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McCarthy and Hagan’s study of street youth found support for the view that _______ leads to crime, especially street crimes.
McCarthy and Hagan’s study of homeless youth found that the adverse situations of homelessness have strong direct effects on street crime. Which of the following was NOT one of the adverse situations that they studied?
In his book Seductions of Crime: Moral and Sensual Attractions in Doing Evil, Jack Katz focuses on the ______ content of crime and delinquency, or the meaning that situations have for those involved.
In Seductions of Crime, Jack Katz argues that we cannot explain delinquency without understanding:
Katz proposes that the situational dynamics of crime involve three stages. Which of the following is NOT one of these three stages?i
Katz studied illegal activity using all but which one of the following sources?
USED: biographies, autobiographies, ethnographies, observational studies, and journalism
Being thrilled by the delinquent act illustrates which situational dynamic of crime proposed by Katz?
McCarthy’s extension to Katz’s explanation of sneaky thrill property crime contends that Katz’s emphasis on _________ is overstated.
Which theory did Cohen and Felson develop to try to address the characteristics of the situation that influence the range of choices available to individuals?
According to routine activities theory, three basic elements of the situation are necessary for crime or delinquency to occur. Which of the following is NOT one of these elements?
Which of the following is NOT one of the elements in Osgood’s revised routine activities theory?
Matza advances what concept to convey a less deterministic view of delinquent youth and their involvement in delinquent behavior?
Drift theory incorporates three fundamental elements. Which of the following is NOT one of these elements?
Proposing the concept of drift, Sykes and Matza point out that:
delinquents are not completely separated from the standards and expectations of conventional society
Which of the following is one of the techniques of neutralization in drift theory?
The statement, “Police are corrupt, stupid, and brutal,” reflects which technique of neutralization?
The statement, “I did it for the sake of my friends,” reflects which technique of neutralization?
Matza turns to which approach to account for the driving force that leads to delinquent behavior?
23. Matza offers two conditions that activate a will for delinquency: preparation and .
Rational choice theory has been applied most extensively to:
Paternoster's rational choice model includes which of the following considerations that enter into offending decisions?
Criminologist Raymond Paternoster conducted a study of the role of rational choice in all but which one of the following delinquent behaviors?
(used) marijuana use, drinking, petty theft, and vandalism
According to Wilson and Herrnstein, criminal propensity:
Social control theories focus on:
Nye differentiated three major forms of control and demonstrated how family relations play a vital role in the development and application of these controls. Which of the following is NOT one of these controls?
______ controls are based on affectional identification with others, such that an individual conforms in order to maintain relationship bonds and avoid disappointing others.
______ controls are exercised from within the individual through conscience or sense of guilt.
_______controls are those restrictions and punishments imposed by others that restrict behavior and the rewards that encourage and reinforce positive behavior.
Which of the following is generally regarded as the primary element of the social bond?
Intimacy of communication between parent and child is a measure of _______
Hirschi referred to the “rational component” of the social bond as
Hirschi described four elements of an individual’s social bond to society. Which of the following is NOT one of these elements?
Which element of the social bond controls delinquency by consuming a youth’s time and energy?
The element of the social bond that includes attitudes toward the law that encourage conformity is referred to as:
To test their life-course theory, Sampson and Laub used the original data of which well-known researchers?
_____ theory is a developmental approach that attempts to bring childhood and adulthood into the criminological picture.
The term _____ refers to the age-graded sequence of culturally-defined roles and social transitions.
Sampson and Laub propose four family socialization factors that significantly increase the likelihood of delinquent behavior. Which of the following is NOT one of those factors?
The term ______ refers to the obligations and restraints that are part of adult relationship bonds and that result in informal social control.
Testing life-course theory, Sampson and Laub found that social capital derived from_____________ significantly reduced deviance during adulthood.
Gottfredson and Hirschi argue that crimes are committed by persons who:
Describing the nature of crime, Gottfredson and Hirschi argue that:
Individuals with low self-control tend to be all of the following except
According to Gottfredson and Hirschi’s theory, the development of self-control is linked primarily to:
Which one of the following statements regarding family life and delinquency is false?
family disruption is related to delinquency because of the effect of disruption on relationship and parental supervision
Which dimension of parental discipline is most closely related to low levels of delinquency?
Which of the following statements about family structure and delinquency is true?
effect of such disruption on relationship bonds and parental monitoring and supervison
The term ______refers to the fact that delinquency occurs most often in the company of peers.
The focus is on peer group relations in _____ theory.
______ theory contends that the mechanism for transmitting delinquent behavior is communication within peer groups.
Differential association theory is a theory of:
According to differential association theory, what aspects of group association determine the level of peer influence?
Verbal communication, and intimate personal groups
According to differential association theory, the influence of relationships within groups varies in:
Frequency, duration, priority, & intensity
Sutherland’s differential association theory is stated in the form of ___ propositions.
The belief that criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other people in a process of communication is a basic principle of _______theory.
Differential association theory argues that delinquent behavior is:
Burgess and Akers extended differential association theory in a revised version called ____ theory.
Burgess and Akers’ social learning theory incorporates principles from behavioral learning theory, especially:
Burgess and Akers refer to the social processes of rewards and punishments as:
Differential association and social learning theories contend that _____ are the main cause of delinquent behavior.
Social learning theory extends differential association theory by considering how peers reward attitudes and behaviors. This process is called:
Social learning theory refers to the attitudes and beliefs attached to behavior as:
imitation and reinforcement
_____ theory proposes that youth may engage in delinquency because they are imitating the behaviors of peers.
The tendency to seek out individuals like oneself is referred to as the:
______ theory takes issue with the idea that delinquents have comparatively warm, intimate social relationships with each other.
Which of the following statements is/are true regarding gender and peer-group influence?
Males are more likely than females to be exposed to delinquent friends.
The first systematic study of delinquent gangs was conducted by:
The view that gang values and expectations encourage gang members' involvement in crime is called the ______ model of gang influence.
In the ______ model of gang influence, youth who are already involved in delinquent acts are attracted to and recruited by gangs because the norms and values of the gang are consistent with their own.
Decker and Van Winkle contend that ______ is probably the single most important aspect of gang culture.
Moore reported three distinctive characteristics of Chicano gangs. Which of the following is NOT one of these characteristics?
Horowitz found that the Chicano gang she studied in Chicago placed great emphasis on:
Padilla studied a Chicago Puerto Rican gang called the “Diamonds.” He reported that the primary organizing force of the gang was:
Social structure theories center on the idea that high rates of crime are caused by:
Low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity (diversity), and residential mobility
Durkheim’s theoretical concept of anomie is best described as:
Which theory was most extensively advanced by persons affiliated with the Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago?
The proponents of social disorganization theory are often referred to as the:
Which sociologist developed the concentric zone model of urban development?
According to the _____________ model of urban growth, cities in the early 1900s grew through progressive expansion from the central city outwards, in a series of zones associated with different types of land use.
Which of the following is NOT one of the five structural characteristics that Rodney Stark says summarize the idea of social disorganization?
Which of the following was NOT a conclusion drawn by Shaw and McKay?
Areas of the city with high rates of delinquency were characterized by high rates for only short periods of time.
Shaw and McKay’s argument is that three structural characteristics are especially disruptive of community social organization. Which of the following is NOT one of these characteristics?
Why do socially disorganized neighborhoods have high crime rates, according to social disorganization theory?
How did Shaw and McKay incorporate the element of culture into social disorganization theory?
Social disorganization theory was vitally important in directing criminological attention toward:
Who played a leading role in revitalizing social disorganization theory in the 1980s by showing its relevance for understanding and responding to high rates of crime in inner-city neighborhoods?
In his contemporary version of social disorganization theory, Robert Sampson uses which term to refer to the willingness of community residents to be involved with each other and to exercise informal control?
The origins of anomie and strain theories can be traced to the work of:
Merton based his societal-level theory on Durkheim’s concept of:
Anomie theory assumes that a single dominant value fills all of American society, and there is widespread consensus regarding this value. What is that value?
What is the term that Merton used to refer to the accepted avenues for achieving cultural goals?
Which types of theories consider the availability of legitimate opportunities for material success at both the individual and societal level in their explanations for crime?
Anomie theory has been criticized for being:
Which theory explains how groups and individuals adapt to the condition of anomie in society?
According to Merton, which adaptation to anomie involves a rigid compliance with rules, without a clear commitment to goals?
According to Merton, which adaptation to anomie is least common?
According to Merton, which adaptation to anomie is most related to crime and delinquency?
Agnew’s general strain theory emphasizes the ___________ aspects of strain.
Which of the following is NOT a source of strain, according to Agnew's general strain theory?
Which theorist noted that much delinquency in inner-city areas is committed by gang members and that most delinquent acts are done not for economic gain, but “for the hell of it”?
According to Cohen, lower-class boys confronted with the common problem of status frustration turn to one of three adaptations. Which adaptation accepts the low status ascribed to those from the lower class and disengages from the competitive struggle for status?
Cohen suggests that lower-class youths often experience status frustration in schools that are dominated by:
Cohen’s theory contends that lower-class boys often experience status frustration as a result of failure in school, join delinquent gangs, and develop values and norms in opposition to middle-class society. This latter process is called:
In their differential opportunity theory, Cloward and Ohlin focus on:
Legitimate and illegitimate opportunities
Cloward and Ohlin identify three types of subcultures. Which of the following is NOT one of these subcultures?
According to Cloward and Ohlin, which type of subculture exists in neighborhoods that are well organized for crime, where norms all but require criminal involvement?
According to Cloward and Ohlin, which type of subculture predominates in areas that lack criminal traditions?
The main question labeling theorists ask is:
How and why do certain behaviors and individuals get labeled “deviant,” “delinquent,” or “criminial”?
Which of the following statements is true?
Labeling theorists view deviance as an inherent quality of particular acts.
Labeling theory has its roots in:
Who is typically credited with providing the first statement of the principles of labeling theory?
Who introduced the concepts of primary and secondary deviance?
What term is used to refer to initial acts of deviance, many of which go undetected?
The most important aspect of primary deviance is that:
The fundamental distinction between primary and secondary deviance lies in:
informal and formal: subsequent labels influence
What is Lemert’s term for deviance that occurs in response to problems created by societal reactions to primary deviance?”
Howard Becker refers to rule creators as:
Which of the following was NOT a reform of the juvenile justice system in the 1960s and 1970s, based on the labeling perspective?
Protect most members of society
What term did Matsueda use to refer to the view of self that one develops by taking the role of others and appraising oneself from the perspective of those others?
John Braithwaite contends that stigmatization increases subsequent offending, while _____ decreases subsequent offending
Research that examines the consequences of labeling shows which of the following?
Which of the following is NOT one of the themes of critical criminologies?
Both law and the criminal justice system protect the interests of most members of society.
In Colvin and Pauly's integrated structural-Marxist theory, what influences mechanisms of control within the family?
According to Colvin and Pauly, which type of workers tend to use coercive, arbitrary, and inconsistent discipline that is sometimes lax and at other times highly punitive?
In their integrated structural-Marxist theory, Colvin and Pauly examine control structures in which of the following contexts?
Power-control theory offers a structural explanation for common delinquency that focuses on the intersection of:
social class and gender
According to Hagan and his colleagues, in which type of families do parents teach daughters to avoid risk?
Which theorist argues that the disproportionate involvement of adolescents in crime is based on their precarious status position in capitalist societies?
In Greenberg's Marxist interpretation of delinquency, he explains crimes that are exaggerated displays of toughness (e.g., rape, assault) as attempts to reduce
Whose view of female offending has been called the “liberation hypothesis” and “emancipation theory”?
Which feminist perspective focuses on patriarchy as the root of women’s oppression?
Travis Hirschi’s _____________ theory explains conformity in terms of four elements of the social bond: attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.
Sampson and Laub's ______________ theory explores how informal social controls in adulthood involve obligations and restraints that are attached to particular roles, such as marriage and work, and that prohibit crime.
Gottfredson and Hirschi's ______________ theory focuses on controls within individuals
______________ theories focus on peer groups as the context in which delinquent behavior is reinforced.
Which theory argues that structural characteristics such as low economic status and residential mobility disrupt a community's social organization and contribute to high crime rates?
Which theory argues that, in the US, the goal of economic success is emphasized without a corresponding emphasis on the legitimate means to achieve success?
Any individual characteristic, social influence, or environmental characteristic that increases the likelihood of problem behaviors is referred to as a:
Juvenile delinquency is a component of larger group of problem behaviors that tend to occur together. Which of the following problem behaviors often occurs along with delinquency?
Drug and alcohol use, mental health problems, behavior problems and underachievement in school
Which of the following is NOT a protective or resiliency factor identified through research?
Which of the following is NOT an empirically verified risk factor at the individual level?
Weak family attachments and indirect controls
Which of the following is NOT an empirically verified risk factor at the family level?
Which of the following is a basic principle of effective delinquency prevention?
risk focus prevention
The identification of "model programs" in Blueprints for Violence Prevention is based on:
replication, effectiveness research design
Which of the following is NOT one of the three risks factors associated with the development of early antisocial behavior in children and targeted by the nurse visitation program?
Lack of neighborhood support programs
_____________ prevention programs target the general population of youth and include campaigns to prevent smoking and drug use, and to promote problem-solving skills through classroom education.
_____________ prevention programs target younger adolescents who are already involved in initial delinquent acts, but whose pattern of delinquency is not extensive.
_____________ prevention programs target youth or groups of youth who are "at risk" due to multiple risk factors in their lives.
The Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS) program is a school-based prevention curriculum designed to enhance _____________ skills.
Self control, emotional understanding, positive peer relations, and interpersonal problem-solving skills
Big Brothers Big Sisters is a delinquency prevention program based on:
_____________ involves systematic methods of appraisal and evaluation that are used to identify and classify problem behaviors.
Which of the following is NOT a diagnosis that represents externalizing problem behaviors?
Which of the following disorders is associated with impaired executive functions (resulting in poor self-regulation of impulses and behaviors) and autonomic system underarousal (resulting in stimulation-seeking behavior)?
Research shows that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) tend to:
In delinquency intervention, screening and assessment differ in terms of:
Early intervention occurs in which of the following service sectors?
Mental health, education, child welfare, and juvenile justice
Youth enter the child welfare system primarily because of:
Police departments develop juvenile units because:
Historically, the police role with juveniles has been viewed as an extension of the original juvenile court. What police role corresponds to this parens patriae policing?
The original protective police role with juveniles resulted in:
The emergence of "professional policing" in the late 1920s is most closely associated with which police role?
What organizational structure is usually connected with "professional policing”?
The contemporary revolution in policing known as community-oriented policing emphasizes:
Community-oriented policing involves:
What police practice is most emphasized in the contemporary initiatives for punishment and accountability in juvenile justice?
In recent years, what has been the most common way of handling juveniles taken into custody by the police?
What concept describes the police officer’s ability to choose among a variety of actions?
Police officers' contact with juveniles can result in which of the following:
A police officer's law enforcement decisions depend in part on:
What was the result of New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985)?
In which case involving a juvenile suspect did the Supreme Court hold that deadly force could not be used against unarmed fleeing felons?
What is the appropriate legal test for the admissibility of statements that juveniles make during custodial interrogation?
What is the significance of the case California v. Prysock (1981)?
Which of the following is the most common source of referrals to the juvenile court?
The term "intake" refers to the:
In most jurisdictions, the intake decision is made by a:
What type of status offense is petitioned into juvenile courts most often?
Informal probation for juveniles usually involves:
Which statement is true concerning what we know about race and detention rates?
Compared to whites, African Americans and other minority youth are detained at lower rates.
The first step of formal juvenile court adjudication, in which the youth either admits or denies the allegations of the petition, is referred to as:
What is the agreement that results in disposition of juveniles who are petitioned, but NOT adjudicated?
The rules that are a part of probation, such as attending school or work, maintaining a curfew, and obeying all laws, are referred to as:
The set of requirements that all probationers in a given jurisdiction must observe is known as:
What is the legal standard for probation conditions, established by statutory law and appellate court decisions?
The probation supervision style that tries to refer youth to needed community services is called:
The probation supervision style that reflects the more punitive posture of the juvenile justice system in recent decades is referred to as:
The innovation in probation supervision that involves a reduced caseload, frequent contacts and checks, community service, and frequent urinalysis is referred to as:
The growth of community-based corrections in the 1960s and early 1970s was due, in part, to:
Community-based correctional programs are based on the fundamental idea that:
What term is used to describe attempts to deal with juvenile delinquency by referring cases out of the juvenile court and into community resources?
Which of the following are defining characteristics of a juvenile custodial institution?
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