Biology 101 April 29, 2009 Sample Questions for Exam 5 1. Our solar system is approximately how many years old? a. 10?12 billion b. 4?5 billion c. 750 million d. 400 million e. 200 million 2. The primitive Earth's atmosphere did NOT contain a. water vapor b. free nitrogen c. free hydrogen d. free oxygen e. inert gases 3. Before DNA, _____ served as the genetic material. a. carbohydrate b. lipid c. protein d. RNA e. none of the choices 4. The first organisms were probably a. aerobic prokaryote b. aerobic archaean c. anaerobic prokaryote d. anaerobic eukaryote e. aerobic eukaryote 5. Which of the following is the strongest evidence for the hypothesis that present-day eukaryotic aerobes are the descendants of the successful symbiotic association of anaerobes and mitochondria-like aerobes? a. Mitochondria can produce ATP. b. A mitochondrion can survive indefinitely when removed from a eukaryotic cell. c. A mitochondrion has its own set of DNA molecules. d. Fossilized mitochondria are older than the oldest fossilized eukaryotes. e. A mitochondrion has a membrane. 6. The first major split in evolution separated a. Archaea from bacteria and eukaryote ancestors b. Bacteria from Archaea and eukaryote ancestors c. eukaryote ancestors from Archaea and Bacteria d. all three lineages from each other e. none of these 7. When free oxygen became available in the atmosphere, a. Some organisms changed their metabolism. b. Oxygen was used as a dumping place for hydrogen ions and electrons. c. Some cells and forms of life became extinct. d. Aerobic respiration emerged. e. All of these. 8. The earliest organisms were probably unicellular a. chemoautotrophs b. aerobes c. heterotrophs d. photoautotrophs e. all of these 9. Most scientists do not consider viruses to be "alive" because a. they have no genes. b. they need the metabolic machineries of their host. c. they are unable to reproduce. d. no defined structural features are seen under the microscope. e. none of these choices 10. Which of the following is not caused by a virus? a. influenza b. botulism c. measles d. hepatitis B e. herpes 11. Which of the following could be called "pathogens"? a. viruses b. bacteria c. viroids d. viruses and viroids e. viruses, bacteria, and viroids 12. The extreme halophiles only survive in environments that are extremely high in a. acid b. heat c. hydrogen d. oxygen e. salt 13. When a virus takes over the machinery of a cell, it forces the cell to manufacture a. more mitochondria for energy for the virus b. more liposomes to isolate themselves from water c. more food particles d. more viral particles e. more Golgi bodies so that the cell will secrete the excess viruses 14. Stomach ulcers are caused by a. stress b. Helobacter pylori c. Escherichia coli d. anxiety e. excess HCl 15. All protists have a. chloroplast b. mitochondria c. flagellum d. nucleus e. nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast 16. Diatoms are characterized by all but which of the following? a. two-part shells b. photosynthetic c. silica shells d. flagella e. perforations in the shell 17. Kelp is an example of a. red algae b. green algae c. brown algae d. golden algae e. euglenoids 18. The signal for aggregation and communal activity by cellular slime molds is a. a pheromone b. cyclic AMP c. glycoprotein slime d. RNA e. unidentified as yet 19. Flagellum of protists contain a. microtubules b. microfilaments c. crystalline protein d. contractile proteins e. all of these 20. Which of the following statements about HIV is incorrect? a. It is a retrovirus. b. It mutates frequently. c. It does not require reverse transcriptase for its infection of a host cell. d. It contains RNA, but not DNA. e. It uses the host cell membrane for its release. 21. The first group with flowers were a. algae b. fern allies c. ferns d. angiosperms e. gymnosperms 22. Which statement is NOT true about green algae? a. forms multicellular colonies b. have deposits of cellulose in its cell wall c. form a diploid zygotic spore d. exists as a multicellular organism e. is a photoautotroph 23. Its ancestors formed present day limestone deposits. a. euglenoids b. foraminiferans c. apicomplexans d. oomycotes e. diatoms 24. An apple tree has a. one ovule in one ovary in each flower. b. multiple ovules in one ovary in each flower. c. multiple ovules in multiple ovaries in each flower. d. one ovule without any ovary in each flower. e. one ovary without any ovules in each flower. 25. Archaeans were differentiated from bacteria by comparison of a. ribosomal RNA. b. messenger RNA. c. DNA. d. proteins. e. anatomy. 26. Which of the following does NOT produce seeds? a. conifers b. ferns c. gymnosperms d. angiosperms e. lilies 27. Which group has the most dominant gametophyte generation compared to its sporophyte generation? a. bryophytes b. ferns c. gymnosperms d. angiosperms e. lycophytes 28. Which of the following is NOT true of seedless vascular plants? a. Sporophytes are independent of gametophytes. b. Water is not needed for gamete transport. c. Sporophytes have vascular tissue. d. Seeds are not produced. e. Living members still exist. 29. Microspores in angiosperms mature into a. ovules b. seeds c. pollen grains d. anthers e. female gametophytes 30. . Monocots and eudicots are distinguished by a. having one or two cotyledons. b. the number of seeds. c. the size of flowers. d. the animal co- pollinators. e. the complexity of fruit. 31. What is NOT a fungus? a. lichen b. mushroom c. yeast d. algae e. bread mold 32. Lichen is a symbiont of a. zygote fungi and algae. b. sac fungi and algae. c. club fungi and algae. d. zygote and sac fungi. e. all of these choices 33. The largest and oldest living organism is a. a conifer. b. an oak tree. c. a honey mushroom fungus. d. a blue whale. e. a sea weed. 34. Group of fungal filaments is called a. mycelium b. hyphae c. mycorrhizae d. asci e. yeast 35. What are the only fungi able to digest lignin? a. sac fungi b. club fungi c. chytrids d. zygomycetes e. oomycotes 36. A digestive system is said to be complete if it at least a. possesses specialized regions for different tasks. b. produces acids and contains enzymes. c. is a one-way tube with a mouth and an anus. d. is surrounded by muscle. e. is surrounded by coelom. 37. A nematocyst is a. a toxin delivery unit in jellyfish tentacles. b. a parasitic worm. c. a juvenile stage of tapeworms. d. a special insect appendage. e. an organ in echinoderms. 38. An animal with bilateral symmetry a. has left and right sides b. usually displays cephalization c. produces mirror images regardless of the number of "cuts" through the central axis d. has left and right sides and usually displays cephalization e. has left and right sides, usually displays cephalization, and produces mirror images regardless of the number of "cuts" through the central axis 39. The most successful of the invertebrate groups with respect to the numbers of species is a. Annelida b. Arthropoda c. Mollusca d. Echinodermata e. Nematoda 40. The movement of earthworms is dependent on a. circular muscles b. longitudinal muscles c. hydrostatic skeleton d. bristles e. all of the choices 41. Which are deuterostomes? a. annelids b. echinoderms c. arthropods d. mollusks e. all of the choices 42. What is NOT a distinct body structure of chordates? a. notochord b. dorsal hollow nerve cord c. gill slits d. post-anal tail e. deuterostome 43. During the life of a tunicate, the notochord a. is present throughout life b. appears in the larva only c. develops during adulthood d. is completely absent e. changes into the nerve cord 44. Sharks differ from most other fish in that they lack a. lungs b. scales c. bone d. paired appendages e. fins 45. In true fishes, the gills primarily serve which function? a. gas exchange b. feeding c. water elimination d. both feeding and gas exchange e. all of the choices 46. Which of the following is most responsible for freeing vertebrates from dependence on watery habitats? a. lungs b. paired appendages c. shelled, amniote eggs d. a four- chambered heart e. fur 47. Live birth is characteristic of a. marsupials b. monotremes c. placentals d. marsupials and placentals e. all of the choices 48. The ability to fly evolved in a. birds b. mammals c. reptiles d. both birds and mammals e. birds, mammals, and reptiles 49. The only living synapsid is a. mammals. b. birds. c. crocodiles. d. reptiles. e. amphibians. 50. What is different between reptiles and mammals? a. vertebrate column b. cranium c. amniote d. limb arrangement e. lungs
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