Final Exam Review Sheet Guidelines for visual aidsCommunication any ideas that need visual aids?: relationships of size, time, space, unique/unfamiliar objects/features, difficult to describe, complex, small things enlargedFully understand? Support/Drive your presentation? (mistake 1:abandoning speech topic b/c can?t decide on visual. 2: forcing visual into presentation) Advantages/disadvantages of various types of graphsMaps: get audience involved. Orient geography. Big/Colorful.Charts: flow chart (sequence of operations), organizational chart (show authority/supervision distributed within company), Timelines (key events chronologically)Graphs: Pie Graph (how 100% is broken down), bar graph (illustrate comparisons of 2+ values), line graphs (single/multiple lines show trend over time) Language use, dialect, articulation, pronunciation, accuracy, etc.Inclusive Language: acts a bridge to an audience, /\ speakers chance of connectionNoninclusive language: relies on neg. stereotypes, derogatory remarks, or offensive termsSexism: listener perceives that a speaker organizes his/her world according to sex/genderRacism: listener perceives a speaker organizes his world according to raceSlang: words used and immediately understood within a particular groupJargon: language of a technical nature, specific to a profession or hobbyPronounciation: the way you form the sound of a word ? where the stress is/how many syllablesDialect: version of language made up of variations in syntax (sentence structure) Types of plagiarismIncremental Plagiarism: swiping parts of another person?s work and incorporating those elements at various points in your work w/o citing the original sourcePatchwork Plagiarism: taking pieces from several sources, patching them together as a new whole, passing it off as your ownGlobal Plagiarism: stealing another person?s work in its entirety and passing it off as your own Types of speechesof acceptance: special-occasion by someone receiving an award or honorof commemoration: a special-occasion speech that recognizes an event, place or ideaof introduction: special-occasion speech that prepares an audience for an upcoming speaker/eventof tribute: special-occasion speech that pays honor/respect to another personto inspire: special-occasion speech that encourages, moves, or rouses listeners to create positive changespecial occasion: one of 3 general kindsto persuade: one of three general kinds ? to create, change, or reinforce the thinking or actions of othersto inform: helps listeners to understand new/useful ideas from the world around then FallaciesAppeal or Fear Fallacy: presents a claim intended to produce alarm and thereby gain support for a different and perhaps unrelated claim. Claiming fear is not the same as providing sound evidenceSlippery Slope Fallacy: occurs when you argue an inevitable connection from one event to another, bypassing possible or probable links that may or may not existAd Hominem Fallacy: you attack the character of the person making an opposing argument rather than address the argument itselfEither/or Fallacy: Choice between two or more undesirable options. Speakers present an argument that forces listeners to choose between two options when in reality more than two existRed Herring Fallacy: raise an irrelevant topic in order to divert attention away from an original issue you?re having trouble arguing or defending Monroe?s motivated sequenceMotivated sequence: wants listeners to reconsider a predisposition, firm up a present commitment, or move to actionAttention: gain audience?s attention. Statistics, anecdote, relevant quotationNeed: existence of need or problem established. Evidence, illustrations, storiesSatisfaction: present a solution to the need. Outline the answer, convince audience it?s realistic, feasible and preferableVisualization: intensify your audience?s desire to see the proposed solution through by having them visualize the future Central idea, thesis statement, purpose statement, main pointThesis statement: statement that the speaker relays to let the listeners to know what the speech is about. Superior to the main points Ordering; casual, topical, spatial, chronological, problem-solutionTopical: divides the topic into subclasses or subtopics based on their similarity Causal: focuses on either the causes of something or the effectsChronological: thesis follows a time pattern and shows how events or ideas occur over time, either forward or backward; relationships b/t the main points are based on time/sequenceComparison: teaches something new by showing the similarities between two seeming unlike thingsContrast: teaches something new by showing the differences b/t two seemingly similar thingsSpatial: discusses the topic according to the way things fit together in a physical space of any size How to gain the attention of the audienceTell a story, engage the audience, make a reference to the audience/occasion/point in time, ask a question, show images or play sound, use humor, deliver a quotation, surprise or startle, pique curiosity Recognize a biased source Types of transitions and signposts (signpost is a transition, know several examples of signposts)Linking transition: AKA bridge, phrase that takes your listeners from one part of your structure to the next. ?To begin?Internal preview: provides your audience a sneak peek into the next idea you are about to discussInternal summary: helps listeners make sense of an idea they have just heardSignposts: quick word or phrase alerting your listeners where you are in the speech or indicating the relationship of one idea to the next Numbers, common transition words, short phrases, questions Communicating with languageInclusive Language: acts a bridge to an audience, /\ speakers chance of connectionNoninclusive language: relies on neg. stereotypes, derogatory remarks, or offensive termsUse language clearly: familiar words, eliminate clutter (verbal fillers)ism?s: sexism, racism, heterosexismJargon: language of technical nature, specific to a profession or bobbyAppropriateness: depends on the occasion, audience, speaker and jargon, same as slang Ways to generate ideas; brainstorm, mind map, internet search, etc.brainstorming: a technique for generating a large number of ideas; it can be used for finding a speech topic or a solution to a problemmind map: a developmental technique for illustrating, linking, and documenting ideas and showing how they are connected Ethos, logos and pathosEthos: a perceived quality based on a speaker?s character that directly influences the listeners? willingness to receive and accept the speaker?s ideasLogos: an appeal to the logical mindPathos: an appeal to an audience?s emotions Types of informative speechesan object speech: teaches about something visible, audible or tangiblePerson/People: illuminates the significance of a specific person or group of peopleProcess speech: describes a series of actions or events that result in a specific outcome or end productEvent: highlights anything that has happened, is happening or is believed to be happening, or will happenConcept: looks at the intangibles of life, things we cannot see or touch but nonetheless perceive, suppose or imagine Persuasive speech of value, policy, fact, and opinionFact: A question about the truth or falsity of an assertionValue: A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action (ex: best movie, team, actor, group, etc)Policy: A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken Advantages/disadvantages of using a manuscript or note cards to give your speechManuscript: Not recommended for beginner?s b/c many problems in reaching listeners. Need time so you can use as much of a conversational tone as possible. Patters of written language are harder on listeners? ears, eye contact is compromised, struggle with syntax/pronunciation, lack of ownership, can?t adapt the audience or occasion essential that a precise message be communicated, highly emotional nature of the occasion calls for a speaker to stay focused, exact timing is essential, published/analyzed, Types of researchInternet: Websites, search engines, databases, discussion groups, blogs, online resources, online newspaper/magazines, online journal articles, online booksBooks and other hard-copy resources: Librarians: access to info the majority of us don?t know existsInterviews: gracious, schedule ahead, show up on time, plan questions, recording strategy, accurate, dress professionally, extend thanksOrganizations; most compile, house and distribute info to anyone wanting or needing itGovernment Data: collect, manage, and make available to its citizens various types of data How important is preparation Review, chapter on communicating with body (chapter 22)Nonverbal Communication: communication without wordsKinesics: nonverbal communication involving body movements Eye contact: want to communication, prepared, sincerity/honesty, build rapport Facial expressions Posture: standing shows respect for audience/ideas, Gestures: Illustrators: of hands, head, other body parts that accompany speech Emblems: mov?ts or pos.?s of body that have precise meaning and are immediately understood by others in the communicator?s culture or co-cultureProxemics: concept of interpersonal distance, determined by roomBody orientation: your stance in relation to others Frame of referenceFrame of reference: an individual worldview based on background, age, education, gender, values, politics, economic status, culture, occupation, health, and ethnicity that influences the creation of the speaker?s message and the listener?s interpretation of the message EthnocentrismEthnocentrism: everything revolves around your culture Belief: probability that you think something is true/false Attitude: more stable over time, less sensitive
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