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What was the primary stance of the Anti-Federalists of the late 1700s?
The Constitution has kept any one group or “faction” becoming too powerful for too long.
Health care system in the United States (criticism?)
“factions” (James Madison)
In his Federalist No. 10 in 1787, James Madison elaborated on his fear of “factions” = political parties within American democracy.
They thought parties would promote corruption and bias in the political system.
A positive role of political parties
They play a central role in running government at all levels, including organizing and providing context to voters
Are organizations that seek to win elections to influence government and are guided by a political philosophy and rooted in particular values/ideas lead to specific issue positions.
Positive benefit of the competition for power between the 2 major parties
Though never explicitly intended, a competition for power between the 2 parties has been proven to be a significant check against tyranny.
British Tory Party, British Whig Party, Federalists and Anti-Federalists
The Constitution & Political parties
It is not mentioned in the Constitution.
Primary stance of the colonial Whigs
Advocates of independence
A document or official statement that outlines the political party’s position on important policy issues.
The Whig party
Split bcs serious differences over the legality and morality of slavery.
Democratic candidate (1932)
Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt
Shift in political party affiliation (since 1968)
South became primarily Republican while the north became Democratic.
What is a divided government?
Split party control of presidency and Congress.
Promotes the two-party system and prevents smaller parties from achieving even minimal representation in the national legislature.
Identified with a number of social justice causes, including feminism, promotion of diversity, and global responsibility.
The Libertarian party
Endorses the notion that govt should be small and limited, interfering as little as possible with the lives of citizens. It places a premium on individual liberties and personal responsibility.
Endorses a strong government role in providing health care, jobs, housing, and education, among other public programs.
The practice by which victorious parties offer loyal members jobs in government
The 15th Amendment
Guarantees the right to vote regardless of …
i. Poll tax, literacy test
The 24th Amendment
Outlawed poll taxes
The 26th Amendment
Lowered the voting age to 18
The 19th Amendment
Guarantees women the right to vote
How does Italy handle their non-voters?
The nonvoters are made public.
Low turnout is a symptom of a weak democracy.
What is the frequency of Congressional elections?
The U.S. Constitution calls for Congressional elections to occur every two years.
The phase in which the political parties select candidates to run against other party candidates.
What is the “party ticket”?
Individuals selected to run as the presidential and VP candidates
First two political parties?
The federalists (conservative) and the democratic-republicans (liberal)
John Quincy Adams won the election despite using the popular vote.
party members formally met to provide input as to who their party should nominate for elective office.
it was created to give voters the opportunity to select party candidates rather than party leaders choosing the person who would represent the party.
How did Carter win the Democratic primary election?
Carter was the first to appeal directly to the primary voters and gain their support
What was the importance of the 12th amendment?
It created a requirement that electors cast two votes: one for president and one for vice president.
Limits presidents to two terms
How are the residents of Washington, DC allowed to cast votes for president?
The U.S. Constitution was amended in 1961 to include the D.C. in the Electoral College by the 23rd Amendment.
What is the purpose of the national party conventions?
To show case its candidate & garner momentum
What is the general election campaign?
it is the 4th stage of the contemporary presidential selection; between conventions and November.
The candidate who wins the presidential election is based upon what?
Electoral College votes
The 23rd Amendment?
District of Columbia - people can vote for president
How is the number of electoral votes determined?
A state's number of electoral votes equals the number of the state's Congressional delegation [the number of U.S. Senators (always 2) PLUS the number of U.S. Representatives].
Benefit for a frontrunner
They tend to get more coverage in the news, thus promoting their name recognition and popularity as candidates
Voters show up at the polling place and vote the same day
Voters declare a party affiliation ahead of time, prior to voting
Nine states all held their contests that day (March 6, 2012)
An incumbent race
Campaign focuses on past performance
Open seat election
Less focused on the past
What is a “Battleground state”?
The state cannot be considered safely Democratic or Republican so either party has a chance of winning that state in the presidential election.
First televised presidential debate
Kennedy/Nixon first to generate interest
How does a presidential candidate win in the Electoral College?
Winner must receive majority of Electoral College’s 538 votes.
what is the state with the most electoral votes?
What is Retrospective voting?
Evaluating an incumbent’s past performance and job approval rating.
Money donated directly to political candidates to a candidate’s campaign, but rather to a political advocacy group or for a political party for “party-building” activities.
In presidential elections the winner is often a strong enough candidate that his success has positive results for his party all the way to the various state and local races.
What is Franking privilege?
Mail materials to constituents without paying for postage
The adoption (or legitimation) stage
Stage in which the policy under consideration assumes the authority of law through ratification by Congress or through regulations issued by the relevant administrative agencies.
The formulation stage
various alternative courses are considered and a preferred course is selected.
The evaluation stage
stage in which the policy is assessed for its worth and effectiveness
The implementation stage
stage in which bureaucratic agency translates law into action
Laws, regulations, and rules that affect the whole of society
A “think tank”
Organization that does intensive research and problem solving, either on behalf of other entities, or on their own
a think tank that seeks to improve the performance of American institutions and the quality of public policy through the use of social science.
* How to raise revenue through taxation
* How to spend the revenue generated
General upward price movement of goods and services, measured by CPI.
Less economic intervention and minimal governmental regulations. “Leave Us Alone.”
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Estimate of the total money value of all goods/services produced in a one-year period
Consumer Price Index (CPI) – use?
helps determines the cost of living increases in federal employee salaries and social security benefits
What is the consumer Price Index (CPI)?
Index of prices for goods and services regularly traded.
The amount of $ spent by the govt over and above what it collects in taxes and other revenue in a single year
Consumer Confidence Index (CCI)
Measures public’s evaluation of economy
are guaranteed government benefits that certain citizens depend upon for subsistence
is one in which a fee is levied on imports
A flat tax
is one in which all entities are taxed at the same rate as a proportion of income
The social security tax
is one in which the tax is imposed on personal income and employers
Regulation of the money supply and interest rates by a central bank, such as the U.S. Federal Reserve Board, in order to control inflation and stabilize the currency
Germany under Bismarck in the 1880s.
An economic system in which all or most of the means of production are owned by the community as a whole.
When did America begin to be a welfare state
American welfare state began in the 1930s
The Great Depression…
began in the era where people thought the govt could and should be used as a positive influence
when did Medicare and Medicade get added to the American Social Welfare system?
What is Medicare for?
Health insurance provided for the elderly
Who promised to “end welfare as we know it”?
Bill Clinton in 1992
Limited healthcare provided for the poor
Universal health care
Full access to healthcare provided at government expense
Health maintenance organizations (HMOs)?
Limit costs by charging flat monthly rates
Term used to encompass all of a nation’s activities that are directed at conducting relations with other countries, including military operations and diplomatic activities
The federal government’s role in U.S. foreign policy?
Unlike other types of government that are subject to frequent jurisdictional squabbles, few dispute the federal government’s status as the sole authority in charge of U.S. foreign policy.
The power of Congress
Raise armiesPunish maritime crimes
What are the powers of the president?
Negotiate foreign treatiesChief diplomat
Serve as commander in chief
Authority to ratify treaties?
Response of the presidents since…
Presidency well-suited to respond to demands
a. Bully pulpit
what is the status of the United States as a military superpower?
it has given it far more leverage in its relations with foreign powers.
U.S. considers any new European colonization efforts on the U.S. side of the Atlantic Ocean as an act of war
Expanding territory or economic influence; Systematic effort to pursue manifest destiny
The US policy of the mid-nineteenth century that advocated acquiring lands and occupying the entire American continent from one ocean to the other.
What was the reason for the U.S. to entering into the War in 1917?
The United States advocated a policy of isolationism and neutrality until its shipping was directly attacked by Germany.
Treaty of Versailles
System of reparations, developed League of Nations
Why did the Senate reject Woodrow Wilson's League of Nations?
The U.S. didn’t join the League of Nations bcs the U.S. Senate rejected Wilson’s recommendation to adopt the treaty and returned the nation to an era of isolationism.
Advocates economic and military actions to secure boundaries and interests worldwide
The 1947 US policy that provided loans and aids to Western European countries whose economies had been ravaged by WWII.
The Cold War
Conflict over ideological differences
North Atlantic Treaty (NATO)
Bound U.S. to military defense of Western Europe
Soviet Union and its Eastern European neighbors
Resisting efforts to expand Communist influence
Communist takeovers of Southeast Asian countries would cause takeovers of other nations as well
Militarily expel Hussein’s army in early 1991
October of 1962?
October 1962 JFK’s demands for removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba
How many former Soviet republics?
The “New World Order”
Nations together secure peace, security, freedom, and the rule of law
The relaxation of strained relations or tensions (as between nations).
What is the purpose of NAFTA?
To lift trade barriers such as protective tariffs and investment restrictions between the United States, Canada and Mexico
What is the primary responsibility of the Department of State?
Primary responsibility for foreign policy programs
Colin Powell (?)
Powell articulated that the framework for intervention in the first Gulf War, later termed the “Powell Doctrine”: military action should be used as a last resort, and then only with clear popular support, overwhelming force, and a clear exit strategy.
What programs are included in the Department of State?
Department of Defense (role?)
Manages the nation’s military
The National Security Council (NSC) purpose?
Coordinates information affecting national security
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) coordinates…
Formulates response/recovery during time of threat
The vast network of defense industries in America and their allies in the federal bureaucracy.
(Manufacturers of weapons, missiles, air crafts, and submarines).
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