Intro to Cultural Anthropology, ANT 130, Prof. De Ann Pendry, UTK Exam # 3, Modern World System, Colonialism, Development, Industrial Production (Maquiladoras), and Cultural Exchange and Survival For Kottak’s Chapter 11 (as well as lectures), The Modern World System Make sure you understand world systems theory (including the distinctions between core, semi-periphery, and periphery nations). Lecture: World in which nations are economically and politically interdependent -relations between nations are shaped by world capitalist system -exchanges of people, resources, ideas and diseases -profits > actual needs Book: Core Nation: Dominant in world system; strongest/most powerful sates; advanced system of production; control of world finance Semi-periphery Nation: intermediate between core and periphery; industrialized and export; lack economic dominance Periphery: weakest; produce raw materials, agriculture and human labor to semi and core Pay attention to lecture and Kottak’s discussion of Sidney Mintz’s work on sugar cane plantations and how sugar cane plantations were related to the emergence of the modern world system and the Industrial Revolution. -early industrial processing( began importing products - led to plantations in the Carribean supplying profits/sugar to Europe as demand increased, went to a plantation economy/ monocrop production -went from rare item consumed by elite to a staple in the diets of working class - based on slave labor -sugar introduced to Europe as a rarity( began importing it( led to building plantations( led to the emergence of slave labor and trade worldwide Review the causes of the Industrial Revolution. -Europe after 1750 -traditional to modern societies through industrialization of the economy -required a capital for investment( transoceanic trade and commerce supplied capital with profits( wealthy sought investment -replaced domestic system of manufacture -* began with cotton, iron, pottery which were widely used goods with simple manufacture -manufacture moved from homes to factories, handiwork( machinery, agrarian society( industrial society this led to dramatic increase in production -began in England because of increased need for products -led to dramatic increase in population( fueled consumption -when this demand couldn’t be met it led to rapid technological changes - location and natural resources made it central for importing and exporting goods -new colonies bought large quantities of English staples -Protestant work ethic, thrift and willingness to accept and initiate trade - simple manufacture( factories( increase in production( increase in population( increase in demand( technology advances to meet demands( prime location and natural resources( Protestant work ethic Note the social and cultural changes caused by the shift from feudal agriculture and cottage industries to capitalism and industrial production in factories. -led to stratification of classes -labor was sought where it was cheap -pollution led to bad living conditions and disease -shifted production from cottages to factories -industrialism separated workers from the means of production -class consciousness- try to protect interests and increase share of profits by organizing -trade unions and socialist parties emerged Lecture : -rural( urban -changed the working conditions: employer/ee, working in a factory for a salary on a timed schedule -eventually led to assembly line -concept of time -valuing change and progress -prodution base on a profit motive -agricultural time VS industrial time Understand differences between the bourgeoisie and the working class. -bourgeoise: owned the factories and other means of production; dominate key institutions -working class/ proletariat: sold their labor to survive Be able to define key characteristics of caste systems, slavery, and an open class system. -caste systems: closed, hereditary systems of stratifcation often dictated by religion; hierarchy from birth( locked in parent’s social position; legal and religious sanctions applied to keep it organized -slavery: people conquered/ stolen from homelands -open class system: individual achievement determines social rank; blurred class lines Understand the historical relationships between the Industrial Revolution, colonialism, capitalism, and the emergence of the modern world system. -industrialism accelerated local participation in larger networks and fueled expansion of production and consumption( exchanges occur with profit as motive -colonialism is the domination of a territory by foreign power -the colonial expansion led to more demand from the industrial centers supply the materials and purchase mafactured goods -this led to so much production that selling things became harder and stratigical( advertisements) -culture of consumption -consumption of fossil fuels( resource depletion -industrial capitalism: production for sale with goal of maximizing profits For Kottak’s Chapter 12 (and lectures) on Colonialism On what continents did Britain and France have colonies? -Britian: North America, South America, Africa, Austrialia and Asia -France: Africa and Asia What are the historical legacies of European colonialism? -helped fuel industrial Revolution -results in labor arrangements like slavery -European notions of race and white superiority -European cultures need to “civilize” other countries since they couldn’t govern themselves -Spread of Christianity How have these legacies affected identity and social relations in postcolonial countries? -whole countries along with social groups and divisions were colonial inventions -seperated by linguistic, political and economic contrasts promoted under colonialism -ethnic groups and tribes are colonial creations that missionaries often interfere with and have had a lasting impact -Hutu and Tstutsis in Rwanda and Burundi pastoral Tutsis are seen superior to agricultural Hutus Tutsis- noble ad Hutus- commoners These ethnic identifications were used in the Rwanda genocides How did colonialism affect the lives of your ancestors? - the US was colonized by Europeans that led to a war for independce How did colonialism affect several of the groups we have studied this semester: Native Americans in the U.S., Moroccans, the Asante and other groups in Ghana, the San in South Africa, Zapotecs in Mexico, Mayas in Guatemala, the Huaorani in Ecuador, and the Trobriand Islanders. (Notice that I did not include the rural Chinese on this list, although European colonial powers did engage in a war over opium with China as well.) Native Americans: pushed out of their lands violently by European settlers and are still on small areas of land; white superiority and the mascots; viewed their religion and dances as exotic and that they are less intelligent; spread of Christianity Moroccans: French invaded their land and schools; they changed the language and caused a split between the countries Asante: fought serious wars with Europe for their territories; people would come through and take pictures of them because they looked exotic; destroyed their trade and replaced it with a sense of money; spread Christianity San: tobacco was introduced; they were sought out to fight in wars; spread Christianity Zapotecs: defeated by Aztecs and then Spanish Mayas: viewied as inferior to other humans; genocide; linguistic changes; break away from cultural traditions and religion Huaorani: shift from hunting and gathering to permanent settlements Trobriand Islanders: Trobriand Cricket! Figi Missionaries Review the lecture on Western colonial (and postcolonial) images of Africa (and other non-Europeans). What are the myths perpetuated by these images? -Myths: Savage, Noble Savage, cultural evolution, progress, disappearing native, they need Us for survival -used images in home countries to define the ‘others’ - all picture white men in western dress towering over the Africans in exotic dress -no struggles or violence -ritual - described in word and pictures as less than human -“the darker your skin color, the more naked you become” According to the analysis by Lutz and Collins (1993), how have the images in National Geographic tended to portray people in non-Western regions of the world? -Visual media teaches us about race, ethnicity and gender as well as to provide us a singular historical narrative through which we can understand the world and our relationship to it. (Lutz and Collins 1993) -Exotic, idealized, naturalized, sexualized, and stripped of their historical context of colonization and exploitation -African natives stuck in the past, within traditional context; or progressing toward civilization, becoming like us. Lecture on Migration around the World Think about the history of your own family and your ancestors in terms of migration. Why, when and where did people in your family migrate? -migrated from Germany for better opportunities -did it mostly for job purposes -Indiana( Florida( Nashville What are various reasons that people migrate? Think of the examples discussed in the lecture: people from New Orleans, Eritrea, Morocco, Brazil, Guatemala, Namoluk, Cherokees in the past, and Latinos from Mexico and Central America migrating to Tennessee. -Refugees Due to War: Eritrea- war and government repression -Displacement due to disaster- New Orleans, 2/3 return others haven’t -Morrocan migration to Europe( remittances -Japanese Brazilians to Japan( wanted to “whiten” the population -Guatemalans to US, Mexico and Canada - Namoluk to Federated States of Micronesia -Cherokees to reserves because of colonialism and war -Latinos from Mexico and Central America to TN for work? -support their families by sending remittances -start a new life for future generations What kinds of sacrifices do migrants make? -culture -moving away from family -identity loss What do they hope to accomplish after migrating? What activities do people engage in to maintain their cultures of origin in the places to which they move? (I did not discuss this in lecture, but people also change after they migrate. Can you think of examples that illustrate that?) -Japanese Brazilians bringing Brazilian cuisine and Festivals to Japan -Mexicans in TN generally stick together and live in areas that have a lot of signs in espanol Immigrants in the new land are identified as being from their former culture. However, upon returning, because of the acquired culture, they are viewed as from the place the migrated to. When immigration occurs: • Fill an economic niche for new area • Network together • Adapt new culture’s practices Make sure you can define: remittances, refugee, legal permanent resident. -refugee: fleeing war, violence, religious persecution -remittances: money sent to families or someone -legal permanent resident: status granting foreign nationals the right to reside in the US permanently and eventually apply to naturalize as a citizen What are examples of types of temporary legal status in the United States? -tourist VISAs and temporary workers -refugees from Haiti According to the data gathered by Anita Drever and the Pew Hispanic Research Center, what are the characteristics of Latino migration to Tennessee? (When, where, why have they migrated to those places, what countries are they from, what kinds of jobs are they working in, percent undocumented) (Note: I did not stress this in class, but it is important to recognize that Latinos born in other states are also migrating to Tennessee.) -when: 1990-2004 increased 267% -where: agriculture/farm work -why: work low skill jobs that others don’t want order to provide for their families -jobs: chicken plants, fast food, ect In the notes for this lecture, I wrote: “1790, free white person (men).” This law defined who was entitled to the full rights of citizenship. In class I mentioned that this excluded women and African-descended slaves. It also excluded Native Americans and Asian migrants. Over time people in these groups finally managed to obtain the full rights of citizenship. You should have this general understanding. And then in general, it is important to remember this history if you want to understand what is going on now. 1790 Free white person (men)- right to own property, etc. but only applied to white men • Quota laws of the 1920s restricted number of immigrants to a small percentage of the U.S. population • Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965- abolished the national origin quotas of the 1920s • Immigration Reform and Control Act - granted amnesty to anyone who could prove residence for a certain number of years • Film “Global Assembly Line” and “Beautiful Flowers of the Maquiladora” by Normal Iglesias Prieto (and lectures) Pay attention to Kottak’s description of Aihwa Ong’s work on factory workers in Malaysia. (Review pp.120-122 in Economic Systems.) -electronics assembly workers -85% women -rigid work routine and supervision by men -uniforms in school prepare for factory dress( uncomfortable -seperation of intellectual and manual activity -mental/physical exhaustion( spirit possession -unconsious protesting industry -become violent, medicine men are employed -does very little to modify factory conditions -acts as a safety valve for accumulating tensions Compare this case to the examples in the film “Global Assembly Line” and the ethnography “Beautiful Flowers.” Make sure you can identify key characteristics of the management and the workers, working conditions, and examples of worker resistance. worker resistance examples: -younger girls resisting management by refusing to do certain tasks and walking out and finding abother job because they are younger and it’s easier for them to find work -female workers because males are more resistant -Angelita and others demanding their compensation and getting fired -say the worst drawback was their health in working -many bosses have “pets” and lovers from the plants Solidev: workers founded Solidev Independent Labor Union -won workers improved benefits, salary increases and a forty hour work week as well as money to cover the pesos decline in value -began when they fired sympathetic supervisors so they stood up for them so they wouldn’t get fired next -started a work stoppage -told not to do it because they would lose in the end and they would fight back -majority were women and it affected their relationships with family and acquaintances -very well organized and put money together for those who needed it most -they ended up winning and are much better off -managers tried to lure people away by offering them money -taught them how to organize and confront the owners and so they taught others Global Assembly Line: What factors have favored the trend for factories to move out of core countries like the United States to developing (or periphery) countries like Mexico? -reducing production cost by capitalizing on the low cost of local labor -can expand without high costs -no labor laws -duty free zone and close to the US -minimal training requirements -little regulation of labor conditions and environmental pollution -almost no labor unions Global Assembly Line: -put people out of jobs in US -large savings in production in countries like Japan -military moved homes for the factory -said it tied the countries together between US and Mexico Compare perspectives of management and the workers. Why did management say about their preference to hire women? -physical attributes- small hands, ect. -submissive, did not try to organisze -more responsible than men -sexually submissive in order to get breaks and promotions -women have lower levels of schooling and no the experience which deludes their conception of rights -the women believe that they are more responsible -more patient and fastidious -they come with excuses to treat them badly and not increase wages -managers act sympathetic and blame it on someone higher -for women this might be the only opportunity they have for work because they’re not educated -harder for them to walk away from jobs because of children Global Assembly Line: What are the constraints on management, including those who might be sympathetic with workers? -they were overridden by the supervisors, that were usually American -they get fired Global Assembly Line: What happened to workers who tried to organize? -they were threatended with a loss of job or the whole factory moving altogether -they never really tried to organize and weren’t allowed to talk to each other at work to prevent this from happening -employers tried to brainwash them -strikes were a lot of work -successful unions actually improved working conditions -they were blacklisted from ever getting a future job in any other maquiladoras -some jobs asked for letters of recommendation so they couldn’t put up a fight Global Assembly Line: -arrest workers who engage in protest Compare clothing, electronics: What are working conditions like? What are the characteristics of the women who work in these jobs (where from, urban or rural, ages, work histories, etc.)? Clothing: -single women between ages of 16 and 24 -migrants that have lived in the city less than 6 months -nonstudents Textiles: older women with experience as a seamstress because able to work more rapidly -considered a skilled occupation -don’t get minimum wage because they do piecework -majority have children and are sole household providers so they are dependent on job Working conditions: -terrible in both -no safety regulations, very little protection -extreme temperatures due to climate and tin roofs -very few breaks -chemicals, fumes and dust caused serious health problems -have to work rapidly despite pain because of the quotas that had to be met Global Assembly Line: -share border house rooms sleeping, eating and living together Look at the life histories of the women in the book (and the film): Why do women want these jobs? What circumstances led them to this work? What do they think of the work? In what ways do they accept the working conditions? In what ways are they critical and resist? How were they spending the money they earned? How did working in factories affect relationships with their parents, husbands, and children? Maria Luisa: already assisted father, worked in factory to get a border crossing card, didn’t strike becase she couldn’t not have a job and accepted the conditions, spent money on living expenses, married and 31 years old, migrant Angela: single mother with four children, electroics worker, 42 years old, sole supporter of family, liked the liberation of work, left husban because of abuse, for her it represented an advance in the social scale, grateful for work because of her past life was terrible, migrant Obdulia: 17 years old, recently married, one child, born in Tijuana, needs salary for household expenses but husband helps too, easy to get a job at the factories, she wants to keep working at the factory as long as she can because they need money Maria Christina: 18 years old, moved to Tijuana for better living conditions, textile, earnings go to personal expenses, met men and women in the factories and it was better than being a homebody for her, she doesn’t depend on the job for money she likes it Alma: lived in US as a migrant woker in a textile factory undocumented, went to Tijuana to work in the textile factory, need salary because her husband is underemployed, less salary in Mexico but rents are cheaper, working conditions were better in US but not much, likes Mexico better -all of these women come from the most minimal backgrounds and the city provides them with things they could not have had in their villages, they all believe that they are priviledged to work in the factories, economic independence, range of options widens, it is generally their first labor experience and is liberating, Global Assembly Line: -possible arrest for crossing the border to be maids -pride of working in own country -had to repair home and working in the rice fiels was not enough money -wanted independence What roles do consumers play in all this? -buying the products of cheap labor -being uninformed to of terrible conditions -you could boycott certain companies until they make the workin conditions more humane Global Assembly Line: -had to repair home and working in the rice fiels was not enough money -wanted independence What do you think can be done to ensure decent wages and a decent standard of living, safe working conditions, and dignity for people who work in factories (as well as in other low-wage jobs)? -educate them on the benefits of resistance and forming unions -if the people that work in the factories are made aware that the conditions are unacceptable and strike back no one will be working and they will have to change -Solidev success story, confronting the capital Global Assembly Line: For Kottak’s Chapter 12 (and brief lecture) on Development Why does Kottak note that some development projects are based on an intervention philosophy (that is like that of colonialism)? -first occurred in 18th century Great Britian -combination of “white mans burden” as justification for imperialist expansion and France claiming to be engaged in a mission civilisatrice (civilizing mission) -an ideological justification for outsiders to guide native peoples in specific directions -economic development plans also have intervention philosophies -belief behind interventions is that industrialization, modernization, Westernization and individualism are desirable evolutionary advances and that development schemes that promote them will bring long-term benefits to local people -enlightened colonial planners against ignorance of “inferior” local people What are the characteristics of such projects? -develop or exploit natural and human reasources -develop industries, agriculture, mining -increase production, yields, productivity -develop infrastructure -roads and highways -energy sources, ex:hydroelectric dams What were the successes and problems associated with the Green Revolution in Java? -assumption that as small scale farmers got modern technology and crop variety, their lives would improve -media publicized new techniques as the revolution that was expected to increase the world’s food supply and improve standard of living for those in poverty -economic success: increased food supply -new strains of wheat and rice doubled to tripled farm supplies in 3rd world countries -world food prices declined more than 20% in 1980s -students living in villages and sharing new knowledge of advances( crop yield increase -social affects were a problem: not what advocates intended -stratification posed a problem -Indonesia’s president replaced and new government outsourced student’s jobs to multinational corporations that were supposed to supply miracle rice -one pesticide killed fish which destroyed an important source of protein -fraud -villagers had to pay back loans so they had to work for wages lower than those on the open market -wealthy villagers discouraged peasant participation -only wealthy villagers and not farmers reaped the benefits of increased production( bought the peasant’s land and machinery so they lost land and income -gender stratification -meant to alleviate poverty but actually increased it What did Kottak identify as the key characteristics of “culturally compatible” economic development projects? -be culturally compatible -respond to locally perceived needs -involve men and women -use traditional orgainizations -be flexible What questions should one ask about development projects (e.g., Who benefits?) who benefits? how do economic projects affect local communities and cultures? Is it sustainable How does it affect the environment? Erin Eldridge’s lecture: Development, Structural Adjustment, and Drum Making in Ghana Political economy and/or world systems theory proposes that “underdeveloped” or “developing” and “developed” countries are economically interdependent, because historically and currently developed countries have extracted resources and labor from underdeveloped countries. In contrast, what assumptions are made about development based on Western notions of “social evolution” and “progress”? -Basic belief behind interventions is that industrialization, modernization, Westernization and individualism are desirable evolutionary advances and that development schemes that promote them will bring long- term benefits to local people What are the criteria for “developed” status? -high levels of industrialzation and urbanization -industrialized agriculture -high strandard of living -integrated into global economy -“modern” education -high levels of material goods What have been some of the positive and negative outcomes of development projects? -Positive: some improve lives -raise awareness about diseases -empowers locals -well intentioned -Negative: human rights abuses -environmental degredation -introduce inappropriate technologies -lack of collaboration at local level and consideration for local ways of life What are Structural Adjustment Programs? -imposed by IMF and world bank -tool for “development” -economic restructing to bring economic “stimulation” and growth to “underdeveloped” countries What kinds of policies have the governments of developing countries like Ghana been expected to implement in order to obtain loans from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund? -devaluation of currency -privitization of government enterprise -cuts in social programs (healthcare, education, ect) -opening up of economy to foreign investment -cut in agricultural and food subsidies -promotion of export-oriented agriculture What have been the common impacts of these policies in Ghana and other developing countries? -increased poverty and unemployment -decreased access to healthcare and education -destruction of local economies -increased marginalization of substinence farmers -destruction and pollution of environments -decrease in quality of life -development schemes What kinds of economic activities contributed to deforestation when Ghana was a British colony prior to 1957? -establishment of forestry and mining sectors in the economy (extraction of timber and minerals) -undermining of local resource rights How much of the woodlands had been logged by 1957? -90% What happened to the woodlands that were left after a Structural Adjustment Program was implemented in 1983? -timber exportation increased 300% What kinds of economic activities were involved in the deforestation that took place after 1983? -SAP was adopted( revitalization of forestry and mining How has deforestation impacted drum making? (Or, how has drum making changed as a result of deforestation?) -they had to walk further to get resources -no logo trees that were easily accessible( started carving barrel drums -vary from size/species of the drum How has tourism affected drum making? -growing tourist market( more drums sold Film: Trinkets and Beads What groups (or institutions) helped encourage or pressure the Huaorani (and their neighbors) to permit oil drilling on their lands? -missionaries -Rachel Saint and Dayuma, the first of the tribe to go to America -media -oil companies made empty promises to provide them with material things -Maxus What role did representatives of multinational corporations play? -moving them out of their lands -Westernizing them and moving -pretending to have their best interests at heart as well as the land -trying to save money and maximize profit Missionaries? -came before oil companies -30 to 30 years ago -the assassination of Saint’s brother, thought scripture would answer their problems -gathered all of them into a reservation to leave the area free for Texaco to come in and drill -claimed to have civilized them The government and the military of Ecuador? -said Huaorani own the land but the government owns what is beneath it -dump the oil into lagoons -the leaders thought they would live better with money and material things -Ecuador’s President’s daughter giving them “trinkets and beads” to trick them Consumers? -needing oil What about the Huaorani themselves? -those who were successfully Westernized agreed with oil companies at first and left their lands What was Moi’s position on the drilling? -it was bad -he didn’t believe anything and realized how damaging it would be Did all the Huaorani agree with him? -no, those who had been successfully westernized believed that they had become civilized -some fell for the empty promises Why or why not? What did the Huaorani receive in exchange for permitting oil drilling? a new place to live and food from certain oil companies but then they leave and they are left with nothing and their lands are destroyed western style clothing trinkets and beads 30 pieces of tin to trick them so they can keep digging How has oil drilling (one form of development) affected the environment in the eastern Ecuador? -greatly impacted their land -polluted the water and made it hard to find safe and clean water -dump excess oil on roads to save money( told Ecuador governer it was a good idea for dust control but it was a lie because it was How has it changed the region where the Huaorani live? -water was used as a resource for fishing and bathing, ect -health problems arose -destoyed their way of life What efforts did the Huaorani make to regain control over their lands and try to ensure their own cultural survival? -killing people -protesting in the streets -started getting organized -a year after maxus they decided to revolt against them -110 went to the bridge and shot their car tires and stopped about 140 of them -afterwards hundreds of soldiers came and weapons were dropped to negotiate honestly For Kottak’s Chapter 13, Cultural Exchange and Survival Be able to discuss examples of Westernization and resistance to it. -the influence of western expansion on native societies -wearing western clothes and learning indo-european languages, ect are considered acculturated-which is voluntary or forced -“shock phase” that follows initial encounter when outsiders attack the natives and corrupt their social lives, culture and religion -generally is seen as a threat and detrimental to native people -multinational corporations from core countries changing the economies -environmentalists promoting consiervation -development threatens indigenous people and their environments ( deforestation, dams -external regulations threatens indigenous people( declaring certain resources off limits, mean well but actually harm -religion- Handsome Lake, a native who created a new religion from western though; missionaries and government using their power to advance a government( jihad Make sure you can define hegemony, domination, resistance, public and hidden transcripts. Hegemony: a stratified social order in which subordinates comply with domination by internalizing their rulers values and accepting the “naturalness” of dominain( accept it as the way things are supposed to be; a way to curb resistance Domination: political, economic, cultural or religious; in public the oppressed may seem to accept their own domination, but always question it off stae Public transcript: open and public interactions between the dominators and oppressed Hidden transcript- critique of power by the oppressed, in private, where power holders can’t see What are some examples of resistance that take the form of “weapons of the weak”? -individual and disguised resistance rather than collective and defiant -Malay peasants lying about the amount they farmed or not declaring land against a religious tithe; underpaid and delivered contaminated rice -folk tales about the weak rising up and overpowering their dominants -dominators not allowing them to gather together for fear of upheaval ex: slaves in US not allowed to congegate without a slaveholder present What are other forms of resistance that are less individualized and more collective? -hidden transcripts being publicly expressed at certain times when they can gather without drawing attention to themselves as a carnival or market and talking about their conditions( can turn into a threat to established order that get more powerful over time What role can the media play in cultural survival for indigenous groups? That could include some of the films that you saw this semester. -it allows social groups to express themselves -can spread and help create national/ ethnic identities -Brazil- Cheganca televised that features traditional performances and exposes people to it; have local television shows that appeal to the people in rural areas because it hits close to home and the indigenous people, Carnival being in the media has made other local groups defiant against it and assert their local festivals even more -most shows in other countries are locally made because they like to be able to identify with it Think about cultural survival in terms of efforts made by the groups we have studied this semester: especially the Huaorani in Ecuador, but also Native Americans in the U.S., Moroccans, the Asante and other groups in Ghana, the San in South Africa, Zapotecs in Mexico, Mayas in Guatemala, and the Trobriand Islanders. Consider the theme of cultural survival in relation to the rural Chinese. -having small feet for the women -weddings are very traditional -wanting a boy over a girl child And factory workers in Mexico, the Philippines, and Malaysia. How does working in factories impact a group’s ability to reproduce its culture? -they are making things for other countries that are not related to their culture What is the impact of migration on a group’s ability to reproduce its culture? -identitiy loss and culture shock For example, you saw how migration was affecting the Zapotec community in Mexico (in the film Mayordomia). Recall that the adult children returned to Teotitlan del Valle to attend the fiesta and helped finance it. You can also recall the comments of the young woman who grew up in Chicago, but was born in Teotitlan del Valle. Speculate about this a bit: What do you think it means for an island like Namoluk when over half of people who identify as Namoluk do not live there? How do you think the modern world system (including global organization of production and trade and global flows of people, resources, images, and ideas) and the legacies of colonialism (and slavery) have affected your life?