Study Guide for Psychology 110 – Section 005 Final Comprehensive Exam – Ch 1-7 Chapter 1: Study Questions: What are the 3 stages of prenatal development? Germinal period – the period in prenatal development from conception to implantation of the fertilized egg in the wall of the uterus. This period is a make or break time for the fertilized egg. Most fertilized eggs do not complete the process. Embryonic period – the period of prenatal development lasting from implantation to the end of the 8th week. This period begins if successful implantation occurs. During this period the human develops from an unrecognizable mass of cells to a somewhat familiar creature with arms, legs, fingers, toes, etc. Fetal period – the period of prenatal development lasting from the 9th week until birth. During this period the bones and muscles begin to develop early on. When is an embryo or fetus more susceptible to teratogens? The embryonic period What are Piaget’s stages of cognintive development and the major characteristics, accomplishments, and limitations of each stage? Sensorimotor (0-2 years) Stranger anxiety Object permanence Preoperational (2-6 years) Pretend play Egocentrism Principles of conservation Concrete operational (7-11 years) Mathematical operations Stirrings of logical thought Formal operational (12 years on) Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning Culturally bound What are the stages of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development and the basic characteristics of each stage? Preconventional Morality “Rule are rules” Conventional morality “Rule protect people” Postconventional morality “These rules ignore certain social classes, so I refuse to follow them.” How does social learning explain gender role development? According to social learning accounts of gender role development, children learn to act in a masculine or feminine manner because they grow up in an environment that rewards them for doing so. Vocabulary: Accommodation- the process through which we change or modify existing schemata to accommodate new experiences Assimilation- the process though which we fit or assimilate new experiences into existing schemata Teratogens- environmental agents such as disease organisms or drugs that can potentially damage the developing embryo or fetus i.e. wine Critical period- A time when exposure to certain environmental agents has the most impact Schema- Plasticity- Brain develops in accordance with genetic map and environmental experiences Chapter 2: Study Questions: What are some examples of positive and negative correlations? Positive: Marijuana use and lung cancer. As marijuana use increases, so does the likelihood of developing lung cancer. Positive: Similarity in attitudes and attraction. The more similar two people are in attitudes, the more likely they are to be attracted to one another. Negative: Exercise and anxiety. The more people exercise, the less anxiety they tend to experience. Negative: Marital satisfaction and depression. As marital satisfaction increases, feelings of depression decrease. What is the third variable problem in correlational studies? What are the 2 main features of an experiment? What are examples of independent, dependent, and confounding variables? Vocabulary: Confidentiality: Researchers do not reveal which data were collected from which participant. Confounding variable: Any act that affects the depended measure other than the independent variable. Dependent variable: The variable in an experiment that measure any effect of the manipulation. Correlation coefficient: Independent variable: A variable in an experiment that is manipulated. Random assignment: Participants have an equal chance of being placed in any condition of the study. Representative sample: Positive correlation: A relationship in which increases in one variable corresponds to an increase in the second variable. Negative Correlation: A relationship in which one variable corresponds to a decrease in the second variable. Chapter 3: Study Questions: What are the three memory systems and examples of each system? Sensory Memory: holds an exact copy of what you see or hear for a few seconds or less. Ex: if you see a flower and then close your eyes, you can see the exact picture of that flower in your head vividly. Short Term Memory. Example: by paying attention to your friend you will place her shopping list in your short term memory. Long Term Memory How much information is held in short-term memory? Briefly stores small amounts of information. What is the “magic number?” 7, because it is the number between 5 and 9 and is the average number to which one can hold a certain amount of information. Like saying there are “7 bins” that can hold information in your memory. How does chunking information help us remember? It reorganizes information into units that are already in the LTM. Chunking is the key to making good use of your short term memory. How would a student use elaborative rehearsal to study for a test? Elaborative rehearsal: rehearsal that links new info to the existing memories and knowledge. When you are studying you will remember more if you elaborate, extend, and reflect about meaning of the information to try to relate new ideas to your own experience and knowledge. What does the hippocampus do and what happens if it is damaged? Hippocampus: brain structure associated with emotion and the transfer of info from short term to long term. If it is damaged there is usually a striking inability to store new memories. Vocab: Long-term Memory (LTM): the memory system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information. Short-term Memory (STM): the memory system used to hold small amounts of information for relatively brief periods of time. Working memory (WM): another name for short term memory, especially when it is used for thinking and problem solving. Chapter 4: Vocab: Classical conditioning: A set of procedures used to investigate how organisms learn about the signaling of properties of events. Classical conditioning involves learning relations between events, conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, that occur outside of ones control. Conditioned response (CR): an acquired response that is produced by the conditioned stimulus in anticipation of the unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned stimulus (CS): the neutral stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus during classical condition. Negative punishment: an event that, when removed after a response, lowers the likelihood of that response occurring again. Negative reinforcement: an event that, when removed after a response, increases the likelihood of that response occurring again. Operant conditioning: a procedure for studying how organisms learn about the consequences of their own voluntary actions. Positive punishment: an event that, when presented after a response, lowers the likelihood of that response occurring again. Unconditioned stimulus (US): a stimulus that automatically leads to an observable response prior to any training. Unconditioned Response (UR): the observable response that is produced automatically, prior to training, on presentation of an unconditioned stimulus. Variable-Ratio Schedule: a schedule in which a certain number of responses are acquired for reinforcement, but the number of acquired responses typically change. Chapter 5: Study Questions: What are the parts of a neuron? Soma (cell body) – contains nucleus of the cell Nucleus – contains the genetic material in the form of chromosomes Dendrites – widely branching structures that receives chemical messages. Axon – long thin fiber, carries signals to other cells (up to 3 ft. long) Myelin sheath – fatty tissue surrounding the axon, increased signal speed. Terminal button (bouton) – bulge at the end of axon, releases neurotransmitters. Synapse (terminal/cleft) – junction between 2 neurons, place where the neurotransmitter is released. How does the action potential work? Excitation of a constant magnitude that follows the axon to the next neuron. When the axon is stimulated. Sodium (Na+) rushes in, it closes, and then potassium (K-) rushes out. What are the major divisions of the nervous system? Cells - Neurons: nerve cell - Glia: insulates neurons, removes waste, gives structure Neurotransmitters Stimulates: communicates to the “post synaptic” neuron. Re-uptake: neurotransmitter is absorbed into the terminal button. Metabolization: neurotransmitter is absorbed into the body and bloodstream. Brain and Central Nervous System Brain is divided into three parts (forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain) Includes spinal chord, cerebellum, pons and medulla oblongata Thalamus – relay center in the forebrain for incoming sensory information Spinal chord communicates between brain and sensory and motor neurons below the head. Ex. = raising your hand in class. Peripheral Nervous System nerve bundles in the rest of your body Somatic Nervous System – controls skin and muscles Autonomic nervous system – controls organs such as heart and lungs. Imaging Techniques EEG (brain imaging) – electrodes on scalp record electrical changes. PET (Positron-Emission Tomography) – records radioactivity emitted from injected chemicals. fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) – magnets detect amount of hemoglobin. What is the cerebellum important for? motor coordination timing, smoothing, and integrating movements damage = jerky or poorly coordinated movements What are the two parts of the autonomic nervous system? Sympathetic nervous system – increases physiological arousal for the fight or flight response to danger Parasympathetic nervous system – lowers physiological arousal induced by the sympathetic nervous system when danger is no longer present. Vocab: Action potential: an excitation that travels along an axon at a constant strength, no matter how far it must travel. Cerebral cortex: the outer surface of the forebrain. Corpus callosum: connects the left and right hemisphere of the brain. EEG (electroencephalograph): a device that uses electrodes on the scalp to record rapid changes in brain electrical activity. Resting potential: the axon is not stimulated, electrical and chemical polarization. Negative charge inside, positive charge outside. Chemical balance is sodium is outside, potassium inside and when stimulated they switch. Chapter 6: Study Questions: What can subliminal messages do? What can’t they do? - They can affect our mood in the short term but have no effect on us in the long term. How are feature detectors and Gestalt Psychology complementary? Gestalt psychology rejected the idea that a perception can be broken down into component parts. Vocab: Continuation: tendency to fill in the gaps in an interrupted line. Depth perception: the perception of distance that allows us to see 3-D. Gestalt psychology: a branch of psychology that investigates our ability to distinguish patterns. Proximity: the tendency to perceive objects that are close together as belonginig to a group. Reversible figure: a stimulus that you can perceive in more than one way. Chapter 7: Study Questions: What is the paradox of yo-yo dieting? - A diet is a regular pattern of eating and a yo-yo diet is not a regular pattern because they go back and forth between eating a lot and a little. How might taste aversions be helpful or adaptive? Helps us keep our diet in balance and they help us associate with things that may make us sick. How are hormones related to sex drive in men and women? How are they similar/different? Pg. 224. Hormones affect sex drive to a certain level, but human sexuality is based off of mental, cultural, and emotional factors. Sometimes a man’s sexual activity increases when the female is on her menstrual cycle. What does the inverted U function suggest about the relationship between arousal and performance? People perform best when their arousal is at a moderate level so when their arousal is at optimal level (inverted U-function) their performance is even better. What are the sequences of the contemporary model of emotion? Stimulus leads to Cognitive appraisal (mental) leads to ANS arousal, behavior (run), facial expression, emotions. Vocab: Anorexia nervosa: highly controlled under-eating, very underweight, 5-8% mortality rate. Active cell starvation or sustained loss of appetite that has psychological origins. Bulimia nervosa: excessive eating “gorging” usually followed by self induced vomiting or by taking laxatives Extrinsic motivation: motivation based on obvious external rewards. Obligations are rewards or similar factors. Intrinsic motivation: motivation that comes from within rather than from external rewards. Taste aversion: an active dislike for a particular food. Inverted U function: the relationship between arousal and performance forms an inverted U function.