COM 100 Exam 2 Study Guide Spring 2008 CHAPTER FIVE: VERBAL COMMUNICATION KEY CONCEPTS --Phonology: the study of the sounds that compose individual languages and how those sounds communicate meaning. --Syntax: the rules that govern word order. --Semantics: the study of meaning. --Pragmatics: field of study that emphasizes how language is used in specific situations to accomplish goals. --Listening: A rule-guided system of symbols that allows us to translate messages into meaning; creates our perceptions. --Confirming/Disconfirming Language: Confirming: comments that validate positive self-images of others. Disconfirming: comments that reject or invalidate a positive self-image of our conversational partners. --?I? Statements: Allows us to express feelings (even negative ones) by focusing on your own experiences rather than making negative generalizations (or ?you? statements) about others. Know the different functions and components (e.g., phonology) of language and be able recognize examples of each Phonology: Sounds. Ex: bedbid, badbud (replace middle sounds). Syntax: Rules. Ex: Not go I you to want do-incorrect. The pencil is on the table-correct. Semantics: Meaning. Denotative is the dictionary definition. Ex: wise: having the ability to discern or judge what is true, right, or lasting. Connotative are affective or interpretive meanings. Ex: wise: implies an older person with long experience . Pragmatics: Language in Use. Includes Speech Act Theory, conversational and contextual rules. Ex: Rules for communicating in a sorority, a faculty meeting, or an evangelic church. Know the influences on verbal communication. Gender, age, regionality, ethnicity and race, education and occupation. Know the four stages of listening. Stage 1: Sensing Stage 2: Understanding Stage 3: Evaluating Stage 4: Responding Know what conversational rules & contextual rules are & be able to recognize examples of each. Conversational: the way people carry on conversations. Ex: If someone asks you a question, you should provide an answer. Contextual: the way you?re supposed to communicate during conversations. Ex: You wouldn?t discuss the same topics at a funeral that you would at a bar. Know the barriers to effective listening. Physical: noise, hearing loss, dialect differences. Psychological: boredom, preoccupation, con objects Poor listening habits Be familiar with the three types of listening and when each is appropriate Rational: ascertaining meaning Relational: understanding feelings Conscious: conscious/critical listening How can you improve your listening skills? Talk less: listen more Keep an open mind: will make you a more ethical listener. Focus on speaker: control distractions, give full attention to speaker Provide nonverbal feedback: nodding, or saying ?I see? Provide verbal feedback: Ask questions Empathize: understand speaker?s emotions and express your understanding Monitor how you are listening: give time for speaker to finish speaking Understand the difference between confirming and disconfirming language/ communication and be able to recognize examples Disconfirming: comments that reject or invalidate a positive self-image of our conversational partners. Ex: Tracey: ?Guess what? I earned an A on my midterm.? Lou: ?Gee, it must have been an easy test.? Confirming: comments that validate positive self-images of others. Ex: Tracey: ?Guess what? I earned an A on my midterm.? Lou: ?That?s great. I know it?s a tough class; you deserve to be proud.? Know what an ?I? statement is and be able to recognize an example ?I? Statement: Allows us to express feelings (even negative ones) by focusing on your own experiences rather than making negative generalizations (or ?you? statements) about others. Ex: ?When you criticize my appearance, I feel unloved, and I respond by withdrawing from you.? CHAPTER SIX: NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION KEY CONCEPTS Nonverbal behavior vs. Nonverbal communication NV behavior: refers to all NV actions people perform NV communication: NV behavior that has symbolic meaning Nonverbal codes: distinct organized means of expression that consists of symbols and rules of their use. Kinesics: a NV communication sent by the body, including gestures, posture, movement, facial expressions, and eye behavior. Paralinguistics: all aspects of spoken language except the words themselves; include rate, volume, pitch, stress, etc. Chronemics: the study of the way people use time as a message. (Monochronic: engaging in one task or behavior at a time, Polychronic: engaging in multipule activities simultaneously) Proxemics: the study of how people use spatial cues, including interpersonal distance, territoriality, and other space relationships, to communicate Artifacts: clothing and other accessories Nonverbal functions: communicating information, regulating interaction, expressing and managing intimacy, establishing social control, and signaling service-task function. Know why nonverbal communication is important. All behaviors, attributes, and objects of humans-other than words-that communicate messages that have shared social meaning Does NOT include sign language, written words, or words transferred electronically Differs from verbal language in multiple ways Be sure you can differentiate nonverbal communication from nonverbal behavior; that is, what characteristics make a nonverbal behavior nonverbal communication (and be able to recognize examples) NV communication: (look above) NV behavior Used regularly y a social group Who interpret it as intentional And a recognized, agreed upon definition exists Know the definition of a nonverbal code and be able to recognize examples Distinct, organized means of expression Consisting of symbols and rules for their use They occur in sets Can?t isolate aspects of the codes Know the definition for kinesics, the two broad categories of kinesics and the specific types of kinesics (e.g., gestures and their functions) Kinesics: a NV communication sent by the body, including gestures, posture, movement, facial expressions, and eye behavior. Gestures: NV communication made with part of the body, including actions such as pointing, waving, or holding up a hand to direct people?s attention. Illustrators: signals that accompany speech to clarify or emphasize the verbal messages Emblems: gestures that stand for a specific verbal meaning Adaptors: gestures used to manage emotions Regulators: gestures used to control conversation Be able to define paralinguistics and know the two different categories of paralinguistics and how they differ Paralinguistics: all aspects of spoken language except the words themselves; include rate, volume, pitch, stress, etc. Voice Qualitites: qualities such as speech, pitch, rhythm, vocal range, and articulation that make up the ?music? of the human voice Vocalizations: uttered sounds that do not have the structure of language Know what chronemics is, how it impacts nonverbal communication and how cultures differ in their use of chronemics (and the difference between monochromic and polychromic uses of time) Chronemics: the study of the way people use time as a message. Cultures: US-lateness can communicate irresponsibility or selfishness. Latin America-when late, it is accepted. Monochromic & polychromic (look above) Know what proxemics are and how they convey intimacy and liking Proemics: the study of how people use spatial cues, including interpersonal distance, territoriality, and other space relationships, to communicate Intimate distance: (0-18 in), personal (18in-4ft), social (4-12 ft), public (12-25 ft) Know what haptics are and the different types of touch Haptics: the study of the communicative function of touch Types of touch: professional or functional, social-polite, friendship, love-intimate, demand, touch stimulates growth Know what artifacts are and how they convey identity and class Artifacts: clothing and other accessories Convey identity and class to communicate about their status, personality, success, and/or group membership. Be sure you are familiar with how people use nonverbal communication to accomplish goals (such as regulation) Communicating information Regulating interaction: using NV behaviors to help message turn-taking during conversation Expressing and managing intimacy: using NV behaviors to help convey attraction and closeness Establishing social control: using NV behavior to exercise influence over other people Signaling service-task functions: using NV behavior to signal close involvement between people in impersonal relationships and contexts. Know how prejudice is communicated nonverbally Not looking at people when we talk with them Not smiling at people when they walk into the room or stare as if to say ?What are you doing here,? or stopping the conversation with a hush they have to wade through to be included in the smallest way Not acknowledging people?s presence or making them wait as if they weren?t there Not touching their skin when we give them something Watching them closely to see what they?re up to Avoiding someone walking down the street, giving them wide berth or even crossing to the other side How can you improve your nonverbal communication? Pay attention to NV signs Look for incongruent behavior Look at signals as a group Consider context Recognize that NV signals are multifunctional CHAPTER SEVEN: COMMUNICATING ACROSS CULTURES KEY CONCEPTS Intercultural communication: communication that occurs in interactions between people who are culturally different Culture: learned patterns of perceptions, values, and behaviors shared by a group of people Culture shock: a feeling of disorientation and discomfort due to the lack of familiar environmental cues. U shape theory of culture shock: a theory that individuals go through three predictable phases in adapting to a new culture Co-cultural groups: a significant minority group within a dominant group values or communication patterns Individualism vs Collectivism: Individualism: a value orientation that respects the autonomy and independence of individuals. Collectivism: a value orientation that stresses the needs of the group. Power Distance: a value orientation that refers to the extent to which less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a culture expect and accept and unequal distribution of power. Dialectical approach: recognizes that things need not be perceived as either/or, but may be seen as both/and. Know why understanding intercultural communication is important Increased opportunities for intercultural contact Enhanced interpersonal relationships Enchanced business effectiveness Improved intergroup relations Enhanced self awareness Know the definitions for intercultural communication and culture Intercultural communication: communication between people who are culturally different Culture: patterns of perception, values, and behaviors shared by a group of people Know what culture shock is and how it is connected to U-shape theory They are connected because after experiencing culture shock, you go through the U-curve theory and adapt to the culture you are not used to. Know what is meant by the term ?co-cultural groups? A minority group within a dominant minority group Ex: Native American, Mexican American, and Asian American choose not to assimilate to the dominant, White US culture. What are the major cultural values discussed in the book? Individualism: responsibility to self; autonomy and independence highly valued; task accomplished valued over rational harmony Collectivism: primarily responsibility to group; interdependence highly valued; relationship harmony highly valued View of Human Nature: Are humans considered fundamentally good, evil, or mix? In US we have movies from evil to potentially good Preferred Personality: is it important to ?do? or ?be?? ?doing? preferred by European Americans and Asian Americans ?being? preferred by Mexican Americans African Americans prefer both ?doing? and ?being? What are the three types of border dwellers? Border Dwellers through travel Voluntary vs. involuntary Short term vs. long term Culture shock vs. U-curve theory Host culture welcoming or hostile? Border Dwellers through socialization Ethnic/racial co-cultural groups Other minority groups Daily negotiations of cultural norms Border Dwellers through relationships Intimate intercultural relationships Understand the difference between individualism and collectivism and how these characteristics impact culture Individualism: responsibility to self; autonomy and independence highly valued; task accomplished valued over rational harmony Collectivism: primarily responsibility to group; interdependence highly valued; relationship harmony highly valued What is a dialectic? What are the intercultural dialectics? How can you improve your intercultural communication (3 suggestions)? Increase motivation Increase your knowledge of self and others Avoid stereotypes OVERVIEW OF INTERPERSONAL: FLIRTING Know what type of communication constitutes most flirting nonverbal Be familiar with the nonverbal signals of interest (and which ones are most often performed by women vs. men) women: eye gaze, smiling, self-touch, body lean, display behaviors, hair flip, skirt hike, the parade men: make self look bigger, smiling Know how men and women signal their lack of interest both: eye gaze, body position, tie signs Be familiar with the gender differences in flirting women: better at encoding nonverbal signs; skills are greater or the visual channel men: Know the verbal indications of interest and how men and women differ in their beliefs about which ones indicate a woman is interested Conversation Compliment Asking questions Empathizing Mentioning an activity Giving one?s phone number Know (and be able to recognize) the three different types of opening lines Cute-flippant Innocuous comments Direct approach Know the conversational skills that help one communicate competently on a date Conversational rule keeping Self-concept confirmation Elicit disclosure Nonverbal immediacy Be open, listen, be articulate Understand why saying ?I Love You? is difficult and how men and women differ in their expression of it ILY is anxiety provoking ILY is a critical communication even Men and women differ in their expression of ILY Success=saying ILY to the right person at the right time CHAPTER EIGHT KEY CONCEPTS Models of relationship development: Stage models, Relational trajectory models, and Dialectical models Stage models: models of relationship development that view relationships as occurring in ?stages? and that focus on what people do as relationships develop and decline. Relational trajectory: relationship development models that focus on the cognitive aspects of relationships and typically analyze how committed relational partners feel to one another Dialectical: Social penetration theory: a theory that assumes that as people communicate, they become more familiar with each other and become closer Whirlwind vs. friendship first model: Whirlwind: pattern of relational development characterized by ?love at first sight? and a rapid progression toward commitment Friendship first: pattern of relational development characterized by a gradual progression from friendship to romance Turning point model: a model of relationship development in which couples move both toward and away from commitment over the course of their relationship Relationship maintenance: behaviors that couples perform that help maintain their relationships Sudden death vs. passing away Sudden death: process by which relationships end without prior warning for at least one participant Passing away: process by which relationships decline over time Negative identity management: communicating in ways that arouse negative emotions in order to make the other person upset enough to agree to break off the relationship Aversive communication: Relational aggression: physical violence against a partner Deception: concealment, distortion, or lying in communication Jealousy: a complex and often painful emotion that occurs when a person perceives a threat to an existing relationship Sexual coercion: physically nonviolent pressure to engage in unwanted sex Know the three types of relationship development models and how they differ Stage models, relational trajectory, dialectical Understand the relationships among social penetration theory, relational trajectory models, and the specific models whirlwind vs. friendship first and turning points Stage models: assumes events occur in stages. Knapp?s staircase model 5 stages leading to commitment Initiating, experimenting, intensifying, integrating, and bonding 5 stages leading to dissolution differentiating, circumscribing, stagnating, avoiding, terminating Relational trajectory: relationship development models that focus on the cognitive aspects of relationships and typically analyze how committed relational partners feel to one another Assume that dyads follow varied paths to relational development Based on social penetration a theory that assumes that as people communicate, they become more familiar with each other and become closer Whirlwind vs. friendship first trajectory Whirlwind: pattern of relational development characterized by ?love at first sight? and a rapid progression toward commitment Friendship first: pattern of relational development characterized by a gradual progression from friendship to romance Turning point model a model of relationship development in which couples move both toward and away from commitment over the course of their relationship Know the three types of dialectics that affect relationship development and be able to recognize examples of them (e.g., autonomy/connection) Autonomy/connection: a dialectical tension in relationships that refers to one?s need to connect with other and the simultaneous need to feel independent or autonomous Expressiveness/privacy: a dialectical tension in relationships that describes the need to be open and to self-disclose while also maintaining some sense of privacy Change/predictability: a dialectical tension in relationships that describes the human desire for events that are new, spontaneous, and unplanned while simultaneously needing some aspects of life to be stable and predictable Know what is meant by the term ?relationship maintenance? and be able to recognize examples of maintenance strategies for both romantic couples and friends Relational maintenance: behaviors that couples perform that help maintain their relationships Ex: romantic couples-communication is vital Strategies include: positivity, openness, assurance, social networks, sharing tasks, joint activities, humor, found self-report, narratives, and TV talk. Ex: friendships Strategies include: assurance, openness, positivity, listening, spending time together through sharing activities and ongoing interaction Know why romantic relationship and friendships end Romantic: fatal attractions; lack of autonomy, similarity, supportiveness; infidelity Friendships: lack of proximity, communication skills; deception, boredom; rule breaking Understand the difference between sudden death and passing away termination processes Sudden death: process by which relationships end without prior warning for at least one participant Passing away: process by which relationships decline over time Know and be able to recognize examples of the different types of relational termination strategies Relationships: negative identity management, de-escalation, justification, positive tone strategies, behavioral de-escalation Friendships: withdrawal/avoidance, Machiavellian, openness Know what aversive communication is (and be able to recognize examples of it); also know how often people experience aversive communication in their relationships Aversive communication: a punishment We ?criticize, nag, betray, lie, disappointment, ostracize, embarrass, and tease one another. These usually hurt the victims and then the victims respond with even more negative behaviors, which can lead to a cycle of blame and criticism. Know how often deception occurs in close relationships and how it negatively affects relationships 87.5% of people have deceived their dating partners and 92% in romantic relationships Can impair relationships-a person may withhold information because it is too private to share or it might cause pain Know the difference between envy and jealousy Envy: Jealousy: a complex and often painful emotion that occurs when a person perceives a threat to an existing relationship Know the emotions associated with jealousy Combines anger, sadness, worry, embarrassment, and disappointment Know how men and women differ in their expression of jealousy Men: Consider leaving relationship Become involved with other women in attempt to repair their self esteem Women: Focus on repairing the relationship Understand how communication practices affect the experience/expression of jealousy Know the communication patterns of violent couples; know who is affected by domestic abuse Interpersonal Effectiveness Know what mindfulness is and how it differs from mindlessness. Mindfulness is a way of acting and interacting in the world. It involves a state of alertness and activity and is about being present in the moment. (Examples of when you are mindful: first date because you really focus on how you are acting.) Mindlessness: involves minimal information processing. And it is when your past experiences influence your present behavior. Understand how to increase/improve mindfulness. Focus on new aspects of the interaction (Ex. Looking at what their hands are doing and not their faces). Focus on different perspectives. Distinct between person and there stereotypes of past experiences that you may have of them. Take time to notice how YOU respond. Be able to define and recognize examples of the components of interpersonal effectiveness, including appropriateness, effectiveness, and context. Appropriateness: following relevant rules, norms and expectations. Effectiveness: achieving ones goals (being effective). Context: can be judge only within specific situations/experiences (??). Understand and recognize examples of ?knowing yourself,? including multiple identities, reflected appraisals, and social comparisons. Multiple Identities: presenting yourself in a variety of ways. (Ex. You will act different in front of a best friend than you would in front of a CEO who?s interviewing you for a new job). Recognizing all these identities. Reflected appraisals: people reveal how they see us either directly or indirectly. Social Comparisons: these influence our identity by who we compare ourselves to. Understand and recognize examples of ?knowing others,? including Perspective Taking, Empathy, Attributions & the Self-serving bias. Perspective Taking: looking at the other persons point of view. Empathy: feeling for them (Ex. Somebody lost someone special and it has happened to you before, than you have empathy for them). Attributions: Self-serving bias: we see ourselves as more positive than how we see others. Know what is meant by content goals, relationship goals, and identity goals. Content goals: goals for yourself and others. Relationship goals: goals for you and someone in a close relationship to you. Identity goals: goals for yourself. Be familiar with how to choose your communication strategies wisely and the importance of learning and adapting. Effective communication is about choosing your strategies wisely. (Ex. Is appropriateness or effectiveness more important to me?) Once you choose the strategies/experiences you must learn and adapt from them. Chapter One Understand how communication affects relationships, lives, etc. Communication can help you attain goals, establish relationships, and develop your identity. It allows you to accomplish the daily task of living. You also use communications to meet people, develop professional and personal relationships, and to terminate dissatisfying ones. Also your communication with others allows you to establish who you are to them. Be very familiar with the textbook authors definition of communication. A transactional process in which people generate meaning through exchange of verbal/nonverbal messages in specific contexts and embedded in cultures. Understand what we mean when we say communication is an ongoing process. It means that every interaction you?ve had with someone is influenced by every interaction that you have had with them in the past. Know what a symbol is and how symbols function in communication. Symbols function in communication because most messages people send to each other are symbolic. Symbols represent something else and convey meaning. They are arbitrary (completely random). Ex. A heart because it represents love but its not like it looks like a real heart so it is completely random. Know the difference between iconic and indexical communication and be able to recognize examples of each. Iconic and indexical communication both are types of signs. Signs are not arbitrary (random) because they bear some resemblance to the things they represent. Iconic: looks like what it actually represents. (Ex. A smiley face in a text is iconic because it actually looks like a real smiley face ). Indexical: references or points to the thing. It reveals something beyond the thing itself. (Ex. Footprints because they lead to something else. Or smoke because it leads to a fire). Know what each of the components of the communication model means; feedback, noise, types of context, etc. Feedback: the response to a message. Noise: any stimulus that can interfere with or degrade the quality of a message. Types of context: what the communication is about like the context of it. Channel: method of communication (face-to-face, text, etc). Meaning: meaning is collaborative, we create the meaning together. Field of experience: the field of experience that either the sender or receiver has. Be familiar with how the three different communication models differ; linear, interactive, and transactional. Linear: portrayal of communication as a process of occurring largely in one direction. The sender would send the message to the receiver and if he got it and understood its meaning than communication was considered effective. Problem was it was too simple. Interactive: like linear except for they added field of experience because sometimes when sender and receivers field of experience is different the message does not go through as well. Stressed that both communicators sent and received messages however they didn?t convey that when parties communicate they create meaning together. Transactional: included that meaning is collaborative, we create the meaning together through our communication. Human Communication in Society: pretty much the transactional model except for we added context; context influences how we communicate, and culture also influences it. Know the difference between content and relationship meaning and the components of content meaning. Know why we need ethical communication. Ethics in communication is important because communication is unavoidable, irreversible, and consequential. So you have to remember when communicating that you need to focus on what you say and make sure that it is ethical. Know what we mean when we say communication is consequential. Consequential for yourself, self-concept, self esteem, and identity management. Consequential for others perception of world and themselves. Consequential for relationships, levels of trust, satisfaction, loyalty, future honesty and even existence. Know the definition for ethics. Refers the standards of right and wrong, good and bad, and immoral and moral. Truthfulness: others expect it, communication is consequential, and people make choices. Truth bias: expect people that we are close to to tell us the truth. Know the difference between secrecy and privacy and relativism and absolutism. Privacy is different from secrecy because it is okay to keep it to yourself because it doesn?t affect anyone else. Relativism: argues that there is no absolute right or wrong. How one behaves depends on the person, situation etc. Absolutism: there is a right and wrong answer to every ethical dilemma and it holds for every person, in every country, culture etc. Know the ethical obligations of receivers. Listen mindfully; have reasoned skepticism, healthy feedback (although sometimes we can?t provide it). Be familiar with the ethics of language. Name calling, jokes, in-group/out-group humor. Know what we mean by authentic communication. Open and free from pretense. Impediments to authentic communication. Chapter Two ?? Be familiar with the four different approaches to the study of communication (rhetorical, post-modern, etc.) and the characteristics of each. Social science approach: these methods attempt to predict and explain. See?s people as predictable. Based on scientific method. Research questions derived from theory. Ex of studies: survey?s, observations, experiments, and interviews Interpretive approach: goal is to describe and understand. Views communicators as creative. Its rhetorical/ethnographic (when researchers actively engage with participants) (rhetorical: when researchers analyze public speeches with the aim of interpreting the textual meaning). Ex of studies: analysis of texts, data, observations, and interviews Critical approach: goal is to locate oppression and how to change society. Humans subject to social forces. Ex of studies: textual and media analysis. Postmodern approach: to understand the contemporary human conditions, challenges assumptions of race. Truth and power are inseparable Ex of studies: textual analysis and participant observation. Know the different types of research methods that exemplify each of the four approaches. Chapter Three Know the definitions (and be able to recognize examples) of the following: reflected appraisals, the looking glass self, self-concept, self-esteem, social comparison, self-fulfilling prophecies. Reflected appraisals: people?s self image is by the ways others view them and the messages they receive. The looking glass self: self image results from images others reflect back. Particular and generalized other. Particular other: important people in your life who?s reflects on us mean a lot to us (parents, close friends, etc). Generalized other: set of norms, rules and expectations. Social Comparison: how you compare yourself with others. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: people assume that something is going to happen so they act in ways that make it more likely. Self-Concept: the understanding of one?s unique characteristics as well as the similarities/differences from others. Self-Esteem: Perception/interpretations of reflected appraisals and social comparisons. Be familiar with the different types of identities we can possess and what they are based on (e.g., national identity, gender identity, etc.) ?? Sexual Identity: whether it is public or private. Age Identity: how we feel and how others feel about our age. And also age identity can have culturally determined meanings. Social Class Identity: strong impact, and communicated clearly. Religious Identity: is important and also can be kept private or made public. Know the difference between gender and sex as a social category. ??? Understand how societal forces impact our individual identities. ??? Know what we mean by the performance of identity in everyday life as well as how identities change. ?? We perform cultural rituals of communicating everyday and work on identity performance. How we perform around different identities is an art. Understand how identities are performed. We enact scripts appropriate to the other person?s identity. Identities are performed, we use scripts and role expectations Know what it means when we say identity is mutable (or changeable). We change our identity according to the people that we are communicating with. For example you would not communicate in the same way with your mom as you would with your teacher. Know the difference between primary and secondary identity. Primary identity: have the most consistent and enduring impact on our lives (race, gender, sexuality, age, nationality). Secondary Identity: more fluid and dependent on situation (occupation, and marital status). Be familiar with ethics of identity and communication. Communicating with others based on their identities. Changing language choice and reducing people to a single identity. Chapter Four Know why understanding perceptual processing is important. It influences how we understand the world, and how we respond to the world. Also influences relationship choices and it drives consumption. Know the three components of the perception process and what they are comprised of. Perception is composed of selection, organization, and interpretation. Selection: process of choosing sensory information Organization: the process by which one recognizes what sensory input represents. Making mental models/cognitive maps. Interpretation: act of assigning meaning to sensory information. Know the difference between cognitive representations and categorization and what concepts comprise each (e.g., maps are a type of cognitive representation, and labels are a type of categorization). Cognitive representation: ability to form mental models of the world. Decide what it is that?s going on than we organize it. Consists of mental maps and cognitive maps. Mental maps: structures that help us understand. Categorization: a cognitive process used to organize info by placing it into larger groups of info. Consists of?. Labeling: like a name assigned to a person. Stereotyping: over generalizing attributes to a group by creating schemas. Ethnocentrism: the tendency to view one?s own group as the standard against which all other groups are judged. Know what an interpersonal script is and the more common types of interpersonal scripts we perform. Things that are a little more set in stone. They are fixed, repeated plans. For example when you meet a new person you have a fixed script of some of the things you may say to them. Understand what is mean by locus of control, fundamental attribution error, and the self-serving bias. Locus of control: whether we think that the events that take place in are lives are more controlled by us or by external things. External LOC= low. Fundamental attribution error: good things happen cause good person but bad things happen because of external circumstances. Self-serving bias: when good things happen, we credit ourselves. When bad things happen we blame it on others. Be familiar with the different factors that influence perception. Physical differences (taste, sight, hearing, etc) Constructs (Ex. Types of music) Cognitive complexity about things you know a lot about. Know what is meant by cognitive complexity. The degree to which a person?s constructs are detailed, involved or numerous. So you?re more interested in things that you already know about. Understand the differences among stereotyping, ethnocentrism, and prejudice. Stereotyping: over generalizing attributes to a group by creating schemas. Ethnocentrism: the tendency to view one?s own group as the standard against which all other groups are judged. Prejudice: expressing negative feeling toward a person/group because of the group they belong to. Understand how societal influences can impact our perception processes. Culture, stereotypes, our history, and social roles can impact perception processes. REVIEW SHEET: EXAM THREE Spring 2009 Chapter 10 Organizational Know the communication functions of organizations (3) Production: activity is coordinated toward accomplishing tasks Maintenance: the stability of existing systems is preserved Innovation: by means of which systems are changed Be familiar with and be able to recognize examples of assimilation Assimilation: the communicative, behavioral, and cognitive processes that influence individuals to join, identify with, become integrated into, and occasionally exit an organization (3 stages) Organizational identification: a stage of assimilation that occurs when an employee?s values overlap with the organization?s values-not every new employee experiences this 3 stages of organizational assimilation Anticipatory socialization: activities and experiences that occur before an individual enters an organization but that later assist in the assimilation process Also includes activities one engages in before being hired such as conducting research on the organization, listening to media messages about it, asking current employees about its practices and environment, and job interviews The encounter stage: individuals learn the norms, expectations, and practices of the organization and begin to accept and adapt to them-the comm.. process most central to this stage is information seeking Metamorphosis: the final stage of the socialization process during which employees come to see themselves as members of the organization, and colleagues see them this way as well Assimilation The communicative processes that influence individuals to join, identify with, become integrated into, and exit an organization Occurs over time Common experience Contributes to organizational identification Communicating During Assimilation Employment interview-provides information on norms, rules, expectations What is your role in the interview? Ex. Video on questions you should ask during your interview: cover these 5 areas Position responsibilities Resources available to help accomplish the job Level of authority Performance measurement Company culture Encounter Stage: learning the norms of the organization 2 types of information seeking strategies Active strategies: overt questioning, indirect questioning, 3rd party, testing limits Passive strategies: observing and surveillance Metamorphosis Stage The final stage of assimilation process Employees begin to see themselves as members of the organization Organizational identification Stage of assimilation where employee?s values overlap with organizational values Includes the importance of the organization on the person?s self-concept Includes value, contribution, impact, performance Know the different types of communication strategies that successful supervisors use with their subordinates Supervisor-Subordinate Communication Occurs when one person has the formal authority to regulate the organizational behavior of another Plays a larger role in Organizational Identification Communicating with Supervisors Perceptual co-orientation: you and your supervisor see the organization similarly and you both understand that Upward distortion: subordinates put a better picture on things that aren?t really as good as they seem, something is wrong but no one will tell the boss Managing Upward: good successful employees are able to manage their boss Ingratiation: getting people to like you (suck-up) Communicating with Subordinates ******ON TEST****** Openness: sharing information/listening Supportiveness: providing access to information and resources Motivation: encouraging people to invest in accomplishing goals Empowerment: increasing feelings of self-efficacy Know what horizontal, upward and downward communication are Horizontal: communication with peers Upward: communication with superiors Downward: communication with subordinates Be familiar with, know the definitions for and be able to recognize examples of organizational problematics/dilemmas Emotion Labor: required to display specific emotions Emotional display rules Surface( just display an emotion, much less authentic) vs. deep emotions (have to feel it as well as display it-you kind of lose yourself in it) Burnout: being worn out from stress Emotional exhaustion Lack of sense of personal accomplishment Depersonalization-moved away from people Role Conflict: roles as parents/worker/spouse Role Ambiguity: not sure what to do or what your role is Know what work-life conflict is how organizations contribute to it Difficulty managing jobs and home life Type of role conflict Organizations built on old model of male employee/female homemaker Organizations discourage employees from using family-friendly policies Know what bullying is and how many U S American workers experience it Bullying: repeated hostile behaviors that are or appear to be intended to harm parties unable to defend themselves The intent to harm is a defining element and power differences are key 30% of over 400 respondents claimed that they had been bullied at some point in their careers Know what employee monitoring is and how it is conducted Types of privacy-invasive monitoring: drug tests, video monitoring, e-mail monitoring, instant message monitoring, phone monitoring, location monitoring, personality testing, keystroke logging Employers have an interest in monitoring employees in order to address security risks, sexual harassment, and acceptable performance of work duties, these activities may diminish employee morale and dignity as well as increase worker stress Chapter 11 Rhetoric Know what a ?rhetor? is and be able to recognize examples Originally it was the person who sends the message, the speaker Today, it includes any message sender-whether a person (the speaker), or an institution (the Supreme Court), or an organization (Exxon Mobil) Know what the ?artistic proofs? are and their definitions (3) Ethos **MOST IMPORTANT*** Credibility Good sense, moral character, good will The persona that the rhetor projects The persona that the audience sees When an organization does what they promise to do they have ethos Aristotle thought this was the most important of the three Ex. Becoming Barack video Pathos Emotional appeals Narration often effective Logos Not as narrow as ?logic? Refers to rationale or reasoning more generally Needs to make sense Know what constitutes public communication In the past, the study of rhetoric was limited to written and spoken language Now, rhetoric is any message; for the purposes of this lecture, we focus on rhetoric as public communication Rhetoric is communication intended for the public Know why the study of rhetoric is important Helps us understand how and what we know about the world Helps us better understand our culture Helps us better evaluate public messages Helps us become better communicators Be able to recognize examples of rhetoric in popular culture and everyday life Social Position of the Rhetor Position from which the rhetor speaks Society is structured and we are all structured in different ways-power Note from where the rhetor is speaking and audience expectations Relationship to Audience Physical audience: everyone that hears the message Rhetorical audience: the people that can actually act on the message, the people who the message was intended for Rhetoric and Society Rhetorical Events Events arise that need response Events are created through rhetoric Democratic Function of Rhetoric Deliberative Rhetoric Rhetoric heard in state legislatures, Congress, city councils Focused on future action Justice and Rhetoric Forensic rhetoric Rhetoric heard in courtrooms, Congressional inquiries Focused on past events Rhetorical Criticism Rhetorical critic Analyzing rhetoric Chapter 12 Media Know and be able to recognize examples of the uses and gratification theory of media selection Selective exposure: seeking media that confirm one?s beliefs Uses and gratification: looks at why you select certain media, media selected for these reasons: Information Entertainment Personal identity Integration and social interaction Know what media are and be able to recognize examples of it Media= plural of medium-method of which communication is delivered Mediated communication for large audiences Includes newspapers, radio, magazines, books, movies, music, T.V. Media are now more segmented- specific to certain audiences New media trend-viral medial Viral media: Media that are created and put out there and people have to find it and if people like it they forward it to their friends and so on Ex. Stay out of the dog house video Guy is put in dog house because he gives his gf a vacuum for their anniversary They?re advertising jewelry-only find out at the end Understand how people resist media ? and why People resist because of Its power to shape identities Through selection Through seeking out specific media Taste Principles and beliefs Boycotts Campaigns Speaking out Know what cultivation theory is and be able to recognize examples of it Cultivation theory: idea that long-term immersion in a media environment leads to ?cultivation? or enculturation, into shared beliefs about the world Know what agenda setting is and be able to recognize examples of it Agenda setting capacity: the power of media coverage to influence individuals? view of the world Messages are mediated Can distort our images Be familiar with the effect of media violence on children under age eight More aggressiveness and antisocial behavior Greater fear of becoming victims Less sensitive to violence and victims Increased appetite for violence in entertainment and life Chapter 13 Computer Mediated Communication Know the definitions (and recognize examples of): media sensitivity, social presence, media richness, identity tourism Media sensitivity: the awareness that media possess characteristics that affect their appropriateness and effectiveness in specific contexts Social Presence Theory Feelings of psychological closeness or immediacy people feel when interacting with one another FTF-high, CMC-low How do we convey emotions in online messages? Media Richness Theory Potential information-carrying capacity of a communication media Richness: the extent of which a medium recreates the information available in the original message, determined by speed, interactivity and completeness Richest medium? FTF Leanest medium? Email Multiple Identities Multiphrenic self: self that fees fragmented, lacks coherence Anonymity-controlling the amount of information you disclose Informative aspect Group norms (ex. Spam) Liberate speech (ex. Spoofing) Pseudoanonymity-projecting a false identity Identity tourism-taking on another identity just for fun Know the differences between CMC and Face to Face interaction CMC vs. Face to Face (FTF) CMC Involves communicating online Filters out nonverbal cues Occurs asynchronously-doesn?t happen instantaneously FTF Involves communicating in person Relies on nonverbal cues Occurs synchronously-you get instant feedback Understand the organizational effects of CMC (i.e., status leveling and monitoring) Misconceptions Social network theory: says that being online doesn?t mean you have less friends, it says that it increases your social network Relationship Development Continued Romantic Relationships Finding similar others ?Getting Past the Gates?-getting to know the person without being nervous Quicker self-disclosure and intimacy Friendships Field of available Hyper-personal relationships: because we can get past the gates quicker, intimacy is sped up Work Status-leveling-makes it easier to contact people higher up Surveillance Is it ethical? How to Have a Successful Romantic Relationship Know the three basic types of romantic relationships and the predominant mixed type Choosing Well: Relationship Types Dating views of life need to be the same as your partners Vision of marriage needs to be the same Mixed couples are when the partners prefer different types of relationships Traditional and separates are very similar Traditional The man works and wife stays home and takes care of the children and cleans the house Traditional sex roles Low conflict Happier because they don?t have to negotiate as much Separates Traditional sex roles Low conflict But they tend to spend a lot of time apart Maybe only see each other on vacations and holidays Independents You both do your own thing and are very independent of each other More conflict-much more opinionated Goals aren?t defined No fixed sex roles **Know what the ?four horsemen of the apocalypse? and be able to recognize a definition and examples of each** The 4 Horsemen of the Apocalypse Cascade of negativity that arises in relationships that if its left alone it will lead to divorce Based upon research he can tell if a couple will get divorced based on the man?s behavior Each level causes more deterioration: Complaining/criticizing How you express it How often you do it The more you focus on a behavior rather than a personality characteristic the better Leads to defensiveness Women do this more Defensiveness Don?t be defensive if you are the one receiving the criticism Some people will become hostile or deny the criticism-leads to contempt Men do this more Contempt You treat a person as if they are without value/worthless Not giving your partner support or approval-leads to stonewalling Women do this more Stonewalling Refusing to engage, walking out of the room Men do this more Anything that causes positive things should be 5 times more than negative things, ratio should be 5 : 1 Ex. Video on how to handle a difficult partner ?my name is earl? *Remember the 3X rule** Handling Power Productively The Hidden Dimension The 3x Rule If you have the same fight 3 times or more, it?s probably not about the issue your arguing about, it?s about power Who will be in control Let your partner make her or his own choices **Know what it means to help maintain your partner?s ?face? and to provide ?face support? (and be able to recognize examples)** Support your partner We expect our partners to protect our faces (our identity) Provide face support Maintain your partner?s face Avoid face threatening behavior **Know what it means to threaten or attack your partner?s face (and be able to recognize examples of it)** **Be familiar with the 6 types of positive communication acts and the effects of affection on individuals and couples** Engage in Positive Communication Acts Daily Show interest Be affectionate Be appreciative Be empathetic Be accepting- find someone whose faults you can accept and live with Joke around-humor can save a relationship Women engage in more expressions of contempt
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