What is some general information on felines and some specific requirements?
Most nervous tissue per unit bw, very good reflexes, used widely in neurological research. Complex eye. Sensitivity to neurotoxins. They require lots of space, high fat and protein diet, litter boxes, and perches. Very sociable.
What are the two types of sourcs where cats for laboratory research are acquired?
Class A: facilities which raise speifically cats for research, about 3-4 in the country. Class B: random breeders with no information on health, genetics, or vaccination. High rate of mortality.
What are the various disease models for which cats are useful
Leukemia because of their ability to contract FelV because of similar responses in immune system and pathogenesis of the disease. FIV similar to HIV in progression of disease and pathogenesis. Also heliobacter, which is an agent causing degenerative changes in the gastric mucousa, starting with gastritis and ending with gastric carcinoma. Caused by bacteria, not stress.
Information on cat reproduction?
Onset of cycling can range anywhere from 3.5 to 18 months or with proper nutrition at weight of 2kg. Group housing hastens onset of estrous, and they are seasonally polyestrous starting in Jan-Feb endin in the fall followed by Anestrus. 14 hour photoperiod very important, and can signal estrous within 7-10 weeks. Peak sex occurs 1.5-7yrs, litter size 2-3lits with 3-4kits. Because induced ovulators can mother multiple sires.
What is the result of a cat who reproduced before 1 year of after 8 years of age?
Greater chance of abortion or stillbirth, irregular cycling, birth defects, and smaller litters.
How long after lactation do felines return to normal estrous, and in addition, what is especially odd about the felines ability to reproduce while pregnant?
Following normal lactation, felines will return to estrous approx 4 weeks later. Will sometimes cycle normally during nursing. Should litter abort , feline should become fertile approximately 1 week later. Especially odd, queens can experience estrus DURING pregnancy and ultimately have to undergo parturition of two different aged litters. This is called superfetation.
What is the courtship and breeding process of felines?
Courtship occurs at night and lasts anywhere from 5 seconds to 10 minutes., with ejaculation occurring in seconds. Male imitates females heat cry, signalling readiness to breed. Males barbed penis tears wall of vagina assuring ovulation. Post-coital females scream and roll on the floor and are uninterested in males. Mating resumes in 30 minutes. 100-400x in 4 days.
What is the process of pregnancy and birthing in felines?
Gestation is up to 70 days. Relaxin level used to determine pregnancy. Fetal palpation is possible by day 17 and head by day 45. Birthing occurs at night. Prior to birth, cat will seek dry area for nest and begin to dig at floor an vocalize. Mammary glands will enlarge and milk may express. Body temp decreases, and birth takes about 30 min per kitten. Dystocia is rare.
How must feline neonates be care for?
Warm (for 3 weeks) peaceful setting especially for primaparous moms. Be sure nursing occurs and strangulation by umbillical cord does not. Cleft palate and atresia ani are most common defects. 90f should be maintained for first week of life. 80f for next 2. Healthy kittens who are 5-600 grams can be weaned at 6 weeks, while some take up to 10. 75% full growth by 6 months, 10-12 fully grown.
How should orphaned kittens be cared for?
Mothers will usually accept fosters without probblem. Housing two pregnant queens together will result in sharing especially when kits are 1 week or less. If fosters not avaiable, humans use KMR, and then stimulate ano-gential area to express urine and doody.
What is the history and current use of the laboratory dog?
First used by William Harvey in 1600's studying cardiac movement, Malpighi for lung studies, and Wren for IV drug delivery. Currently, beagle is most common breed and are commonly used for studies on pharm and tox, dental, surgical, orthopedia, and oncology.
What makes canines such great biomedical models
Large size, well established anesthetic protocols, extensive surgical models, good sized organs.
What spontaneous conditions are canines known to have and are studies for this reason?
Duchenne muscular dystrophy caused by an x-linked recessive muscular protein. Golden retrievers share similar dystrophy. Also dogs commony have hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus.
Who is the number one supplier of laboratory dogs, namely beagles, in the USA?
Marshall farms, located in rochester NY, also number 1 supplier of ferrets.
How does the estrous cycle of the dog work?
Bitch has two cycle per year usually in jan-feb and july-aug including pro, est, di, and ane. Proestrus and Estrus both last 9 days apiece. Follicular stage of cycle peaks at estrus and sanguinous discharge may persist. Estrust is endocrinologically an LH surge followed by ovulation 24-72 hours later, which is standing heat. 9 days after estrus, diestrus begin. Progest level remain high whether or not bred or pregnant. Anestrus will last for four months, with no changes in the male.
Describe male puberty and their breeding habits.
Ranges from 5-12 months depending on many factors. Initiation of spermatogenesis to ejaculation is total of 60 days. Fertility is affected by number of sperm, injury, or libido. Can also be negatively affected from early weaning.
What is the tie or the lock in dog breeding?
Initial mounting and ejac takes 1 minute but tie last 5-30 with addt'l prostatic fluid. Propels semen through uterus also preventing retrograde loss. Occurs due to swelling of bulbus glandis and constriction of vulvar and vaginal muscles.
What are the facts of pregnancy and parturition with respect to canines?
Gestation is about 63 days and progesterones levels are the same preg v nonpreg. Superfecundation possible. Birth occurs less than 18-24 hours after abrupt drop in BT below 100. Bitch may become isolationist or snuggly when entering stage 1 of labor, which lasts 6-12 hours. 3-6 hours is length of fetal expulsion. The fetus will engage cervix stimulating ferguson reflex and neuroendocrine reflex. Recumbent position will help delivery.
What is done with the fetal membranes in the canine?
Chorioallantoic membrane ruptures during passage of fetus or after birth by dogs teeth. Make sure it is not suffocating young. Interval between puts should be 1 hour and vet assistance is needed if 5 hours have passed without any pups or more than 2 hours btwn. Should addt'l oxytocin be necessary administer 5-20 units IM.
What is the process of uterine involution in canines?
4-5 week duration where greenish discharge and fluid is common. Lochia is normal, but malodorous or thick lochia coupled with illness symptoms should be addressed. Pyometria or metritis could be. Complete repair by 3 months.
What is the growing process of neonates in canines?
Eyes open at 12 days, ears at 12-20, solid food at about 5 weeks, weaning by 6-8 weeks.
Describe pseudopregnancy in canines.
Common in infertile or sterile bitches, uterine enlargement and intrauterine fluid accumulation coupled with enlarged mammary gland. Not breed or age related or related to BECOMING infertile or sick.
Name some old world monkieys and some new world monkies.
Old world: Rhesus and baboons, New World: squirrel and owl monkeis, and marmosets.
Describe the imporation of monkies and the number used in research today.
Over 100000 decrease from 1968-1991. Importation restriction due to many placed on protected species lists and bans on exportation from russia and india. Appox 50-60k used today. Acquired mostly from well-managed limited production colonies or domestic ones.
What is the major supply of NHPs in the US, and what are their main uses in research?
Domestic breeding programs initiated in the 1970's are the main source of Rhesus, babs, chimps, and squirrel monkies. We are dependent on chimpanezee production. Because chimp has 98.9% identical genes to human making them susceptible to same diseases and immune responses. However, there is a lot of public concern, high cost, rarity, and safety.
Why is the taxonomy of NHPs so important?
22 new species of new world monkies have been identified since 1991. ID is important because species within same genus respond differently.
What are the characteristics of all primates?
Unguiculate, placental, 3 types of teeth, opposable thumbs, pendulous penis, scrotal testes, and two pectoral mammary glands. Range in size from 200g to 800lb, and live on all continents but australia and antarctica.
Where are old world monkies and where are new world monkies distributed in the world?
Old worlds are in Africa, asia and some pacific islands, while new world are in southern mexico to central SA.
What do the terms prosimian, simian, monkey, and macaque mean? What about baboon, great ape, and lesser ape?
Prosimian - meaning before monkey like lemurs or squirrel-foxlike monkies. Simian - describes monkies or apes Monkey: all NHP except apes and prosims Macaque: belongs to genus Macaca. Baboon: genus papio, Great ape: chimps gorillas and orans (lack tails) Lesser apes: gibbons
What are the general A&P of OWM?
Elongated muzzle with turned down nares. Cheek pouches, menstrual cycles, and are terrestrial and arboreal. Dental formula is 2(I 2/2, C 1/1 PM 2/2 M 3/3) = 32. They are diurnal, carriers of many zoonotic diseases and most have little or no tail
What is the rationale for the Rhesus Genome Project? How many do we use in the USA? What disease do they contract which makes them especially useful?
Improving human health, informing human biology and the human sequence, providing genetic connections, expanding understanding of biological principles, provide new surrogate system for human experimentation, facilitate genetic mapping ability and expand the study of evolution. 75% of NHPs are Rhesus. SIV is the best model for HIV in research.
What are the general A&P of NWM?
Flattened broad muzzle with flared nares. Prehensiled or psuedoprehensiled tail. No cheek pouches, estrous cycle, only arboreal and mostly diurnal.
Describe the characteristics of the Rhesus monkey and their habits.
Among least threated OWM, medium sized with medium length non-prehensiled tail. Live up to 29 years with fems weighing 11kg and males 12kg. Genetically are 92.7% similar are highly susceptible to SIV. In the wild, they are known to inhabit towns in large male dominated mixed sex groups ranging in size from 10-50. They are belligerent and stare with open mouth or scream when prepping for attack.
Describe rhesus reproduction and parturition.
Seaonal breeder from mid sept to mid feb. Gestation is 164 days with sexual maturity of fem at 34-43 and men 38 months. 28 day menstrual cycle. Parturition is very similar to women and female weighing 410 males 450 gs.
What is the breeding formula for inseminating Rhesus? Is it the same for breeding regularly?
Take mean length of previous 3 menstrual cycles, divide by 2 and subtract 3 days. Must bring female to male's territory. If breeding regularly, use the same technique.
What is the main reason for use and production of chimpanzees?
Hep a and c, alzheimers, malaria and HIV are used as models with the chimp. They share 98% genetic similarity with humans. Chimp production peaked in the early 90's producing only 384 chimps between 86-94.
What should enrichment prorams for primates consider
Appropriate social companionship, opportunities to explore forage and engage in other age and sex appropriate activities, housing that allows for significant movement and posture, surround with positive personnel.
How do local anesthetics work and what are their desired properties?
Provides a reversible paralysis of sensory nerves by blocking sodium penetration. They are non-addicitive and readily water soluble. Neutral pH, low toxicity, slow absorption, and compatible with epinephrine 1:50,000.
Describe Local anesthesia with relation to toxicity.
Muscular tremors and convulsion followed by CNS depression and eventual cause of death is respiratory failure. Do not inject IV.
What areas are infiltrated with local anesthetics?
nerve block, L block, epidural, spinal, and special LA for eyes and skin.
What makes non-narcotic pain relief a safer choice than narcotic?
No drowsiness, non-addictive, no respiratory depression, can be given orally.
What is the chemical name for aspirin and how does it work?
Acetasalicylic Acid - John vane determined awarded Nobel Prize for discovery of mechanism of action. It inhibits the conversion of arachidonic acid into COX I inhibitor. Cats cannbot metabolize bc they cannot conjugate glucoronide. Excretion via the kidney.
What are the effects of aspirin?
Analgesia via anti-bradykinin effect, anti-inflammatory effect and hypothalamic effect. Antipyretic effect by resetting hypothamalic thermostat by activating mechanism to increase heat loss.
What is the triad of addiction?
Habituation, tolerance, and physical/psychological dependence.
What are the differences between opium, morphine, and codeine?
Opium is 10% morphine and .5% codeien. Morphine works with the chemoreceptor trigger zone and can be used for pre-op medication. Codeine has similar effects but less potent.
Name ten considerations the IACUC members must take when preparing their protocol for the experiment and research at hand.
1. Rationale of the experiment
2. Justification of the particular species and the # of animals needed
3. The use of the live animals instead of other means like computer simulation or culture preparations
4. Expertise of personnel
5. Housing requirements
6. Husbandry requirements
7. Use of chemicals for anesthesia and pain reief
8. Post-operative procedures (recovery location)
10. Safety of the animals and personnel
What is the difference between a macro environment and a microenvironment?
Micro is the animal's immediate environment or in other words the enclosure immediately surrounding it with its own temp, humid, and gasses. The macro environment is the area in which the cages or enclosures are kept, such as a room in a laboratory.
What are 7 considerations that must be taken into account when designing a primary enclosure for an animal?
1. Must allow for the normal physiological and behavioral needs of the animal
2. Allow for social interaction in same cage or between cages
3. Possible to be clean and dry
4. Proper ventilation
5. Inability to escape or get stuck
6. No sharp edges
7. Allows for adequate observation without disturbance.
A veterinarian is an integral member of the team with respect to any valuable laboratory animal practice. What is the veterinarian responsible for and what must he make sure is accomplished. IE euthanasia, pain relief and anesthesia, surgery, preventative medicine, quantine, and diagnosis.
I know that shit
What are ten things that a multipurpose animal facility needs to include?
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