understanding how genes, nutrition, and experience work together to produce a tendency toward a particular sexual orientation is an example of a(n) _____ explanation.
Which type of explanation describes how a structure or behavior develops?
How human language develops as the result of genes and the opportunity to hear language during a sensitive period in early life is an example of a(n) _____________ explanation
Which of the following would be a physiological explanation for why birds sing?
Testosterone causes the growth of certain brain areas which control singing in certain birds
Which of the following would be a functional explanation for why birds sing?
Birds sing to defend territories and attract mates
which type of explanation describes the advantages provided by a particular structure or behavior?
which type of explanation would describe the hibernation of squirrels in terms of conserving energy when the environment is hostile to survival?
An adult male sparrow sings in normal song:
if he hears the song during a sensitive period early in his life
Dualism is the belief that...
mind and body are different substances
If you are unsure whether or not the physical world really exists outside of your mind, you would be considered a(n):
Professor Jones suggests that the fright you experience when confronted by a burglar is the same thing as the pattern f activity in your brain at that time. What form of monism is this?
Chromosomes consist of large, double-stranded molecules of
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
what are chromosomes composed of?
interruption of the production of RNA would directly affect which of the following?
A person with two recessive genes is considered to be _____ for that trait.
supposes "A" is a dominant gene for the ability to curl the tongue lengthwise, and "a" is a recessive gene for the inability to do so. Which of the following couples can be certain that all their children will be able to curl their tongue lengthwise?
father aa, mother AA
Suppose "A" is a dominant gene for the ability to taste phenylthiocrbamide and "a" is a recessive gene for the inability to taste it. Which of the following couples could possibly have both a child who tastes it and a child who does not?
father Aa, mother Aa
Suppose both the father and the mother are "heterozygous" for the gene that controls the ability to curl the tongue lengthwise, and the gene is dominant. What can we predict about their children?
They may be homozygous or heterozygous for ability to curl, or homozygous for inability
In one family, all three children are homozygous for a recessive gene. What can be concluded about the parents?
Each parent is either homozygous for the recessive gene or heterozygous
suppose all people with blonde hair have blue eyes and all people with dark hair have brown eyes. Which of the following would be the most likely explanation?
hair and eye color are on the same chromosome
Almost all humans have 23 pairs of which of the following?
which of the following pairs of sex chromosomes would be found in a normal male mammal?
A baby's chromosomal makeup indicates one pair as XX. What is the gender of this baby?
In humans, which chromosome(s) contain(s) few genes?
The y chromosome contains few genes
an example of a sex-linked trait is:
color vision deficiency
Suppose that the recessive gene for hemophilia (a problem with blood clotting) is present on 5% of all X chromosomes. What would the chances be that a female would have hemophilia?
If a recessive gene is on an autosomal chromosome, its effect will be found:
equally often in males and females
Sex-limited genes are found on:
A heritability of 1 (one) indicates that differences in heredity are responsible for what percent of the observed variations in some characteristic?
Suppose that adopted children are more similar to their biological parents than their adoptive parents in their preferences for a flavor of ice cream. Which of the following would be true?
Heritability of this trait is high
if a trait has high heritability:
it is still possible for the environment to influence that trait
Being born with greater athletic ability may make it more likely that they will participate in sports and develop even greater athletic ability. The opportunity to play sports increased the apparent effect of genes, which illustrates the ________ effect.
Which of the following is an example of genetically controlled conditions that can be minimized by following a particular diet?
Someone claims that if genes control a condition, it can be controlled only by drugs or surgery, but not by changes in the environment. Which of the following is the strongest example to CONTRADICT that claim?
To say that there is a "gene for blue eyes":
means that a gene indirectly produces blue eyes through a complex process of protein synthesis and environmental input
Which of the following is necessarily included in the concept of evolution?
generationally changing frequencies of various genes in the population
which of the following best describes the concept of evolution?
"reproduction of the fittest"
Breeding particular cows together to create offspring that produce more milk is an example of:
evolution improves the fitness of the population, which is defined as:
the number of copies of one's genes that endure in later generations
What is true about altruistic behavior?
it is difficult to explain from an evolutionary/genetic point of view
Which of the following would be the best example of altruistic behavior?
helping an elderly person across the srteet
Helping your neighbor (who is unrelated to you) rake his/her leaves because he/she helped you fix your car is an example of:
kin selection as an explanation for altruistic behavior would argue that:
individuals help those who are genetically related to preserve their genes
Minimalists believe that:
some animal research is acceptable, but not all
Which of the following is an argument for animal research?
animal research is beneficial
Which statement about most psychological experiments using nonhuman animals is correct?
the research is regulated by animal care committees
Someone who investigates how the functioning of the brain and other organs influences behavior is called a:
a comparative psychologist
considers the evolutionary histories of different species and their behaviors
helps people with emotional distress
____ are specialized junctions between neurons
Why is the speed of conduction through a reflex arc slower than the speed of conduction of an action potential along an axon?
Transmission between neurons at synapses is slower than along axons
sherrington found that repeated stimuli within a brief time have a cumulative effect. he referred to this phenomenon as:
Which of the following patterns of postsynaptic excitation will most likely result in an action potential
Rapid sequence of EPSPs
When a vertebrate animals contracts the flexor muscles of the leg it Sherrington considers this evidence for the existence of
The delay in transmission at synapses
What determines whether a neuron has an action potential
The only combined effects of the EPSPs and IPSPs
Loewi Demonstrated that synapses operate by the release of chemical he did this time
Collecting fluid from a simulated from start transferring it to another frog heart and measuring that heart rate
What provides the building blocks for synthesizing all neurotransmitters
Substances found in the diet
What makes nitric oxide unique and then neurotransmitters
It is a gas
If you eat a food containing trytophan what can you consume with it to increase its entry to the brain
dopamine and norepinephrine are classified as
Insulin increases the entry of tryptophan into the brain by
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