An archeological site in the Judean desert near the Dead Sea where a library of manuscript scrolls was discovered from the Second Temple era. It is widely believed that is was the site of an Essene community.
Aramaic: "faithful shepherd" - a kabbalistic word by an unknown Spanish author published in standard editions of the Zohar, and purporting to contain teachings of Moses (the shepherd), the prophet Elijah, and Simeon ben Yohai about the secret meaning of the commandments
Hebrew: "my teacher" - the title given to a recognized authority on Jewish law. In modern times, the position is often perceived as a type of clergyman or woman.
Jews who accept the authority of the rabbinic oral tradtion; usually used as contrast to Karaites.
Acronym for Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac (1041-1105) of Troyes, France, the foremost Jewish commentator on the Bible and Talmud.
Redemption of the firstborn
A ritual in which the firstborn son is redeemed from a kohen for five silver shekels in order to formally release him from his obligation to serve in the Temple. The ceremony is usually conducted when the boy is one month old.
The Jewish movement that advocated introducing changes into traditional Judaism in order to accommodate modern values and ideas, and to facilitate participation in post-Emancipation society.
In Hebrew: "she'elot utshuvot" (questions and answers); replies written by prominent rabbis to questions about Jewish law and other topics.
The belief that the dead will be restored to life in physical bodies.
Hebrew: "First to Zion" (Isaiah 41:27) - the official title given to the Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel.
The Jewish New Year, a biblical holiday celebrated on the first day of the seventh month (Tishri). It is portrayed as a solemn day of divine judgment.
The weekly day of rest observed from sundown on Friday until Saturday night in commemoration of God's completing the six days of creation. Hebrew: "shabbat".
S Second Temple Jewish Movement that upheld the ideals of the traditional Zadokite high priesthood.
A Town overlooking the Sea of Galilee that became a preeminent center of kabbalistic activity in the 16th century.
In Jewish folklore and Kabbalah, the king of the evil demons.
A religious community who observe the Torah. According to the biblical account, they are descended from foreign peoples who were transferred by the Assyrians to Samaria after the exile of the northern Israelite kingdom.
Probably from the Greek: "suntekos": "companion of child" - the person who holds the baby during the circumcision ceremony.
Greek: "council" - a Jewish high court and rabbinical council during the Second Temple and rabbinic eras.
The angel charged with entrapping, accusing and punishing sinners.
The rabbis who were active in Babylonia between the end of the talmudic era and the beginning of the geonic era, sometime between BCE 500 and 700 according to various calculations.
In the Day of Atonement observances in the Temple, a goat was chosen by lot, then the high priest symbolically placed the sins of the people on its head and sent it to perish in the wilderness.
Scroll of Esther
This book was handwritten on a parchment scroll, especially for liturgical reading on the holiday of Purim.
The era in Jewish history extending form the return of the Babylonian exiles until the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem, roughly 530 -70.
1. One of the six main topical divisions of the Mishnah
2. The procedures for the ceremonial meal on the first night of Passover; or by extension, the meal itself.
Hebrew: "the book of the pious" - an important compendium of lore from the Hasidut Ashkenaz movement of the 12th and 13th centuries.
Hebrew: "the Book of Creation" - a short and enigmatic treatise describing how God created the world by means of combinations of the ten decimal numbers and the 22 letters of the hebrew alphabet.
Ten emanated powers of God symbolically identified with divine attributes, according to the central doctrine of the Kabbalsh.
Hebrew: "forgiveness"; penitential prayers recited during the Rosh Hashanah season, on fast days and other occasions.
Supposed descendants of Shem son of Noah, identified as the Middle Eastern peoples. The term is used most accurately as the name of the language family to which Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic belong.
Adjective referring to:
1. Jews of medieval Spain
2. Jewish communities in Arab and Islamic lands
3. Jews refugees from Iberia since the time of the Inquisition
Greek: "seventy" - the old Alexandrian Greek translation of the Torah (and the rest of the Bible). According to legend it was composed by seventy Jewish elders.
Seventeenth of Tammuz
A fast day held in the summer commemorating the breach of the walls of Jerusalem by the Babylonians as wells as other national catastrophes.
Followers of the 17th century messianic pretender Shabbetai Zevi.
An Israeli political party representing a Sephardic Haredi constituency.
Hebrew: "feast of weeks" - a biblical pilgrimage festival observed fifty days after the beginning of Passover. The Torah depicts it as a time of agricultural thanksgiving, and the rabbinic tradition identified it as the anniversary of the revelation of the Torah at Mount Sinai.
Ritual slaughter of animals or fowl.
The divine presence in the world.
Hebrew: "thirty" - the first thirty days of mourning
A central component of the daily liturgy, conntaining Deuteronomy 6:4-9, 11:13-21, and Numbers 15:37-41, embedded in a framework of blessings. The Hebrew name consists of the opening words, "Hear O Israel..."
Hebrew: "eighth day of assembly" - the day following the feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot), which is celebrated as a separate holiday.
Hebrew: "seven blessings" - seven blessings, several of them poetic celebrations of marriage, that are recited at a Jewish wedding and during the subsequent week of festivities.
Hebrew: "seven" - the first week of mourning, when the mourners remain at home and are consoled by the community.
Hebrew: "destruction" - used to designate the murder of 6 million Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators; and alternative term for "Holocaust".
a trumpet made from a ram's horn, sounded especially on Rosh Hashanah.
Hebrew: "trumpeting" - the third theme of the additional (Musaf) service of Rosh Hashanah, dealing with diverse occasions of the sounding of the shofar.
Hebrew: "set table" - an influential 16th century codification of Jewish law by Rabbi Joseph Caro (with supplement by Rabbi Moses Isserles).
Hebrew: "rejoicing of the Torah" - a celebration of the completion of the cycle of reading the Torah and the commencement of a new cycle. It is standardly observed on the second day of Shemini Azeret (the day that is added in diaspora communities).
The mountain on which the Torah was revealed to Israel through Moses, according to the biblical account. Bu extension, the name may be applied to the one event itself.
Song of Songs
A book in the Ketuvim division of the Bible consisting of sensuous love poetry. Traditionally, it is understood as a allegory for the relationship between God and Israel. It is ascribed to King Solomon, and hence is often referred to as the Song of Solomon. Its Hebrew title is Shir ha-Shirim.
Hebrew: "tabernacle"; "boot" - the temporary structure in which one dwells during the feast of Tabernacles, in commemoration of the wanderings of the Israelites in the desert after the exodus from Egypt.
A seven-day pilgrimage festival held in the fall (commencing on the 15th of Tishri) commemorating the ingathering of the crops and the sojourn of the ancient Israelites in the Sinai wilderness.
Greek: "assembly" - a place where Jews assemble for the reading of scripture, prayer and other religious and communal functions.
Hebrew: "purification" - especially the cleansing and preparation of a corpse for burial.
One of two (Israeli and Babylonian) collective interpretations of the Mishnah composed between the third and seventh centuries, consisting largely of intricate debates and analysis on technical issues of religious law.
Study of the Torah, as a religious activity and value. The term is also used to designate a Jewish elementary school.
Hebrew: "continual offering" - sacrifices offered every morning and evening on behalf of the community.
An acronym for the three divisions of the Hebrew Bible: Torah, Nevi'im and Ketuvim.
A family of aggadic midrash known for the frequency of the introductory formula "Thus began Rabbi Tanhuma"; and for its propensity for fashioning the individual statements of earlier traditions into continuous narratives and homilies.
1. A functionary in the amoraic schools responsible for memorizing and reciting earlier traditions.
2. A sage whose views are cited in the Mishnah or other works from the first to early third centuries.
Hebrew: "translation" - the Aramaic translation that used to accompany the liturgical scriptural reading in the synagogue, for the benefit of those who were not fluent in Hebrew.
Teacher of righteousness
A revered figure mentioned in the Qumran scrolls, who is widely assumed to be the founder of the sect.
Hebrew: "prayer" - the term is used to designate prayer in general; or as the standard Hebrew designation for the Eighteen Benedictions/Amidah
Ten days of repentance
The period extending from Rosh Hashanah to the Day of Atonement, when Jews repent their sins with a view to attaining divine forgiveness.
Ten lost tribes
The tribes of the northern kingdom of Israel during the era of the divided monarchy, who were conquered and exiled by the Assyrians, and subsequently lost to Judaism.
Tenth of Tevet
A minor fast day observed in the winter to commemorate the beginning of the siege of Jerusalem by the Babylonians.
Hebrew: "that which is taken up"; "heave offering" - a proportion of produce that is set aside for the priests, and must be consumed in a state of purity.
The holy four-letter name of God that is not pronounced by Jews, and is usually replaced by an epithet meaning "Lord".
Passages from the Torah that are written on pieces of parchment and inserted in leather boxes that are strapped on the arm and forehead, in fulfillment of the biblical precept "it shall be for a sign for you upon your hand, and for a memorial between your eyes."
Hebrew: "beauty"; "glory" - in Kabbalah, the central sefirah that embodies the perfect balance of justice and mercy.
Hebrew: "teaching"; "guidance"; "instruction" -
1. The first five books of the Hebrew Bible, believed to have been revealed by God through Moses.
2. More generally, the teachings of Judaism, or some portion thereof.
Torah im Derekh Erez
Hebrew: "Torah with worldly culture" - the ideology advocated by Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch of integrating traditional Jewish belief and observance with involvement in secular culture.
Hebrew: "supplements" - critical comments to the Talmud, especially those produced in medieval France and Germany.
Aramaic: "supplement" - a tannaitic collection organized like the Mishnah and containing alternative or explanatory traditions.
A village in the Galilee that was a center of rabbinic leadership in the mid-second century CE.
Wissenschaft des Judentums
Germans: "Science of Judaism" - the scientific or academic study of Judaism, especially as it developed in 18th and 19th century Germany.
German: "anniversary" - the anniversary of the death of a loved one, commemorated through the recitation of Kaddish and other observances.
A coastal town in Judea that was the center of rabbinic leadership during the generations following the destruction of the second Temple. By extension, the term is applied to those generations (c. 70-135 CE).
An institution for advanced Talmudic studies.
Hebrew: "formation" - the third of the four worlds according to the Kabbalah; the realm of the lower angels, the souls, and of Paradise.
The vernacular language of Ashkenazic Jewry, consisting chiefly of a German dialect (written in Hebrew letters), with elements of Hebrew, Aramaic, and other languages absorbed in the course of the community's migrations.
Hebrew: "settlement" - a Jewish community in the land of Israel.
Hebrew: "May God remember" - title and opening word of the memorial prayer for the dead, recited on some Jewish holidays.
Israeli Independence Day, celebrated on the fifth of Iyar (in April or May).
Memorial day for the Holocaust.
Hebrew: "Jerusalem Day" - Annual commemoration of the reunification of Jerusalem on 28 Iyyar (June 7) 1967.
Hebrew: "righteous one"; a charismatic leader embodying the values of Hasidism.
High priest appointed by David, and the ancestor of the dynasty ("Zadokites") that occupied the high priesthood until the Hasmonean era.
A Jewish group committed to violent resistance against the Romans, motivated by their conviction that their sole allegiance should be to God.
Hebrew: "remembrance" - the theme of the second section of the Additional Service for Rosh Hashanah, stressing the theme that God recalls and judges all the deeds of his creatures.
Hebrew: "contradiction" - in the kabbalistic doctrines of Rabbi Isaac Luria, the idea that God intentionally withdrew himself from a part of the universe in order to enable the existence of something other than himself on which he could bestow his blessings.
The name of a mountain in Jerusalem; by extension, an epithet for Jerusalem.
Political movement, founded by Theodor Herzl in the late nineteenth century that advocated the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in its historic homeland.
Hebrew: "tassle"; "fringe" - knotted strings attached to the corners of a garment as a reminder of the commandments, in fulfillment of Numbers 15:38.
Hebrew: "brilliance" - the name of the most influential compendium of kabbalistic teachings; composed in the 13th century Spain in the style of a rabbinic midrash whose central figure is Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai.
Want to see the other 96 Flashcards in Final Exam?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!