A disparity of programs for female inmates could not be justified because of the smaller number of female inmates made it more costly to provide program parity
Butler v. Reno
Female inmates claimed gender discrimination due to denial of access to facilities, programs, and services available to similarly situated male federal inmates.
Bruscino v. Carlson
Excessive lockdown does not violate the Constitutional rights of inmates.
Pargo v. Elliot
Allowed that differences in programs between male and female prisons does not necessarily violate the equal protection clause of the Constitution.
The fact that minorities make up a greater percentage of those under correctional supervision than their makeup in the U. S. population.
General prison population
Inmates in prison who do not have any specific designation as a special type of offender.
A term created by Dilulio to describe a generation of violent youths who practiced almost indiscriminate violence on the streets.
A statement of the delinquent acts a juvenile is alleged to have committed; similar to an indictment for adults.
Statutory exclusions put a youth under the original jurisdiction of the adult criminal court. These exceptions can place the youth under the original jurisdiction of both the juvenile and criminal courts. The prosecutor is given the authority to decide which court will initially handle the case.
Juvenile courts usually decide on a case-by-case basis whether the court will waive the processing of the juvenile and allow prosecution as an adult in the criminal justice system.
An activity that is considered a crime only because the offender is under the age of 18 and would not be a crime if committed by an adult; includes acts such as running away from home, ungovernable, truancy, or underage drinking.
Direct assignment of specific crimes committed by juveniles to be handled in adult courts.
A period between 1824 to 1899 when delinquent or neglected children were placed in a home for training and discipline
A middle ground between juvenile and adult sentences that allows judges to choose from a broad array of both juvenile and adult sentences
The temporary care of children in physically restricted facilities pending court disposition or transfer to another jurisdiction or agency
An informal handling of a juvenile justice case, in which the delinquent juvenile admits to wrongdoing and agrees to specific conditions of behavior; sometimes called informal probation.
Someone who sexually attracted to and molests children
Offenders have committed a legally prohibited sexual act or in some states any offender who commits any crime that was statutorily defined as sexually molested
Drug Use Forecasting
Surveys of jailed inmates by the U. S. Department of Justice to determine the extent of drug use related to criminality
An approach to managing sex offenders that includes treatment to develop internal control over deviant thoughts, supervision and surveillance to control external behaviors, and polygraph examinations to monitor conformance to treatment plans.
"Texas and female incarceration"
Drugs administered to mentally ill individuals to counteract the symptoms of their mental illness, often allowing them to live successfully in the community rather than needing to be institutionalized
Categories of Prisoners
Family organizations formed by female inmates who have roles of parents and children
Groups that form in prison and use the threat of violence to intimidate other inmates, control drug sales and prostitution, and gain power and influence
Those convicted of crimes regarding the possession or sale of drugs
Prison programs to assist inmates to improve their parenting skills, even while in prison
The sanction for a juvenile found delinquent by juvenile court; similar to the sentence for an adult
Prohibits the federal government from imposing excessive bail, excessive fines or cruel and unusual punishments.
Its Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without certain steps being taken to ensure fairness.
The test established in Fernandez v. United States that medical care for inmates must be reasonably commensurate with medical care they would receive if not imprisoned
Established in Pell v. Procunier, finding that prison inmates retain those 1st Amendment rights that are not inconsistent with their status as prisoner or with legitimate penological objectives
Prison violence that is between and initiated by groups of inmates and includes prison riots and disturbances; it can be groups of inmates against staff.
Goffman's concept of a setting isolating people from the rest of society and unnecessarily manipulating them through the actions of the administrative staff
The court has the authority to take over supervision of children when their parents failed to provide proper care and guidance
The expected rules and behaviors represented by the model prisoner and reflecting the values and norms of prison society
A method of execution in which drugs are injected into a person's body, making the heart stop and causing death
Decisions of the courts that come before and are therefore binding on later decisions of courts within the same jurisdiction
Used in capital cases, with guilt first established at a traditional trial, and if found guilty, a second stage of sentencing considers between death or life imprisonment.
Section 1983 of the Civil Rights Act
Prohibits any person, acting under the color of any statute, ordinance, or regulation, from depriving another of his or her constitutional rights
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