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Compared to the president and Congress, the bureaucracy
has a more direct impact on the daily lives of Americans.
Federal regulatory agencies have responsibility primarily in the area of
administrative, legislative, and judicial functions.
Most federal employees are hired on the basis of
Policy implementation refers to the bureaucratic function of
carrying out decisions made by Congress, the president, and the courts.
What were the "reinventing teams"?
teams that were formed under the National Performance Review to analyze and make recommendations about bureaucratic effectiveness
As distinct from the patronage system, the merit system for managing the bureaucracy
provides for a neutral administration in the sense that civil servants are not partisan appointees, thus ensuring evenhanded work.
When it was developed during the Jackson administration, the patronage system was designed to
tie the administration more closely to the people it served.
In the late 1800s, rapid economic growth placed new demands on the federal government and led it to
create new federal departments built around economic interests.
The administrative concept of neutral competence holds that the bureaucracy should
be staffed by people chosen on the basis of ability and do its work fairly on behalf of all citizens.
Bureaucrats tend to follow
The federal bureaucracy today is
Which of the following is true of federal employees and labor unions?
Federal employees can form labor unions, but their unions by law have limited authority.
About three in every five managerial and professional positions in the federal bureaucracy are held by
Bureaucrats are ________ and elected officials are ________.
The special interests that benefit directly from a bureaucratic agency's programs are called
Which of the following is true of the federal government's demographic representativeness?
If all employees are taken into account, the federal bureaucracy comes reasonably close to being representative of the nation's population.
In terms of holding the bureaucracy accountable, the most important unit within the Executive Office of the President is the
When an individual believes that he or she was improperly disadvantaged by a bureaucrat's decision and contests the decision, the dispute is usually handled by
an administrative law judge
The Senior Executive Service (SES)
is composed of civil employees that can be assigned by the president to any position within the bureaucracy.
Legally, the bureaucracy derives general authority for its programs from
How has the Government Accountability Office's role changed?
It has moved from a limited role of keeping track of agency spending to also monitoring whether the agency is implementing policies in the way Congress intended.
The Department of ________ was created in 2002.
The cabinet department with the largest number of full-time civilian employees is the Department of
Regarding the educational background of bureaucrats, high-ranking civil servants in continental Europe, compared to American bureaucrats, tend to have a college major specializing in
The courts have tended to support administrators as long as their agencies
can apply a reasonable interpretation of a statute.
The National Performance Review addressed which of the following issues about the bureaucracy?
all these issues: responsiveness, accountability, and efficiency
The Department of ________ was founded in 1889.
The number of employees in the federal bureaucracy is about ________.
Which of the following was the most recent broad initiative aimed at making the bureaucracy more responsive?
The chief way that administrative agencies exercise power over policy is through
rulemaking, or deciding how a law will operate in practice.
The importance of clientele groups was especially clear in 1995 when House Speaker Newt Gingrich threatened to "zero out" funding for the
Corporation for Public Broadcasting.
Amtrak is an example of a(n)
What happens to the president's budget if it is approved by a vote of the House and Senate?
It is sent to the president to sign or veto.
Upon reaching Congress, what first happens to the president's budget proposal?
It goes to the House and Senate budget committees.
Bureaucracy is best characterized in terms of
hierarchy, specialization, and rules.
In promoting their agency's goals, bureaucrats rely on
All of these: their expert knowledge; the backing of the president and Congress; and the support of clientele groups.
Which of the following agencies or departments is likely to have strong allies from a group of particular states in Congress?
the Department of Agriculture
Studies have found that the U.S. federal bureaucracy
compares favorably in performance to government bureaucracies elsewhere.
What "multiple-use" policy is the U.S. Forest Service tasked with?
preserving forests for environmental reasons, and opening them up for logging
Congress oversees the bureaucracy by using
all of these: sunset provisions, the Government Accounting Office, and enabling provisions.
________ is/are most likely to understand trade issues in the United States.
Career bureaucrats in the Department of Commerce and the Federal Trade Commission
The ________ established a merit system for certain federal positions.
At the start of the annual budget cycle, the OMB assigns each agency a budget limit based on
Why does the head of the Social Security Administration (SSA) have less policy influence than the head of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC)?
because the SSA operates under fixed rules than cannot be altered based on circumstances
A judicial decision that establishes a rule for settling subsequent cases of a similar nature is a
The power of the Supreme Court is most apparent in its ability to
declare another institution's action to be unconstitutional.
A writ of certiorari is
a request to a lower court to submit to the Supreme Court a record of the case it has been requested to hear.
A concurring opinion
is a separate view written by a justice who votes with the majority but disagrees with its reasoning.
Regarding Supreme Court procedures, which one of the following statements is NOT accurate?
A concurring opinion is a view written by a justice who votes with the majority and agrees with its reasoning.
Compared with the decision in a Supreme Court case, the opinion is more significant because it
informs others of the Court's interpretation of the laws and thereby guides their decisions.
A written Supreme Court opinion that, in the absence of a majority opinion, represents the reasoning of most of the justices who side with the winning party is a
The federal district courts
All these answers are correct.
With regard to the lower courts, the Supreme Court's primary responsibility is
establishing legal precedents that will guide their decisions.
Although federal district courts are theoretically bound by Supreme Court precedents, they sometimes deviate because
of all these factors: the facts of a case are seldom precisely the same as those of similar cases decided by the Supreme Court; federal judges may misunderstand the Court's judicial reasoning or position; and ambiguities or unaddressed issues in the Court's rulings give lower courts some flexibility in deciding cases.
The U.S. courts of appeals
review trial court decisions.
The appointment of federal judges is influenced most substantially by
The "federal court myth" overlooks the fact that
most cases arise under state law, not federal law; nearly all cases that originate in state courts are never reviewed by federal courts; and federal courts must normally accept the facts of a case as determined by a state court when reviewing its decision.
Senatorial courtesy refers to the tradition whereby
senators are consulted on the nomination of lower-court federal judgeships in their state.
When asked if he had made any mistakes as president, ________ replied, "Yes, two, and they are both sitting on the Supreme Court".
According to the Constitution, the federal courts can issue a decision only
in response to actual legal cases.
The long-serving chief justice that established the principle of judicial review was
The facts of a case
affect which law or laws will apply to the case.
The judiciary's status as an independent branch of national government depends on judicial review, which grants the judiciary the authority to
invalidate the actions of other institutions when judges believe they have acted unconstitutionally.
The term stare decisis refers to
adherence to precedent.
An amicus curiae ("friend of the court") brief provides a court with the view held by
an interest that is not a direct party to the case.
With regard to public opinion, the Supreme Court
attempts to stay close enough to public opinion so as to avoid outright defiance of its decisions.
Precedent, while not an absolute constraint on the courts, is needed to
maintain legal consistency over time, so confusion and uncertainty about the law can be avoided.
The Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison is significant
for the establishment of judicial review.
In its ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, the Supreme Court
lifted restrictions in corporate and union spending in federal election campaigns.
According to the doctrine of judicial restraint, the judiciary should
defer to precedent and to decisions made by legislature.
Of the thirteen U.S. courts of appeals,
eleven have jurisdiction over a "circuit" comprised of the district courts in anywhere from three to five states.
Which legal doctrine holds that in nearly every instance, policy issues should be decided by elected lawmakers and not by appointed judges?
In Bush v. Gore (2000), the Supreme Court
blocked a manual recount of the Florida presidential vote.
The Lawrence v. Texas decision in 2003 involved
the Supreme Court invalidating state laws.
Which of the following is a recent trend in the appointment of new federal judges and justices?
an increase in the number of federal judges and justices with prior judicial experience
The laws applicable to a case
constrain the judiciary, because court decisions must be based on applicable laws.
The discretionary power of judges is less than that of elected officials because judges
must make decisions that can be justified in terms of existing provisions of the law.
Compared to Supreme Court nominations, those for the lower federal courts
The constitutional provision that federal judges and justices hold office "during good behavior" has
had all these effects: Federal judges and justices serve, effectively, until they die or choose to retire; they are provided the opportunity to carry out their duties without immediate fear of reprisal by the president or Congress; and presidents are able to influence judicial policy through their appointments long after leaving the White House.
The United States has two court systems, state and federal. The federal system
The Supreme Court is likely to grant a hearing when a case involves
an issue that is being decided inconsistently by the lower courts.
The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in legal disputes involving
The Supreme Court invoked the ________ in Bush v. Gore (2000).
equal protection clause
About ________ percent of the nation's legal cases are decided in state court systems.
The lowest level of the federal court system is the
The merit plan applies to ________ in the ________ court system.
selection of judges; state
The number and types of lower federal courts is established by
Opposition to the judiciary's creative policy-making role is a consistent tenet of judicial
The Supreme Court is most likely to grant ________ when the U.S. government—through the solicitor general—requests it.
Which of the following Supreme Court justices was appointed by President Dwight Eisenhower?
Federal judges are
all of these: nominated by the president, confirmed by the U.S. Senate, and appointed for an indefinite period providing they maintain "good behavior".
Fewer than ________ percent of the cases heard by federal appeals courts are later reviewed by the Supreme Court.
Why was the Supreme Court ruling in Faragher v. City of Boca Raton, which relied on the context of the anti-discrimination provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, demonstrative of the ambiguities of the law?
The case dealt with sexual harassment in the workplace, which is not mentioned in the Civil Rights Act
Which of the following Supreme Court justices was appointed during the Clinton administration?
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
In selecting judges, the states rely on what method?
All these answers are correct.
________ was the first black justice to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court.
What is the most common method in the states for the selection of judges?
In The Wealth of Nations (1776), Adam Smith made all of the following arguments for laissez-faire capitalism, EXCEPT which of the following?
The government should not be allowed any role whatsoever in the economy.
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship today between government and the economy in the United States?
The government has an important role in regulating and maintaining the U.S. economy.
Economic efficiency requires
that the output of goods and services is the highest possible given the amount of input used to produce them.
The term externalities refers to
unpaid costs of production that are incurred by society.
When the Fed was created in 1913,
it had no role in the management of the nation's economy.
A ruling by the Food and Drug Administration that a drug is dangerous to use and therefore cannot be marketed is an example of regulation for the purpose of
The era of "new social regulation", which addressed issues such as the environment and worker safety, differed from the previous two eras of regulatory reform in that
the aim was to regulate activities of firms of many types, not just those in a particular industry.
Government benefits for business include all of the following EXCEPT
Judged in the context of the full range of public policies, the government in the United States has been
substantially more supportive of business than labor.
Government support for agriculture in the form of price supports and income subsidies is designed primarily to
stabilize farm income, which would otherwise fluctuate greatly due to market and weather conditions.
Fiscal policy is a mechanism the government employs to influence the economy. Fiscal policy is based on
the government's taxing and spending decisions.
In John Maynard Keynes's demand-side economic theory, an economic recession can be shortened through
government spending programs.
Supply-side economics, as implemented by President George W. Bush's administration, involved
A fiscal policy solution to inflation would be to
increase the tax rate.
Members of the Federal Reserve Board
are appointed by the president and are not subject to removal.
What did Congress do in 1995 to reduce overregulation?
It enacted legislation that prohibits administrators in some instances from issuing a regulation unless they can show that its benefits outweigh its costs.
The Progressive Era of government regulation focused on
stopping the unfair business practices of the new monopolies, such as the railroads.
Monetary policy includes all the following assumptions EXCEPT that
too little money in circulation contributes to inflation.
The Federal Reserve controls the money supply through all of the following actions EXCEPT
lowering the tax rate on individuals.
Monetary policy differs from fiscal policy in that
it can be implemented more quickly than fiscal policy.
________ wrote The Silent Spring in 1962.
A major point of debate surrounding the Federal Reserve's role in economic policy is
the Fed's political accountability.
Advocates of deregulation are primarily concerned with
Regarding the Kyoto agreement and greenhouse gas emissions, which of the following is true?
All these answers are correct.
Which president's use of government policy as economic stimulus ushered in the modern era of U.S. government fiscal policy?
The Superfund program is designed to
provide funds for cleaning up badly contaminated and polluted sites.
If the economic problem is low productivity and high unemployment, the fiscal policy action on the demand side would be to
Which of the following statements is true?
Keynes advocated government spending to counteract an economic downturn.
Over the past forty years, the burden of federal taxation has
shifted from corporations to individuals.
What has been the preferred strategy of U.S. lawmakers for combating the problem of global warming?
alternative energy sources and energy conservation
Democrats in Washington have usually responded to high levels of unemployment with
increased government spending.
Which is true regarding the nation's environmental policy?
A majority of the public is sympathetic to environmentalism.
Which of the following is correct about environmental policy?
The national parks are subject to a dual use policy of preservation, recreation, and exploitation of the rich natural resources.
The ________ established minimum wages and constraints on the use of child labor.
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
The highest rate of inflation (13 percent) since World War II occurred in ________.
The Federal Reserve System
Earth Day was the brainchild of Senator
Keynesian economics emphasizes ________ as a means of curtailing economic downturns.
increased government spending
Supply-side economics is based primarily on
stimulation of the business (supply) component.
The Federal Reserve plays a large part in establishing ________ policy.
What was a major change brought about by the National Labor Relations Act of 1935?
Workers were given the right to bargain collectively.
The first national park was created at ________ in 1872.
Which of the following government agencies regulates business competition?
all of these: the Federal Trade Commission; the Interstate Commerce Commission; and the Antitrust Division of the Justice Department
Regulatory activity relating to the environment has actually meant that the environment today is
vastly more clean than it was during the 1960s.
The creation of the Food and Drug Administration and the passage of the Securities and Exchange Act were intended to
promote equity in the economy.
The tax cuts pushed by President George W. Bush while in office were premised largely on
The Tennessee Valley Authority is
an electricity industry owned by the United States.
Farm subsidies have traditionally had strong support in Congress, particularly from
rural-state senators and representatives.
About what percentage of the annual federal budget is accounted for by the interest paid on the national debt?
The federal government has assumed a permanent, strong role in the economy, contributing to its stability and efficiency, since
The U.S. social welfare system differs markedly from those of Western European democracies, a situation that is attributable in large part to America's
cultural emphasis on individualism, and federal system of government.
The poverty line is defined as
three times the annual cost of a thrifty food budget for an urban family of four.
According to survey data,
most Americans believe that welfare recipients could get along without assistance if they tried.
________ has the highest child poverty rate among the major industrialized nations.
The United States
The bureaucratic costs of welfare are substantially lower in Europe because most European countries
have unitary rather than federal systems.
Poverty is a condition that today affects roughly one in ________ Americans.
In his book, Losing Ground, Charles Murray argues that
welfare programs create a foundation for a permanent underclass of unproductive people.
________ was terminated in 1996.
The term entitlement refers to a program
that requires the payment of benefits to any individual who meets the eligibility criteria.
The EITC (Earned Income Tax Credit) represents a reallocation of income to
lower-income working individuals.
Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal represented the concept of ________ government.
The defining characteristic of a social insurance program is that
eligibility is restricted to individuals who paid special payroll taxes during their working years
Social insurance programs have high levels of public support because
of their self-financing feature.
The Social Security benefits that today's retirees receive are funded primarily by
payroll taxes on people who are currently working.
The term means test refers to
whether an applicant's income is low enough to qualify for public assistance.
The child poverty rate in the United States is about
The Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program was unpopular in part because of
its public perception of welfare dependency and irresponsibility.
The Food Stamps program is
Which of the following statements is NOT true about Medicaid?
It serves all Americans who cannot afford health insurance.
Which of the following is true of social security and Medicare?
Families in the top fifth of the income population receive more in social security and Medicare benefits than the government spends in total on TANF, SSI, food stamps, and housing subsidies for the poor.
The best predictor of how well schools perform on standardized tests is the
More than 90 percent of the funding for K-12 public education comes from
Which of the following statements is true concerning American public opinion on school vouchers?
Americans are divided in their opinions on school vouchers.
In ________, Congress added a prescription drug benefit to Medicare.
Which of the following is true of the federal government's role in education?
The federal government's role in education was relatively small before the 1960s.
________ was called "the great leveler" when it began in the early nineteenth century.
A U.S. Bureau of Labor study revealed that about six out of seven workers who lost their job did so because
of either a temporary layoff or the permanent elimination of a job position.
Welfare policy in the United States
is often an issue that divides the two political parties.
Which of the following is NOT a guideline within which the TANF program must operate?
States have no discretion in their handling of welfare cases.
Which of the following is a true statement about the visibility of poverty in American society today?
Poverty is less visible in the suburbs than in inner cities or rural areas.
The passage of TANF has resulted in which of the following?
a dramatic reduction in the size of the welfare rolls
________ orchestrated the Great Society programs of the 1960s.
Which of the following is true regarding income patterns in America?
The bottom fifth of Americans get slightly less than a twentieth of total national income.
The major reason social security is likely to be the topic of reform is because
the number of workers may not bring in enough money to cover the benefits of a growing number of retirees.
Medicare was enacted into law during the administration of
________ persuaded Congress to enact the No Child Left Behind Act.
President George W. Bush
The Supreme Court has ruled that
states are obliged to give all children an "adequate" education.
All of the following are true of the Head Start program EXCEPT that it
is fully funded at the present time.
The poverty line in 2009 was set at roughly ________ for an urban family of four.
Of the following, which is likely the LEAST criticized public assistance program?
Supplemental Security Income
The unemployment insurance program is
run jointly by federal and state governments.
________ is an example of an in-kind benefit.
The Food Stamps program
are publicly funded but have more freedom in determining curricula than public schools
In contrast with Medicare, the Medicaid program is
a public assistance program.
The No Child Left Behind Act
ties federal funding to national test results in reading, math, and science.
A recent poll determined that most Americans believe which of the following is the second costliest federal program?
public assistance programs
To what was political scientist Robert Lane referring when using the term "market justice"?
Americans prefer that society's material benefits be allocated through the economic
What are the two broad groups that individual-benefit programs fall into?
social insurance and public assistance
The idea of negative government holds that
government governs best by staying out of people's lives.
The foundation of U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union after World War II was
Which of the following is the measure of success in an unconventional war?
winning the support of the people
The basis for containment policy was the assumption that
the Soviet Union could be stopped from achieving its global ambitions only by the forceful use of American power.
The U.S. lesson learned from the Vietnam War was that
there were limits on America's ability to get its own way in the world.
The communists took over China in ________.
In 2002, President George W. Bush labeled ________ "the axis of evil".
Iraq, Iran, and North Korea
The idea that major nations should act together in response to problems and crises is called
________ described the Soviet Union as the "evil empire".
What has been the U.S. policy toward the World Trade Organization (WTO)?
It has attempted to strengthen the WTO.
There are roughly ________ countries in the world.
Regarding assistance to developing nations, which of the following countries ranks lowest in terms of per capita expenditures?
The United States pursues its economic policy goals through which of the following international organizations?
all of these: the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)
The policy of deterrence is based on the idea that
any nation would be deterred from launching a full-scale nuclear attack by the knowledge that, even if it destroyed the country, it too would be obliterated.
Since the cold war ended, U.S. policy makers' chief concern with nuclear weaponry has been
the spread of nuclear technology to rogue nations or terrorist groups.
The military-industrial complex
suffered a rare defeat in 2009 when funding for additional F-22 fighter jets was rejected by Congress and the president.
The broad goals of the United States in the global economy include
all of these: maintaining access to world energy and other vital resources; sustaining an open system of trade that will promote domestic prosperity; and keeping the widening gap between rich and poor countries from destabilizing the global economy.
On what grounds did President Barack Obama place a 35 percent tariff on the import of Chinese tires in 2009?
Chinese tires were being subsidized by the Chinese government.
The United States produces about ________ percent of the world's goods and services.
Which of the following is true about the trade imbalance in the United States?
All of these are true: The United States has not had a trade surplus since 1975; over the past decade, the U.S. trade deficit has exceeded $300 billion every year; and the United States has the largest trade deficit of the top three economic centers.
Regarding the position of the United States in world trade, it can be said that
None of these answers is correct.
The term that most accurately describes the international economy today is
Which of the following is a true statement regarding the cold war?
All these answers are correct.
The phrase that best describes the shift in America's world position from the pre- to the post-World War II eras is
isolationism to internationalism.
________ took a historic journey to the People's Republic of China in 1972.
Roughly how many American soldiers lost their lives in the Korean War?
Roughly how many American soldiers lost their lives in the Vietnam War?
The ________ was created to coordinate domestic efforts to protect the United States against terrorist attacks and threats.
One reason the Soviet Union eventually collapsed was
all of these: heavy defense expenditures; isolation from Western technology and markets; and its inefficient centralized command economy.
________, the former president of Yugoslavia, was tried for war crimes.
Which of the following is a true statement about the 1990-1991 Gulf War?
It was a successful military operation.
Defense spending per capita is highest in
The nuclear triad consists of
land-based missiles, submarine-based missiles, and bombers.
Regarding approaches to Iraq taken by the United States and the United Nations, what was the two-track policy that ensued in late 2002?
UN weapons inspectors entered Iraq in search of WMDs, while the United States deployed combat units to Iraq's borders.
Which president called for a new world order?
George H. W. Bush
Which president first warned of the consequences of the military-industrial complex?
________ together account for roughly half of the economy of the European Union.
Great Britain, France, and Germany
Which of the following events in American foreign policy occurred first?
Regarding Soviet foreign policy, President Harry Truman believed that the Soviet Union was
an implacable foe that required direct opposition.
Excluding the U.S., which of the following countries accounts for the highest portion of worldwide military spending?
All of the following EXCEPT ________ refused to participate in America's war in Iraq in 2003.
The three major economic centers of the world are the
United States, the Pacific Rim, and the European Union.
The European Recovery Plan is better known as the
Which of the following is true about the Vietnam War?
America's trade deficit with China surpasses more than ________ annually.
spends the most on foreign aid in dollar terms, but several countries spend more on a per capita basis.
The primary ethnic factional groups in Iraq are
Sunnis, Shiites, and Kurds.
The SALT treaty
reduced the nuclear weapons arsenals of the U.S. and Soviet Union.
The Dayton Accords
brought the deployment of peacekeeping troops to Bosnia.
Upon assuming the presidency in 2001, George W. Bush
declared that he would reduce America's military presence abroad.
Which of the following is NOT an economic element of the United States in relation to its position in the world economy?
Although it has a trade deficit with most competitors, it exports more goods than it imports.
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