1. Considering economic and politic issues, compare European balances of power before 1789, between 1800-1815, between 1815 and 1871, between 1871 and 1914, and after 1945 Before 1789 Major powers in Europe were Great Britain, France and Spain who fought for territory in Europe and overseas colonization. These powers fought each other for colonial landholding overseas. The American Revolution against the British was backed financially and military by the French, Spanish and Dutch. The debts incurred by the French for their support played a major role in the outbreak of the French Revolution. Struggles for economic and territorial supremacy between these 3 powers was prevalent before 1789. 1800- 1815 Great Britain and France were the major powers of this time. The aftermath of the French Revolution saw Napoleon come to power, conquering much of Europe and tipping power back into the hands of the French. To pay for the war effort Napoleon pillaged conquered territories and sold the Louisiana Territory to the US. Napoleon eventually was defeated, leaving Great Britain as the main power in Europe. 1815-1871 Britain, who was mainly responsible for defeating Napoleon, was the main military power in Europe at this time. The Spanish, Dutch, French, Prussians and Portuguese were mainly trading powers in a time of relative peace. The rise of Enlightened monarchs in Russia, Austria and Prussia began in this time. The Spanish were economically devastated with revolutions in Latin America countries. 1871- 1914 German empire emerges in 1871 and emergence of Italy in 1871 upset the European balance of power 5 great powers: Britain, France, Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Russia existed at the time with alliance systems for security. Various alliances resulted in 2 major alliances Triple Alliance- German empire, Austria- Hungary, and Italy Triple Entente- Britain, France and Russia Struggle for supremacy in Europe spilled into developing countries in Africa and Asia as Europeans countries began turning to imperialism to secure territory and resources for economic dominance and military strategy National competition and the emergence of alliances and social Darwanism led to the first ?total war? of WWI After 1945 The post WWII world saw the US and Soviet Union as the 2 superpowers in the world who became engaged in an arms race and struggles for influence around the world. The fall of the Soviet Union saw the US as the sole superpower in the world. The European Union formed in 1992 to prevent war in Europe and promote cooperation between European countries. 2. a) How was the world economy that emerged between 1871 and 1914 tied back to European struggles for power at the same time? The world economy that emerged between 1871-1974 was driven by foreign investment and control of unexploited new markets and resources in Africa and Asia. Europe was undergoing a change in the balance of power and European countries felt compelled to complete for these new markets and resources for both economic and strategic dominance b) Why might Europeans see themselves as superior to much older and larger civilizations such as those in Africa, India, and China? Because the Europeans had the technological and medical advancement to kill these people while having the ability to cure themselves made Europeans feel superior to them in the sense of social Darwinist ?natural law? The ease that they could conquer these civilizations made Europeans feel that they were naturally superior to them. c) Why might the emergence of the United States, Ethiopia, and especially Japan challenge this worldview? The Emergence of the U.S., Ethiopia and Japan challenged this view because it showed that modern weapons work just as well no matter who uses them. Japans ease of defeating Russia in the Russo-Japanese war showed the problem of this thought of ?superior? civilizations as Japan was once thought of as ?primitive? but could defeat a country like Russia when its army modernized. 3. a) How successful was the Treaty of Versailles at healing the wounds caused by four years of international conflict? The treaty of Versailles, although ending WWI, failed completely in healing the wounds of such a war. Stripping Germany of key resources and forcing impossible reparation only produced instability. Noncooperation and unenforcement of the treaty furthered this failure. The outbreak of WWII is proof of the failure of the Treaty of Versailles. b) What were the various approaches (e.g, those of the United States and France) to the peace process? U.S. promoted German economic recovery instead of punishment. Believed that the US did not need to mediate or fulfill military obligations in Europe and thought economic recovery was essential for European Peace. France- distrusting Germany, France wanted to at first keep Germany military and economically weak, using military force to enforce the Treaty of Versailles. To secure peace, France looked for allies to help in the case of German aggression; they eventually cooperated with US and Britain to promote German Recovery while trying to gain an alliance with Britain for protection c) What were the elements that suggested that the peace would fail? The non commitment of Britain, US and Russia in fulfilling European responsibilities at the end of the war, the instability caused by the Great Depression, and the rise in Fascism and the Nazis all showed that peace would ultimately fail. 4. a) What made fascism such an attractive political doctrine for the people of Italy and Germany? Fascism was attractive to Italy and German because it promised to those under its rule away out of the economic and political chaos following WWI, identified outside enemies as scapegoats for economic failures and promised protection and security. b) Compare the historical development of fascism in each state in the 1920s and 1930s. What similarities do you see? What differences? Italy- feeling betrayed by the peace settlement of 1919, the lack of coherent political programs and economic depression Italians began losing faith in the parliamentary government. Mussolini entered politics by attacking the large socialist and Popular parties. Destruction and violence and intimidation were used to secure votes. Within 2 years Fascists were in control, suppressing free press, creating a secret police and transforming policies. Germany- Hitler Nazi party emulated Mussolini?s government takeover Hitler 1st tries an armed coup that fails. After this, the Nazis realize best way was to appeal to the German people and gain power the democratic way, gaining much support. After achieving power, Hitler used paramilitary forces to eliminate his enemies and secure power. Both had absolute dictators who used secret police to eliminate their enemies and secure power. The difference is Mussolini took power by force while Hitler rose through democracy 5. a) How were the Allies able to carve out a victory in Europe and in the Pacific? Europe- the Allies victory in Europe was pulled off mainly from the opening of a second front in France after the invasion of Normandy which put Germany into a 2 front war. The final push of Russia storming Berlin, saw the end of the war in Europe Pacific- the American victory at Midway crippled the Japanese navy. The conquest of Saipan and Iwo Jima gave the US bases to attack the Japanese home Islands. The defeat was sealed with the American offensive that destroyed the remaining Japanese Navy and the dropping of atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki b) What were the contributions of each of the Allied powers? US- was a major supplier of money, steel, weapons and war machines to Great Britain and the Soviets. Upon entering the war, they contributed most to the war in the Pacific. Soviet- contributed most in ground forces and bore the burst of the war, destroying their own homes and buildings to slow down the Germans. Britain- British royal air force was major contribution c) What was the turning point of the war? The turning point of the war was the soviet defeats of Germany at the battle of Stalingrad, which was the 1st major defeat of the German army. This and the opening of a second front in France was the turning point of the war. How did the relative contributions of the various Allied powers to the war effort affect the postwar settlement? Why might the Soviets claim to have borne the brunt of World War II in so many ways?
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