Psychology Final Study Guide Psychology Chapter 1 Review Questions What does the plasticity principle mean for neuronal development? The plasticity has given us an exceptional degree of adaptability to environmental influences. What are advantages and disadvantages of longitudinal and cross-sectional research designs? Advantages longitudinal: can examine changes in individuals Disadvantages: Cost-intensive; subject lost overtime Advantages cross-sectional: Faster, more practical than longitudinal Disadvantages: Other variables may be confounded with age 24. How did Piaget suggest people organize the world? Piaget suggested that people use schemata, mental models of the world that we use to guide and interpret our experiences. Also through assimilation and accommodation, through Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. 26. What are the Piaget?s stages of cognitive development and the major characteristics and accomplishments and limitations of each stage? Object permanence- the ability to recognize that objects still exist when they?re no longer in sight Conservation- the ability to recognize that the physical properties of an object remain the same despite superficial changes in the objects appearance Schemas- Mental models of the world that we use to guide and interpret our experiences Accommodation- the process through which we change or modify existing schemata to accommodate new experiences Assimilation- the process through which we fit or assimilate new experiences into existing schemata Sensorimotor period- Piaget?s first stage of cognitive development, lasting from birth to about 2 years of age; schemata revolve around sensory and motor abilities. Child learns how to control body, how to vocalize, and learns first words. Problem in thinking about absent objects Preoperational period- Piaget?s second stage of cognitive development, lasting from ages 2 to about 7; children begin to think symbolically but often lack the ability to perform mental operations. Children symbolize objets and imaginary play in common, great strides in language development. They fail to understand conservation due to centration and a failure to understand reversibility, children show egocentricity in thinking. Concrete operational period- Piaget?s third stage of cognitive development lasting from ages 7 to 11. Children acquire the capacity to perform a number of mental operations but still lack the ability for abstract reasoning. Understand reversibility and other simple logical operations like categorizing and ordering. Mental operations remain concrete, tied to actual objects in the real world. Difficulty wit problems that do not flow from everyday experience. Formal operational period- Piaget?s last stage of cognitive development, thought processes become adult-like, and people gain mastery over abstract thinking (teenage years) Adolescents can think and answer questions in general and abstract ways No limitations; development of reasoning is complete. However, not all reach this stage. 28. What is the major problem with a stage view of development? 30. What is the major criticism of Kohlberg?s theory of moral development? Gender bias and the influence of culture on people?s moral codes. 33. What evidence suggests infants desire and need contact comfort? Infants with less contact comfort show more developmental problems than children reared in less deprived environments. Contact comfort helps secure a bond of attachment. 35. How do securely and insecurely attached infants react in the strange situation test? Secure attachment infants play happily and are likely to explore the room looking for interesting toys or magazines to shred. But as the level of stress increase, they become increasingly uneasy and clingy. If the mother leaves the room, the child will start to cry but will calm down rapidly if the mother returns. Insecurely (resistant) attached infant?s react clingy; they cry if the mother leaves the room, yet they?re unlikely to greet her with affection on her return. Avoidant attachment infants show no strong attachment to the mother. They do not really care about strangers in the room, or really care if mothers leave the room, or return. Parents of these children tend to be unresponsive and impatient, could even actively reject the child on a daily basis. Disorganized/disoriented attachment infants may have a history of possible abuse. They react differently to every test. They have no consistent strategy for interacting with their caregivers. 39. What did Erikson believe shaped a person?s sense of self? Social interactions- primarily those with parents during childhood and with peers later in life- help us come to grips with who we are as individuals. Erikson believed that our sense of self is shaped by a series of psychosocial crises that we confront at characteristic stages of development. Such as, trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus shame or doubt, initiative versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generatively versus stagnation, and integrity versus despair. 42. How does social learning explain gender role development? Social learning explains gender role development because children can be given stereotypical responses about gender when asked. Specific patterns of behavior are consistent with society?s dictums. Social experiences teach children what a man or woman ?should do, wear, or act.? Children learn to act in a masculine or feminine manner because they grow up in environments that reward them for doing so. Growing up in societies with well-defined gender roles helps establish gender schemas, an organized set of beliefs and perceptions held about men and women. Gender schemas guide and direct how we view others, as well as our own behavior. 45. Why was Kubler-Ross? work on death and dying important? His work has been highly influential, in both psychological and medical circles. She was one of the first people to treat the topic of dying thoroughly and systematically. 48. What do the theories of Piaget, Kohlberg, Erikson, and Kubler-Ross have in common? What are the main criticisms of these kinds of theories? How different cultures affected the rate and details of each stage. They all have stages, but not all people will go through those exact stages or act exactly as those stages describe or transition abruptly from those stages. Many stage theories are vague. Attachment- Strong emotional ties formed to one or more intimate companions Stages of development: Germinal Stage- The period in prenatal development from conception to implantation of the fertilized egg in the wall of the uterus. About two weeks after conception, most fertilized eggs don?t complete this process. Embryonic period- lasts about six weeks from implantation to the end of the 8th week. The egg develops arms, legs, fingers, and toes, beating heart. At the end of this period sexual differentiation begins. Fetal Period- The period from the 9th week until birth. Bones and muscles develop in the fetus. The baby can allow extensive movements. Extremely rapid growth, in body size and in brain tissue. Lungs mature, layer of fat grows. Teratogens- environmental agents such as disease organisms or drugs hat can potentially damage the developing embryo or fetus. Stage theories and their criticisms- Piaget Cognitive Development Stages Object permanence- the ability to recognize that objects still exist when they?re no longer in sight Conservation- the ability to recognize that the physical properties of an object remain the same despite superficial changes in the objects appearance Schemas- Mental models of the world that we use to guide and interpret our experiences Accommodation- the process through which we change or modify existing schemata to accommodate new experiences Assimilation- the process through which we fit or assimilate new experiences into existing schemata Sensorimotor period- Piaget?s first stage of cognitive development, lasting from birth to about 2 years of age; schemata revolve around sensory and motor abilities. Preoperational period- Piaget?s second stage of cognitive development, lasting from ages 2 to about 7; children begin to think symbolically but often lack the ability to perform mental operations Concrete operational period- Piaget?s third stage of cognitive development lasting from ages 7 to 11. Children acquire the capacity to perform a number of mental operations but still lack the ability for abstract reasoning. Formal operational period- Piaget?s last stage of cognitive development, thought processes become adult-like, and people gain mastery over abstract thinking (teenage years) Criticisms of Piaget- Children are much more sophisticated than what Piaget suggested Cognitive development is a process of continual change and adaptation rather than specific stages of rapid transitions. He ignored the importance of social context in explaining individual differences in cognitive ability; the rate of development is different among different cultures ?Development can not be understood by considering the individual alone, you must always consider the individual in his or her social context Kohlberg Moral Development Preconventional level- The lowest level of moral development, in which decisions about right and wrong are made primarily in terms of external consequences. Interpreting morality of a behavior in terms of its immediate individual consequences, whether the act will lead directly to a reward or to a punishment Conventional level- The stage in which actins are judged to be right or wrong based on whether they maintain or disrupt the social order. People justify their actions based on internalized rules. Should not do something because it is against the law. Moves from individual consequences to societal consequences. People tend to consider the appropriateness of their actions from the perspective of the resident authority figures in the culture. Postconventional level- Highest level of moral development, in which moral actions are judged on the basis of a personal code of ethics that is general and abstract and that may not agree with societal norms. The person adopts a moral standard not to seek approval from others or an authority figure but to follow some universal ethical principle. Criticisms of Kohlberg He ties the concept of morality too closely to an abstract code of justice- that is, to the idea that moral acts are those that ensure fairness to the individual. People argue that men and women take on and live by different moral codes. Women have a more caring code while men have more of a code of justice. Using Kohlberg?s levels that say women are at a lower level of moral development than men. Kohlberg is criticized for gender bias. Also, different cultures are seen to have extremely different classifications of moral development. Each individual culture teaches their people different moral codes. Morality seems to develop in a consistent manner across the world, but culture influences the types of morality. For instance, whether it is okay to hit your wife. Many developmental psychologists believe that we need to broaden our conception of morality to make it more representative of the diversity of social experiences. Kubler-Ross- Death/Dying stages Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Criticisms Kubler-Ross People argue whether people progress through a fixed set of orderly stages in exactly the way Kubler-Ross described. There are too many individual differences to support the theory. Psychology: Chapter 2: Study Guide 3. What is an example of predictive hypothesis? Predictive hypotheses are made when the researcher measures the variables of interest but does not manipulate or control the variables in the study. Example: If a person eats spicy food before they go to sleep they will experience more nightmares. Test how many nightmares the person had that night and then ask what they ate for dinner. 4. What is an example of a causal hypothesis? Causal hypotheses detail specifically how one variable will influence another variable. They state our ideas about the causes or behavior and in many ways influence the theories that are formulated to explain behavior. Causal hypothesis? can only be tested when it is possible for the researcher to control or manipulate the main variables in the study. The researcher sets up different conditions in a study and then observes whether or not there is a change in behavior because of the different conditions. Some people eat spicy food and some people eat non-spicy food then the researcher compares the types of dreams they had. 5. What is an example of a naturalistic observation? Naturalistic observations are research studies that are conducted in the environment in which the behavior typically occurs. The observations enable the researchers to predict hypothesis. The researcher observes behavior and then describes or makes predictions about the behavior based on what he or she has observed. Example: observing childhood aggression at a preschool on the school playground. 12. Why are correlational studies conducted? Correlational studies are conducted because they are used to make predictions and test predictive hypothesis. Knowing which people are more likely to do something enables a company or business to create new strategies to gain the most responsiveness. 13. What is the strength of correlation? The strength of correlation is measured through a correlation coefficient that is a number that tells us the strength of the relationship between two factors. The closer the correlation is to -1.00 or 1.00 the stronger the correlation is. 17. What are the two main features of an experiment? The two main features of an experiment are the variables in the study are controlled or manipulated. Second, participants are randomly assigned to the conditions of the study. When these two conditions have met, causal conclusions may be drawn. 18. What are examples of independent, dependent, and confounding variables? Examples: Independent variable- the amount of a drug Dependent variable- what the drug did to the person Confounding variable- other factors of that person that could have effected the outcome Chapter 2 Vocabulary Causal hypothesis- an educated guess about how one variable will influence another variable Confederates- Confidentiality- researchers do not reveal which data were collected from which participant Confounding variable- any factor that affects the dependent measure other than the independent variable Correlation- the relationship between two or more variables Correlation Coefficient- test the strength of the relationship between the variables Dependent variable- the variable in an experiment that measures any effect of the manipulation Experiment- a research method that is used to test causal hypothesis Generalizability- how well a researcher?s findings apply to other individuals and situations Independent variable- the variable in an experiment that is manipulated Informed consent- research participants agree to participate after being told about aspects of the study Naturalistic observations- observing behavior in the environment in which the behavior typically occurs Negative correlation- a relationship in which increase in one variable correspond to decreases in a second variable Positive correlation- a relationship in which increases in one variable correspond to increases in a second variable Random assignment- participants have an equal chance of being placed in any condition of the study Representative sample- the portion of the population of interest that is selected for a study Psychology: Chapter 3: Memory Memory- the mental system for receiving, encoding, storing, organizing, altering, and retrieving information Encoding- converting information into a form in which it will be retained in memory Storage- holding information in memory for later use Retrieval- recovering information from storage in memory Sensory memory- the first stage of memory, which holds an exact record of incoming information for a few seconds or less Icon- a mental image or visual representation Short-Term memory- the memory system used to hold small amounts of information for relatively brief time periods Working memory- another name for short-term memory, especially when it is used for thinking and problem solving Long-Term memory- the memory system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information Information bits- meaningful units of information, such as numbers, letters, words, or phrases Information chunks- information bits grouped into larger units. Recoding- reorganizing or modifying information to assist storage in memory Maintenance rehearsal- silently repeating or mentally reviewing information to hold it in short-term memory Elaborative rehearsal- rehearsal that links new information with existing memories and knowledge Constructive processing- reorganizing or updating memories on the basis of logic, reasoning, or the addition of new information Declarative memory- that part of long-term memory containing specific factual information (names, faces, words, dates, and ideas) Semantic memory- a subpart of declarative memory that records impersonal knowledge about the world (general knowledge and facts) ?I know what a guitar is? Episodic memory- a subpart of declarative memory that records personal experiences that are linked with specific times and places (memory for specific events) ?I remember when I bought my first guitar? Procedural memory- long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills (typing, driving, or swinging a golf club) Tip-of-the-tongue state- the feeling that a memory is available but not quite retrievable (I know what it is! But I just can?t think of it!) (Drawing a blank) Recall- to supply or reproduce memorized information with a minimum of external cues (Fill in the blank questions) Recognition memory- an ability to correctly identify previously learned information (Multiple-choice questions) Explicit Memory- a memory that a person is aware of having; a memory that is consciously retrieved Implicit memory- a memory that a person does not know exists; a memory that is retrieved unconsciously Curve of forgetting- a graph that shows the amount of memorized information remembered after varying lengths of time Encoding failure- failure to store sufficient information to form a useful memory (Memory could have never formed in the first place) Memory traces- physical changes in nerve cells or brain activity that take place when memories are stored Memory Decay- the fading or weakening of memories assumed to occur when memory traces become weaker Repression- unconsciously pushing unwanted memories out of awareness Chapter Questions What are three memory systems and examples of each system? The three memory systems are Sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Sensory: exact copy of what you hear or see, for a few seconds or less, looking at a flower then closing your eyes and you can picture that flower. Short-Term: dialing a phone number or briefly remembering a shopping list. Long-term: Everything you know about the world. How do short-term, working, and long-term memory work? What kind of information does each store? Short-term works by images and sound, selective attention picks the information that?s important to remember. Working memory is where we do a lot of thinking. It briefly holds information we need when we are thinking and solving problems. Long-term memory works as a lasting storehouse for knowledge. They are typically stored on the basis of meaning, not sound. How much information is held in short-term memory? Short-term memory holds up to 7 bits of information. What is the magic number? The magic number is +/- 7. 15. What are the differences among procedural memory, declarative memory, semantic memory, and episodic memory? Procedural memory: are learning actions such as typing or driving. Declarative memory: are specific factual information such as names, faces, words, dates, and ideas. Semantic memory: is basic factual knowledge about the world. Such as, names of objects, days of the week, months of the year, words, and language. Episodic memory: stores life events, what you did for your birthdays, your first date etc. They are about the ?what, where and when? of our lives. 22. How should a student study for a test? A student should study for a test by studying a little bit after every new thing they learn. Studying right before a test only stores it in short-term memory. Psychology: Chapter 4: Learning 4. What are examples of habituation or sensitization and why are they important? Habituation: An animal being scared of a Hawk at first, but then when it realizes the Hawk is no harm to them, they do not act as scared of the hawk the next times. It is a good thing because it makes a sense for animals to produce a strong initial orienting response to a sudden change in their environment, for survival. Sensitization: When your exposed repeatedly to a loud noise, you?re likely to become sensitized to the noise, your reactions become more intense and prolonged with repeated exposure. An example is the first time you hear the cat cry (meow) and you realize its hungry. So when the cat continues to meow you want to feed it so it stops crying. These two things are important because they help us respond appropriately to the environment 5. On what factors does habituation or sensitization depend? They depend on if the stimulus is intense or punishing (sensitization) or if it is or mild modest in intensity (habituation). Also it depends of the timing of the presentations, for instance habituation typically occurs faster when the repetitions occur close together in time. 10. How is second order conditioning used in advertising? Second-order conditioning is used in advertising by using celebrities to endorse products. They are trying to get you to form a connection between their product and feelings of pleasure and enjoyment. 11. What are some real life examples of stimulus generalization? If you got sick after eating clams, there is a good chance you will avoid eating oysters. Things that look, sound, or feel the same often share significant properties. When stimuli share properties we often need experience to teach us to discriminate instead of treating similar things in the same way. 12. What are some real life examples of stimulus discrimination? Discriminating between clams that you don?t like and oysters that are similar but taste different. 13. What happens to learning in acquisition, extinction, and spontaneous recovery? Acquisition: Gain in response Extinction: Loss of response Spontaneous recovery: Re-learning an extinct response 14. What are some real life examples of conditioned inhibition? If a child is afraid of the bully when it is just they two, but if a teacher is around the child experiences conditioned inhibition and realizes there will be an absence of a negative event. The teacher is an ?inhibitory stimuli.? Inhibitory stimuli typically act as safety signals telling people when potentially dangerous events are likely to be absent or when dangerous conditions no long apply. 15. What is the difference between classical and operant conditioning? Some differences between the two are, classical answers an important survival question: how do we learn that certain events signal the presence or absence of other events. Operant is when a person does something and realizes the consequences (good or bad). For instance, if you study for hours and hours and you receive an A on the exam, you have conditioned yourself to do something in order to produce a specific outcome. 17. What are some examples of discriminative stimuli? Being in class (discriminative stimuli) set the occasion for question-asking to be rewarded. Discriminative stimuli set the occasion for a response to be rewarded. 18. Why is reinforcement not defined in terms of pleasant or rewarding or unpleasant or unrewarding consequences? Because pleasant or rewarding is highly personal. What is pleasant or rewarding can vary from one person to the next. 20. What do the terms positive and negative refer to with respect to reinforcement? Positive and negative refer to an increase in a tendency to respond. 22. What are some examples of positive and negative punishers? Positive: scolding the child after playing roughly with the cat using her toy. Negative: taking away the toy after playing roughly with the cat 24. What are some real life examples of fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed-interval, and variable-interval schedules of reinforcement? Fixed-ratio: Being paid 10 dollars for every hour you baby-sit Variable-ratio: Gambling, because of the chance factors, a gambler wins some bets and loses others, but the gambler never knows what to expect on a given bet but keeps trying Fixed-interval- Not getting an extra point unless you answer 5 questions right and second point after answering another 5 questions right Variable-interval- When you call someone?s house and it is busy, you don?t know how long you have to wait until you can call again for it not to be busy; may call again in 30 seconds, second time in 3 minutes, third time in 10 mins. 28. How do psychologists explain that humans will learn certain associations more quickly than others? 31. How are taste aversions learned through classical conditioning? Because the food is the (US) and it makes you sick (UR) and so the taste of that food (CS) makes you think you are going to get sick again from it (CR) 35. What are some examples of observational learning in animals? Animals will not eat certain foods if they see another animal get sick because of it. Animals fear other animals because they see another animal fear that other species. 37. What is vicarious reinforcement and vicarious punishment? Vicarious reinforcement occurs when the model is reinforced for an action. Vicarious punishment is when the model is punished for an action. 38. What are self-efficacy and an example? Self-efficacy is our beliefs about our own abilities, which significantly shape and constrain what we gain from observational learning. If you see a professional athlete dunk the ball in the hoop, but you do not think you are capable of doing that, you are less likely to try it at all. 39.What are some positive and negative effects of observational learning? Positive effects: can lower unwanted or maladaptive behavior (can imitate good things) Negative effects: people can imitate significant role models even when the behavior lacks adaptive value (can imitate bad things) Vocabulary Terms: Avoidance conditioning- a situation in which a response can prevent the delivery of an aversive stimulus, such as when a rat learns to jump over a barrier to avoid a shock Classical conditioning- A set of procedures used to investigate how organisms learn about the signaling properties of events. It involved learning relations between events- conditioned and unconditioned stimuli- that occur outside of one?s control. Conditioned inhibition- learning that an event signals the absence of the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned reinforcer- a stimulus that has acquired reinforcing properties through prior learning Conditioned response (CR)- the acquired response that is produced by the conditioned stimulus in anticipation of the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus (CS)- the neutral stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus during classical conditioning Discriminative stimulus- the stimulus situation that sets the occasion for a response to be followed by reinforcement or punishment Escape conditioning- a situation in which a response can reduce or eliminate an unpleasant stimulus, such as when a rat escapes an ongoing shock by jumping over a barrier Extinction- presenting a conditioned stimulus repeatedly, after conditioned without the unconditioned stimulus, resulting in a loss in responding Fixed-interval (FI) schedule- a schedule in which the reinforcement is delivered for the first response that occurs following a fixed interval of time Fixed-ration (FR) schedule- a schedule in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is fixed and does not change Habituation- the decline in the tendency to respond to an event that has become familiar through repeated exposure. When someone acts initially to the new and unusual exposure but subsequently ignore events that occur repeatedly without consequence. Negative punishment- an event that, when removed after a response, lowers the likelihood of that response occurring again Negative reinforcement- an event that, when removed after a response increases the likelihood of that response occurring again. Observational learning- learning by observing the experience of others Operant conditioning- a procedure for studying how organisms learn about the consequences of their own voluntary actions (also known as instrumental conditioning) Orienting response- Partial reinforcement schedule- a schedule in which reinforcement is delivered only some of the time after the response has occurred Positive punishment- an event that when presented after a response, lowers the likelihood of that response occurring again Positive reinforcement- an event that, when presented after a response, increases the likelihood of that response Punishment- consequences that decrease the likelihood of responding in a similar way again Reinforcement- response consequences that increase the likelihood of responding in a similar way again Schedule of reinforcement- a rule that an experimenter uses to determine when particular responses will be reinforced Sensitization- Increased responsiveness, or sensitivity, to an event that has been repeated Shaping- a procedure in which reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired response Spontaneous recovery- the recovery of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus Stimulus discrimination- Stimulus generalization- responding to a new stimulus in a way similar to the response produced by an established conditioned stimulus Unconditioned response (UR)- the observable response that is produced automatically, prior to training, on presentation of an unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus (US)- a stimulus that automatically leads to an observable response prior to any training Variable-interval (VI) schedule- a schedule in which the allotted time before a response will yield reinforcement varies from trial to trial Variable-ratio (VR) schedule- a schedule in which a certain number of responses are required for reinforcement, but the number of required responses typically change Psychology Chapter 5 Study Guide Questions: What are the parts of a neuron? Two types of neurons are sensory and motor. Sensory sends information from organs to central nervous system. Motor sends information to muscles and glands. The parts of a neuron are dendrites, axon, myelin. Dendrites are branches off of neurons that receive information from other neurons. Axon is like the wire in a cord, and the myelin is the cord part protecting the wire that speeds up transmission in the axon. How does the action potential work? When an action potential reaches the terminal button, it releases molecules of a neurotransmitter. Sodium gates open and allow sodium ions to enter. As the sodium ions enter the axon, they drive the inside of the cell to a slightly positive charge. Whenever that charge is great enough to reach the threshold of the axon, it opens narrow channels that permit still more sodium ions to enter, bringing with them their positive charges. This influx of positively charged sodium ions is the action potential. 5. What does a neuron do at a synapse? 6. What do neurotransmitters do? The neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across a narrow gap to the postsynaptic neuron, the neuron on the receiving end of the synapse. Then they attach to receptors on the neuron?s dendrites or cell body. The neural communication process then happens. The attachment can either excite or inhibit the postsynaptic neuron. It enables either positively charged or negatively charged ions to enter. Decides if you are going to do something or not. 9. What hypothesis does the drug L-dopa for Parkinson?s disease support? The hypothesis is that any unusual behavior is due to an excess or deficiency of some kind of synaptic activity. So L-dopa enters the brain, where neurons convert it into dopamine. There is a belief of the link between the transmitter and the disease. 12. What are the major divisions of the nervous system? Central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. 13. What happens to people with occipital lobe damage? People with damage to this part have cortical blindness. They have no conscious vision, no object recognition and no visual imagery. 14. What is the effect of extensive damage to the parietal region? People with damage to this area will impair sensation from the corresponding part of the body and interferes with spatial attention. People see something but cannot decipher where it is relative to their body, they have trouble reaching toward it, walking around it or shifting attention from one object to another. They often confuse two objects. 15. What are is damaged in and what happens in Wernicke?s aphasia? Damage in the temporal lobe of the left hemisphere is important for language comprehension. This condition makes it hard to remember the names o objects and understanding speech, although these people do a little better if someone speaks slowly. Their speech lacks in nouns and verbs, and it?s hard to understand. 21. What are the two parts of the autonomic nervous system? The two parts of the autonomic nervous system are 22. What is some evidence for and against the hypothesis that exercising the brain makes the brain bigger? Vocabulary Action potential- an excitation that travels along an axon at a constant strength, no matter how far it must travel. Autonomic nervous system- (we have little control of it) a system of neurons that controls the heart, stomach, and other organs Axon- a single, long, thing, straight fiber that transmits information from a neuron to other neurons or to muscle cells. Central nervous system- The brain and the spinal cord Cerebellum- ?little brain? a hindbrain structure that is active in the control of movement, especially for complex, rapid motor skills and behaviors that require precise timing Cerebral cortex- the outer surface of the forebrain Corpus callosum- Dendrite- one of the widely branching structures of a neuron that receive transmissions from other neurons. Dopamine- a neurotransmitter that promotes activity levels and facilitates movement. Endocrine system- a set of glands that produce hormones and release them into the blood stream Frontal lobe- a portion of each cerebral hemisphere at the anterior pole, with section that controls movement and certain aspects of memory Glia- a cell of the nervous system that insulates neurons, removes waste materials. Hemisphere- the left or right half of the brain, each hemisphere is responsible for sensation and motor control on the opposite side of the body Hormone- a chemical released by glands and conveyed by the blood to other parts of the body, where it alters activity. Neuron- Nerve cell, cell that receives and transmits information as electrochemical impulses Neurotransmitter- a chemical that is stored in the terminal of an axon and that, when released, activates receptors of other neurons. When an action potential reaches the terminal button, it releases molecules of a neurotransmitter. Occipital lobe- the rear portion of each cerebral hemisphere, critical for vision Parietal lobe- a portion of ach cerebral hemisphere; the main receiving area for the sense of touch and for the awareness of one?s own body and perception of location of the body in space. Peripheral nervous system- the bundles of axons that convey messages between the spinal cord and the rest of the body Prefrontal cortex- an area in the anterior portion of the frontal lobes, critical for planning movements and for certain aspects of memory. Resting potential- electrical polarization that ordinarily occurs across the membrane of an axon that is not undergoing an action potential. At -70mv. Spinal cord- that part of the central nervous system that communicates with sensory neurons and motor neurons below the level of the head Stem cells- Synapse- the specialized junction between one neuron and another; at this point one neuron release a neurotransmitter, which either excites or inhibits the next neuron. Temporal lobe- a portion of each cerebral hemisphere; the main processing area for hearing, complex aspects of vision, and certain aspects of emotional behavior Sodium Potassium Pump Ions are NA+ and K+ Pushes sodium ions out of the axon while pulling in potassium ions. The sodium ions are more concentrated outside the axon and potassium ions are more concentrate in. What is an action potential? Sodium gates open and allow sodium ions to enter. As the sodium ions enter the axon, they drive the inside of the cell to a slightly positive charge. Whenever that charge is great enough to reach the threshold of the axon, it opens narrow channels that permit still more sodium ions to enter, bringing with them their positive charges. This influx of positively charged sodium ions is the action potential. What is the resting potential? When an axon is not stimulated and at -70mv inside axon. What is the refractory period? What is the importance of -70mv? -70mv is when your body is at resting potential When an axon is at rest, positively charged sodium ions are what? What?s going on? Does the strength of an action potential change or does it stay at a constant rate? It is a constant rate Parts of a Neuron: Cell body- the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus of the cell Axon- a single, long, thing, straight fiber that transmits information from a neuron to other neurons or to muscle cells. Myelin- insulating sheet that speeds up the transmission of impulses along an axon, you have to have it to physically function, it protects axon. Dendrite- one of the widely branching structures of a neuron that receive transmissions from other neurons. Review Chapter 8 9. What are the explanations as to why the stroop effect is difficult? The stroop effect is difficult because your understanding of the written words interferes with naming the color of the ink. There is a psychological difficulty of selectively attending to the color of the ink and trying to ignore the word it forms. One reason it is particularly difficult is that reading is an automatic process, not readily subject to your conscious control. You find it difficult to ignore what you read and concentrate on the color of the ink. The output of a response occurs when the mental pathways for producing the response are activated sufficiently. The name of the color the word is written in activates a pathway for naming the color. But the activity of the first pathway interferes with the latter. It takes longer to gather sufficient strength of activation to produce the color-naming response and not the word-reading response. 12. What do current models of selective attention emphasize? They propose that we somehow filter, and thus sort out, competing stimuli. Theories that propose a filter disagree about when filtering occur and what it affects. 14. What are the two main purposes of consciousness? Monitoring and controlling; monitoring, the individual keeps track of internal mental processes, personal behavior, and the environment to maintain self-awareness in relation to the surrounding environment. If you feel depressed and try to figure out what is bothering you, you are monitoring your thinking. Controlling is the individual plans what to do based on the information received from the monitoring process. If you realize you are depressed because you have not had any fun all week, and you then decide it is time to do something fun, you are controlling your thinking and behavior. 15. What are stored at the preconscious level? Contains information that could easily become conscious but that is not continuously available, something you know but you are not always thinking about. Automatic behaviors, which are those that require no conscious decisions about which muscles to move or which actions to take. Examples are dialing a familiar telephone number and driving a car to familiar place. Tip-of-the-tongue Phenomenon, which occurs when we are trying to remember something we already know but cannot quite retrieve. Also subliminal perception, a preconscious processing of information that is thus below the level of conscious awareness of that information, suggests that people have the ability to detect information without being aware they are doing so. Blindsight, a phenomenon in which individuals can see something but are not aware of what they are seeing. 20. What does the subconscious level involve? Involves less awareness than full consciousness and is either synonymous with the unconscious level or slightly more accessible to consciousness than the unconscious level. Repressed thoughts. 23. How does an altered state of consciousness differ from a normal state? Altered states of consciousness are those other than our normal, waking state. In an altered state of consciousness, such as sleeping and dreaming, awareness is somehow changed from our normal, waking state. Each state of consciousness involves qualitative changes in our alertness and awareness. Cognitive processes may be more shallow or uncritical than usual. Perceptions of self and of the world may change from what they are during wakefulness. Third, normal inhibitions and control over behavior may weaken. People under the influence of alcohol may do things they normally would no do in a sober state. 25. What are two views and the evidence for why we sleep? Preservation and protection. And restoration. Preservation and protection is that sleep serves an adaptive function. It protects the individual during that portion of the 24-hour day in which being awake, and hence roaming around, would place the individual at greatest risk. They are best off staying out of harms way. The evidence to support this theory is that the amount of time various species sleep tends to vary with two important factors. The first is the amount of time they require to find the food they need to stay alive. The second is how well they can hide themselves when they sleep. They sleep at times that maximize their safety given their physical capacities and their habits. Restoration is that we sleep to restore depleted resources and dissipate accumulated wastes. The restoration view of sleep is that it may have chemical causes. Cerebrospinal fluid causes sleep. A small peptide made up of five amino acids, including muramic acid, was recognized to be the sleep-producing compound that may have built up in the central nervous system. SPS- sleep promoting substance. DSIP- delta-sleep-inducing-peptide, 26. What does the sleep and wake cycle do as we change? Anything that changes our circadian rhythm can interfere with sleep. Jet lag- is a disturbance in circadian rhythm caused by altering the light-dark cycle too rapidly or too slowly. The sleep cycle requires less sleep as we get older. 27. Why are physiological changes that occur during the circadian rhythm? Humans experience physiological changes that can be measured according to their daily rhythm. Such changes include lowering of body temperature at night and changes in hormone levels. The rhythm is controlled by hypothalamus. 29. What do researchers think people adjust to jet lag in one direction than another? Because people may be less tired because people tend to have a natural sleep-wake cycle of 25 rather than 24 hours, so that it is easier for them to have to go to sleep later than to go to sleep earlier. Traveling west to east. 31. What are the effects of sleep deprivation? Appear tense, moods swing wildly, start to experience typical illusions, distorted perceptions of objects and other external stimuli. They also may experience hallucinations, or perceptions of sensory stimuli in the absence of any actual corresponding external sensory input from the physical world. They commonly experience auditory hallucinations, such as hearing voices in the sound of running water. 32. What are the five stages of sleep? The five stages of sleep are Stage 1- transitional state between wakefulness and sleep Stage 2- we spend more than half of our sleeping time EEG waves are larger and overlap with sleep spindles. Stage 3- Delta sleep, 20-50% waves delta Stage 4- Over 50% delta waves REM sleep- the distinctive kind of sleep that is characterized by rapid eye movements and frequently associated with dreaming. 33. What emotions did people report during REM sleep? It showed a balanced proportion of positive and negative emotions. Joy was the most frequent, followed by surprise, anger, anxiety/fear, and sadness. 34. Why is REM sleep called paradoxical sleep? REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because at the same time that the brain is very active the body?s capacity for movement is greatly diminished. 35. What are symptoms of insomnia? Difficulty falling asleep, waking up during the night and being unable to go back to sleep, and waking up too early in the morning. 36. What are problems with taking sleeping pill and sedatives for insomnia? They may help temporarily but their side effects are troublesome. They often eventually intensify the insomnia. They interfere with the natural sleep cycle, usually decreasing REM sleep. They continue to work during the day, impairing cognitive and motor functions while the user is awake. Sedatives are also habit-forming, and people who rely on them may find it hard to sleep without taking medicine. 37. What is the pattern of narcolepsy? It is a disturbance in the pattern of wakefulness and sleep in which the narcoleptic experiences an uncontrollable urge to fall asleep periodically during the day. (10-15 mins). They usually fall into REM sleep immediately. Genetically inherited. 38. Why is sleep apnea considered dangerous? Because the sleeper stops breathing perhaps hundreds of times per night. It deprives the body of oxygen. 39. Who tends to have sleep apnea? Overweight people and prematurely born infants. SIDS. 40. What are the characteristics symptoms and problems that occur with sleepwalking? The sleepwalker is able to see, walk, and perhaps talk, but usually cannot remember this. Usually begins in stage 3 or 4 of N-REM sleep. Some people leave their homes, and their perception is often impaired. They can injure themselves asleep in some place other than their beds. More common in children, it usually disappears, as children grow older. 43. Why did Freud thought people dreamed and what support is there for his theory? Dreams allow us to express our unconscious wishes in a disguised way. ?Royal road to the unconscious.? He thought we dreamed in symbols that both express and disguise our unconscious wishes. The support for this theory is weak. 44. What are two research examples of the problem solving view of dreams? Women going through a divorce are likely to dream about problems related to divorce. Women who dream about this seem better able when they are awake to cope with the problems. 49. What similarities and differences do people report that are hypnotized and simulating being hypnotized? Stimulating- report themselves as actively faking Try to figure out what the hypnotist expects from them Hypnotized- report behavior as more or less just happening to them Uninfluenced by the experimenters? expectations of them. Do not appear to be faking 57. What are the four basic categories of drugs, their effects, and names? Narcotics- Produce numbness or stupor, relieve pain (Opium, morphine, heroin, codeine. Opioids, meperidine, Demerol, propoxyphene Darvon, oxycodone, precodan, methadone) CNS depressants (?downers?)- Slow (depress) the operation of the central nervous system. (alcohol, sedatives, barbiturates, methaqualone, chloral hydrate) CNS stimulants (?uppers?)- Excite (stimulate) the operation of the central nervous system (caffeine, amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine) Hallucinogens (psychedelics, psychotominmetics)- Induce alterations of consciousness (LSD, mescaline, marijuana, hashish, PCP, MDMA, mushrooms) 58. Why do people take drugs? Some people take drugs to experiment, feeling confident that they are personally immune to addiction or that they will not get addicted in the short amount of time they plan to take the drugs. Others feel so unhappy in their daily lives that the risks seem worth it. 59. What are the effects and side effects of narcotics? They can lead to addiction, they have a constipating effect because they also depress other physiological systems, including metabolic processes. They primarily affect the functioning of the brain and the bowel. They bring out pain relief, relaxation, and sleepiness. They help to suppress coughs and can stimulate vomiting. They have an impaired ability to concentrate and a sense of mental fuzziness or cloudiness. Driving is extremely dangerous. Doing cognitively intensive work would be unproductive. Side effects include contraction of the pupils, sweating, nausea, and depressed breathing. 60. How does dependency to narcotics occur? Prolonged use of psychoactive drugs leads to tolerance, which leads to taking more of the drug. Dependency occurs because, like many other drugs, narcotics mimic neurotransmitters in the way they act at synapses. The molecular compositions of opiates resemble that of endorphins, which are endogenous morphine?s, the body?s natural painkilling neurotransmitter. Prolonged use of narcotics can cause a drug in the body?s natural production of particular endorphins. As the drug replaces the body?s natural painkillers, people can develop drug dependence, a state in which an individual must continue to use a dru to avoid physical symptoms, and psychological dependence, in which a person continues to use a drug to avoid mental or emotional symptoms. 61. What happens if a person prolongs use of a narcotic? Prolonged use of narcotics can cause a drug in the body?s natural production of particular endorphins. As the drug replaces the body?s natural painkillers, people can develop drug dependence, a state in which an individual must continue to use a dru to avoid physical symptoms, and psychological dependence, in which a person continues to use a drug to avoid mental or emotional symptoms. 62. What is the current thinking about psychological and physical dependence? Many psychologists believe that the distinction between the two kinds of dependence is so fuzzy as to be useless. Chapter 10-intelligence Psychometric- are uses of psychological tests to measure the mind and mental processes. Intelligence- an internal capacity or ability that accounts for individual differences in mental test performance and enables us to adapt to ever-changing environments. Factor analysis- a statistical procedure that groups together related items on tests by analyzing the correlations among test scores. General (G) intelligence-according to spearman, a general factor, derived from factor analysis that underlies or contributes to performance on a variety of mental tests. Specific (S) intelligence- is according to Spearman, a specific factor, derived from factor analysis that is unique to a particular kind of test. Raymond Cattell and John Horn have suggested that g contains two distinct components: Fluid intelligence- the natural ability to solve problems, and remember, fluid intelligence is thought to be relatively uninfluenced by experience. It?s the type of intelligence that is probably determined primarily by biological or genetic factors. You are both with a certain amount of conscious capacity or mental resources Crystallized Intelligence- the knowledge and abilities acquired as a result of experience (as from schooling and culture influences) performance depends on what you?ve learned from experience: learning to chunk or rehearse for performance. Many psychologists suggest that intelligence is related to the speed of transmission among the neurons in the brain. The faster the brain communicates internally, the greater your intelligence. The shorter the latency (time of appearance of the signal) the faster the processing in the brain, the higher the intelligence score. Multiple Intelligences- the notion proposed by Howard Gardner that people possess a set of separate and independent ?intelligences? ranging from musical to linguistic to interpersonal ability. ?We should understand that human behavior is rich in selective talents and abilities.? Gardner used a case study approach. Musical intelligence- the type of ability displayed by gifted musicians or child prodigies Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence- the type of ability shown by gifted athletes, dancers, or surgeons who have great control over body movement Logical-mathematical intelligence- the type of ability displayed by superior scientists and logical problem solvers Linguistic intelligence- the type of ability shown by great writers or poets who can express themselves verbally Spatial intelligence- the type of ability shown by those with superior navigation skills or an ability to visualize spatial scenes Interpersonal intelligence- the type of ability shown by those who can easily inger other people?s mood, temperaments, or intentions and motivations Intrapersonal intelligence- the ability shown by someone who has great insight into his or her own feelings and emotions Naturalistic intelligence- the ability to observe and interact with diverse species in nature; the type of ability shown by a biologist or environmentalist. Sternberg?s Triarchic Theory Robert Sternberg?s theory of intelligence; it purposes three types of intelligence: analytic, creative, and practical Analytic- the ability to process information analytically (can generate effective strategies for solutions). Perform well on conventional tests that tap reasoning and logical-mathematical ability. Tend to be assigned a high general intelligence. Creative- the ability to cope with novel tasks. Applying skills you have mastered to new context. ?Applying what you have learned to new situations? Practical- the ability to solve problems posed by unique cultural surroundings. ?How well people fit into their environment.? Solve problems that are uniquely posed by their cultural surroundings. ?Street smarts? they size up situations well and act accordingly. Psychometric Spearman?s factor g Hierarchical models Biological Mental speed Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Multiple Intelligence Gardner?s multiple intelligences Triarchic Theory Analytic intelligence Creative intelligence Practical intelligence Achievement Tests- psychological tests that measure your current level of knowledge or competences in a particular subject to make predictions about the future. Aptitude Tests- psychological tests that measure your ability to learn or acquire knowledge in a particular subject Components of a Good Test Reliability- a measure of the consistency of test results reliable tests produce similar scores or indices from one administration to the next. It is important for tests to be reliable so we can draw firm conclusions from the results. Validity- An assessment of how well a test measures what it is supposed to measure. Content validity- assesses the degree to which the test samples broadly across the domain of interest. The test should not be limited to one kind of the basic topic. For the test to have a high degree of content validity, it should probably measure many subtopics of the test topic. Predictive validity- assesses how well the test predicts some future criterion. The SAT and ACT. The SAT is designed to predict success in college +0.40 and +0.50, which means that we can predict college performance with the SAT to some degree, but our predictive abilities are not perfect. Construct validity- assesses how well the test taps into a particular theoretical construct. The test must predict performance on each of these separate indices of creativity, rather than on just one. ?If the theory predicts that creative people are more likely to suffer from depression, then people who score high on the creativity test should have a greater likelihood of being depressed. Standardization- Keeping the testing, scoring, and other interpretation procedures similar across all administrations of a test. Intelligence Quotient (IQ)- mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100 Alfred Binet- identified children who were considered ?dull.? The goal was to determine the mental age or what Binet and Simon called the mental level of the child, the chronological age that best fits a child?s level of performance on a test of mental ability. Lewis Terman at Stanford University. Standford-Binet test of intelligence. Terman popularized the idea of IQ based on an idea proposed by William Stern, IQ?s greater than 100= above average intelligence IQ?s lower than 100= below average intelligence Deviation IQ- an intelligence score that is derived from determining where your performance sits in an age-based distribution of test scores. The average distribution is 100. 68% scores between 85-115 98%- scores at or below 130 Mental retardation- a label generally assigned to someone who scores below 70 on a standard IQ test although other factors, such as one?s ability to adapt to the environment are also important. Giftedness- a label generally assigned to someone who scores above 130 on a standard IQ test IQ correlates about +.50 or higher with school grades. Individual differences related to intelligence: Creativity- the ability to generate ideas that are original, novel, and useful They can see the big picture. It is a general intelligence. Emotional- the ability to perceive, understands, and express emotion in ways that are useful and adaptive. Tacit Knowledge- had unspoken practical knowledge about how to perform well on the job. Good predictor of job performance. The kind of knowledge not usually taught. Comes from experience from watching and analyzing the behavior of others. The idea that intelligence can be measured by performance on mental tests is consistent with psychometric approach. The idea intelligence models need to include special talents is with the Howard Gardner?s theory. The Triarchic theory of intelligence suggests that intelligence models must address behavior that occurs in the real world According to the Triarchic theory, someone who can adapt very well to new or novel tasks, has high creative intelligence Achievement tests measure current level of knowledge in a particular field or area Tests that measure and individual?s ability to acquire knowledge are called aptitude tests Valid tests accurately measure When all people given a test are took the test under exactly the same condition the test is standardized An individual with a mental age greater than his or her chronological age would have an IQ greater than 100 What is the IQ of a 4 year old who scores like a 5 year old= 125 When the deviation score is reported, what percent of people have an IQ between 70-130? 98% of people Creativity appears to be the ability to generate original, and novel yet useful ideas How do fluid and crystallized intelligence change across the life span? Fluid intelligence decreases Heritability is an index that represents the extent to which genetic factors account for IQ differences within a population Observed variations in IQ scores seem to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors
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