of filtration ? normal BP ? 45 gallons/ day Excrete about 1.5 per day Re-absorption Active transport Passive transport From filtrate to blood Retaining water Secretion Active transport from blood into urine
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