FINAL EXAM REVIEW PART 1 The role of the railroads ~Parade Magazine 35.4million ~USA Weekend 22.4 million ~ Readers Digest 11 million ~T.V. Guide 11 million Types of Magazines Consumer Magazines Sponsored Magazines Trade Magazines News Letter RUM: Reader Usage Measure- Provides ?a grantitve measure of qualitative information Radio is the 4th largest recipient of advertising dollars in the U.S. Newspapers T.V. Direct Mail Radio Formats- Radios responce to TV was to deliver targeted audiences to advertisers Varrious format types were created by Gordon McLendon is the 1950s Much radio talk is thinly veiled entertainment Trusteeship rationale- the principle behing U.S. government refulations of broadcasting The government regulations of broadcasting -The airwaves belong to the people - the government is the trustee on the airwaves and most allocate the use of the airwavs for the betterment of the people - stations have an obligation for responsible use of the airwaves playlists- the list of songs a radio station placed its rotation to be aired Voice tracking: centralized announcers who provide content for several stations Corporate radio chairs control programming content resulting in a sameness from market to market High definitions radio- technology is there but not a market for digital radio Sweeps months: November, Feb, May, July T.V. caused magazines to go into Niche audiences T.V. caused radio to segment its audiences through different formats T.V.?s Dual Infrastructure, a combination of local stations working with national networks a.k.a. the two-tier system TiVo and VOD are time shutting technologies they help skip commercials Timeling on pg. 421 *1833 Penny Press: Ben Day founded the New York Sun, first penny paper *1840s James Gordon Bennett pioneered systematic news coverage- created news as we know it. *1880s Yellow Press- sensationalistic excess *1902 Muckracking *1980 CNN introduced 24-hour television news Public Occurrences- shutdown after one issue The inverted pyramid- Important facts early as on past by timming from the bottom. So most important stuff comes first and the less important stuff can be cut off What is news? The biggest determinent of news is the DEGREE OF CHANGE Ruth Snyder and Jazz Journalism 384 is the magic number to reach 95% confidence level and a 5% margin of error Why use a large sample that appear to be necessary? So you can evaluate subgroups Rating- the percentage of households that have a television is watching a special program. A program with a 10 means 10% of homes are watching it A share- the percentage of households in which a television set is on at a given time that is watching a specific program Co TV?s dual infrastructure- CBS channel 6 is example It?s a two tear system channel 10 is Fox as well as Channel 10 News November feb may july= pay/sweeps months
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