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The first revolution was mainly concerned about cotton and textile mills while the second industrial revolution is concerned with transportation
Series of acts that congress agreed on that promoted the construction of the transcontinental railroad in the U.S. through authorizing the issuance of government bonds and grants to companies
Where did the Union Pacific Railroad & Central Pacific Railroad begin & end?
Union Pacific- Omaha Nebraska
Central Pacific- Sacremento California
Met in Utah
How was the transcontinental railroad funded? What role did the U.S. Government play in the
development of the railroad?
Funded by big four Sacramento merchants, private investments and the Government.
The government would own half of land by a “checkerboard ownership”
Private investors provide track, government provides land
How did the railroads change management in the country?
What is the difference between the “invisible & visible” hand of management? (Hint: Which one
was Laissez Faire Capitalism)
Invisible hand is laissez faire governmentVisible is government control
Who was Andrew Carnegie & Where di his family immigrate from?
Richest man in the world at one point who had a steel company
He was an immigrant from Scotland
How did Carnegie keep him prices so low? ( Hint: the Bessemer Process)
What is vertical & horizontal integration? Which ones did Carnegie & Rockefeller use?
Both of them used both.
Horizontal- keeping prices low to cut down costs and absorbing other relatable companies. Basically absorb competition
Vertical- taking the machinery, supplies, and manufacture that was from the company you absorbed
Ex) land, machines
Who owned Standard Oil? How did the Standard Oil Company eliminate competition?
John D Rockefeller
Horizontal Integration. He kept prices so low that he absorbed other companies
Who were the Molly Maquires? Why did they form?
Who was James McParland and how did he contribute to the decline of the Mollies.
What did the Knights of Labor advocate? How were the Knights different from other Labor
A bureau for labor statistics, end convict and child labor, equal pay for equal work with men and women, worker cooperatives
They were based on republican principles, accepted women, Catholics, blacks and immigrants
What is the concept of Producerism? How did the Knights of Labor use it to their advantage?
At the center of republicanism is the producer or laborer. The laborer of producer is the foundation of companies.
Knights of Labor would put a twist on it and say that they are the producer at the bottom holding everyone up
What types of people were excluded from the Knights of Labor?
No lawyers, doctors, bankers, stock brokers, or chinese
. How did the Haymarket Affair destroy the reputation of the Knights of Labor?
What caused the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire?
What was the Compromise of 1877? What effect did it have on Reconstruction?
What economic problems did farmers(populists) have during the late 19th
century? Who did they blame
for their problems?
How did William Jennings Bryan ruin the Populist Party? Who won the election of 1896?
Who assassinated William McKinley and why was his assassination a “national wake-up call” for the country?
What writer and book inspired the Meat Inspection Act & Pure Food & Drug Acts? What was the original reason for why this author wrote this book?
How did Boss Tweed dominate politics in New York City?
Why did Tammany Hall begin to decline during the Progressive Era?
Name the three national goals of the Progressives?
What was the purpose of the Eugenics Movement? Why was it considered “Progressive?
Why was/is Margaret Sanger considered a controversial Progressive social reformer?
were the origins of the Spanish American War?
Monroe Doctrine 1823- U.S interest of carribean basin, railroads linked U.S and Mexico
Resources in central America
U.S needs stable Carribean
Cubans revolt against Spanish rule
Who was Emilio Aguinaldo? Why did the Americans stay in the Philippines for three years?
Pilipino resistance leader against Spaniards in the Philippines
Helps U.S take out Spanish in Philippines
U.S wants to stay to occupy Philippines
What country originally worked on the canal before U.S. involvement? Why did they sell it?
How and why did the U.S. take control of the Panama Canal Project? ( Hint: Was there a revolution involved?)
National Security for World War, territory, protection from Germany,Economic security- protect businesses, and Economic Pride
Spooner Act 1902-allowed Roosevelt to make a deal with France- $40 Million deal
Columbians own the panama land and people so americans start revolution for panama and they reach independence. U.s pays $10 million to Cubans
What were the major achievements of the canal?
Technology-Largest Canal in the world; Greatest engineering achievement since Erie Canal
Economic world shipping routes and faster travel time
National security- quick passage of aircraft and pacific fleet in WWII
What were the five major causes of World War I? Be able to explain in detail.
Militarism- National “Arms Race”, Mass Production of Weapons, Show of power to other Countries, Generals & Admirals as Government Officials, Strongest in Germany
Alliances- Allied Powers; France, Britain, Russia, Italy, United States, Japan
Central Powers; Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
Nationalism- Sense of pride, Pan-Slavic Nationalism, Slavic People of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Desire to be part of Serbia
Imperialism- Taking over European small countries, Asia, and Africa, European states are becoming more solidified and separate and they're colonizing, All Europe has their sights on new colonies, Africa is being split up and owned by different European colonies
Assassination- In Serbia. Terrorist organization in Serbia- Black Hand- they want Serbia to be independent and not be owned by Russia or Austria. Russians have Serbia before WW1 but Austria Hungary also wants Serbia. Archduke of Austria- Franz Ferdinand goes down the streets of Serbia
Black Hand plans on assassination. People start to find out about Black Hand organization and fear
Why did German U-boats sink the Lusitania?
Germany knew America was not truly neutral…. Suspected them sending supplies to allied powers
Ammunition from Americans are being loaded secretly to go to Britain
What was the Zimmerman Telegram? What did the British hope to achieve from its contents?
Message from German ambassador to Mexico saying “we will start unrestricted welfare. Will you (Mexico) attack Texas and we will give back your territories originally of Cali, Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico again.
British decoded message and wanted America’s help in the war so they influenced them
How were German Americans treated during World War I?
Poorly by discrimination and violence
TWEA (trading with enemy act)- gave government authority to go into German-American business and government could confiscate and shut down business saying that they were sending contraband to Germany
Prohibition- Alcohol Made illegal during WWI
Why was Prohibition passed into national law during WWI?
For morality and of course wheat and barley make beer
Breweries were started by Germans so they wanted to prohibit beer so they could run them out of business
What happened at the Treaty of Versailles? What were the terms and conditions for Germany? What was ironic about the events?
Germany was to assume War guilt- demilitarize entire army, industrial lands such as the Saar Valley are taken away from Germany and given to France, pay for entire War, and to be as weak as possible.
The creation of the treaty would eventually create a monster out of Germany and start World War II
Why were the 1920s considered the “The Age of Consumption?”
Why were shares on the stock market easy to buy during the 1920s? (Hint: What does buying on margin mean?)
What factors gave the United States a false sense of economic security during the 1920s?
Reparation payments from Britain and France seemed like income for Americans but in reality it was just a cycle because Americans were giving money to Germany for loans.
Easy credit, tax cuts, buying stock “on the margin,” Florida state real estate boom, and easy loans
How did the Harlem Renaissance help African-American achieve a stronger political identity?
Start moving to city landscapes and assuming certain roles and jobs.
Puts out best writers and activists of that time.
Marcus Garvey- most famous Harlem
African Movement- go back to your roots, go back to your culture and understand it
Ridgely Torrence’s Three plays for a negro theatre- first show that attacked minstrel shows
Became popular to have an all black cast
The voice- political newspapers that talked about civil rights in society- unity, rights, and importance of it
How did the Scopes Monkey Trial start? Who was the Prosecuting attorney? Who served as the defense’s lawyer? How did the trial irritate tensions among fundamentalists and Modernists?
Start: State of Tennessee- law of butler act- prohibts science teachers from teaching science and not teaching the bible.
ACLU- thinks butler act in unconstitutional but no one had come forward to complain about it
So Puts out pamphlet asking science teachers in Tennessee if they have been harassed and if they come to them they will pay for their defense
Scope coach and teacher comes forward about evolution
ACLU starts putting things into people’s heads and made up a story
Lawyers- William jennings bryan was prosecution lawyer for teacher and Clarence Darrow was defense
Fundamentalists and Modernists tension- Split in Christianity
Protestant Liberalism- Textual & Historical Analysis of the Bible
Fundamentalism- scientists , Distrust of Biblical Criticism, Anti-Intellectualism, Distrust of Science ( Eugenics)
Why was the Ku Klux Klan popular during the 1920s? How did the Klan gain mass membership? Who did they oppose? What caused the rapid decline of the Klan?
Division in Democratic Party: Southerners & Midwesterners, Supported Prohibition
Supported Fundamentalism- direct teaching of biblical text
Originated out of Church and sold themselves on Christian values
Opposition to… “Modernism,” Catholics, Jews, 19th Amendment “New Woman,” African-Americans, Immigrants, Intellectuals?, Alcohol, Socialists, and Labor Unions
Decline: Rape trial of KKK killed membership
David Curtis Stephenson- grand dragon of the Klan
What was the “Klanbake?” Who were the major political candidates?
Democratic Convention of 1924- Pro Klan vs. Anti- Klan
Pro- William McAdoo
Anti- Al Smith (opposed prohibition, opposed southern democrats)
Current President- Calvin Coolidge (Republican)
What was the major cause of World War II?
The Treaty of Versailles- treaty that ended WWI and assumed all war guilt on Germany
-created a “monster” out of Germany by punishing them
What was the Nazi concept of “Lebensraum” (Hint: What regions did Hitler want to take over
Means “living Space”
Hitler says Aryan is the best race and that the Germany’s other cultural groups need to be taken out by expanding and unifying Aryan race.
What country did Germany annex during the “Anschluss”? What other regions soon followed?
What event started World War II in Europe? What event started World War II for the United
Start event for Europe- Invasion of Poland (September 1st, 1939)
Start event for United States- Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (December 7th, 1941)
Why was the Yalta Conference significant? What major world leaders were there?
Future of Postwar World- allies agreed that Europe could creat democratic governments of their choice, Germany would be divided into occupation zones, and Russia would join in war against Japan.
Leaders: Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin (The big
What countries did Japan invade during the 1930s? Why?
Invaded Manchuria and the republic of China (Nanking) for natural resources
Wanted to establish the greater east Asia co-prosperity Sphere
What happened in Nanking, China?
Violent war rape by an invasion of Japan
What was the Export Control Act?
What area of the Asian Pacific did Japan take over? How did Roosevelt respond before Pearl
Roosevelt responded by freezing or stopping oil exports (embargo act) to weaken their aggressive force
Why did the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor?
Reaction to the embargo act
Wanted to destroy American resources and threat by destroying America’s large naval fleet and oil reserves in Hawaii
Why were the Battle of the Coral Sea & the Battle of Midway important? (Hint: Coral Sea
stopped the invasion of what country? The Battle of Midway guaranteed the outcome of the
Coral Sea- Japanese convey to New Guinea stopped as well as trying to attack Australia
Midway- Japan was going to try to attack Hawaii again but the “code breakers” broke their code and resulted in the turning point of the war
Explain the reasons for and against for using the atomic bomb on Japan?
For- For Japanese surrender, end war quickly, show power towards Russia, save U.S and Japanese soldier lives, and prevent another U.S invasion of Japan
Against- War crimes, Sea blockade would eventually cause them to surrender, civilian death, environmental damage
What cities did the United States drop the Atomic Bombs? Why?
Hiroshima- major industrial city and military headquarters that had not experienced war yet
Nagasaki- industrial center
How did the Soviet Union respond to the Marshall Plan?
What was the policy of Containment? How did it affect foreign policy?
What countries in Europe did the Soviet Union gain control of? (Eastern or Western Europe?)
What were the early successful actions of containment. (Hint: Truman Doctrine)
Truman Doctrine- $400 million Aid to Greece and turkey who were trying to fight communismSuccessful revolution
What was the Long Telegram?
U.S ambassador, George Kennan’s warning telegram to the U.S after hearing Stalin’s speech.
Claims Stalin does not want peaceful coexistence and to NOT engage in military aggression rather we should contain communism
How did the policy of containment affect U.S. Involvement in Korea, Iran, & Vietnam?
Why did Houston and Austin, Texas have a population boom after World War II?
Who was Senator Joseph McCarthy and how did his actions hurt Americans?
Name three people who had their lives & careers destroyed because of communist accusations?
Lester hunt- Senator from Wyoming whose son was homosexual and claimed to be communist. Committed suicide
Paul Robeson- singer and scholar who had his reputation ruined by singing for a crown in Moscow
Juan Galvan- not a legal citizen so he had to register with federal government under the McCarran Internal Security act- deported him
What was the GI Bill of Rights?
Educate veterans and put them in private sector to get successful jobs
Preference for government jobs, low interest loans, education subsidies
Who was Hector P. Garcia and what was the American GI Forum?
A doctor that served in WW2 who was treated terribly after the war for being Mexican
GI Forum- Mexican Americans that served in WW2 that were not being served veteran benefits formed organization
What were the Supreme Court decision of Sweatt v. Painter & Brown B. Board of Education of
Topeka, Kansas, 1954?
Sweatt v. Painter- WW2 veteran wanted to go to law school at UT but they said no because he is black
Became illegal to have separate law institutions for minorities
Brown V Board of education- ended separate but equal
Ended all segregated schools
How did John Kennedy portray idealism?
New Frontier -Numerous Opportunities
- “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.”
How did Kennedy support Nasa and the Space program? Why? ( Hint: Sputnik)
Goal: Put the first man on the Moon
-Kennedy Federal Spending 9 Billion Dollars for NASA
1957- Russia launch sputnik- satellite
Freak americans out- worried that they will set up nuclear stations in space and bomb U.S
-1969-Team of Astronauts Walk on the Moon
How did Kennedy increase American involvement in Vietnam? Why not leave?
Kennedy believes in Domino theory- if Vietnam falls to communism then Asia countries fall like dominos to communism
Send 1000 extra advisors to train south Vietnamese army
How did the CIA try to overthrow Fidel Castro during the Kennedy administration? Results?
CIA operation went into Cuba and took anti- Castro people and trained them (in Guatemala) to invade Cuba on the bay of pigs or beach
. What happened during the Cuban missile crisis?
U.S missiles in Turkey aimed at Russia
Russians are putting missiles in Cuba to aim at U.S
Closest to have ever come to nuclear war-
Both nations are on high alert of who is going to shoot first
Khrushchev backs down
After the assassination of John Kennedy, who took over as President? How was this president
different from Kennedy?
Lyndon B Johnson (VP)
-very crude and bully
Wants to correct poverty
Most aggressive president to pass civil rights act
What major steps towards Civil Rights did the Johnson Administration take?
What was the Tet offensive and how did it help ruin Johnson’s credibility.
Tet offensive- Tet is Vietnamese new year
Ho chi Minh surprise attack on Tet day in the cities
Public backlash against Johnson- Media captured incident
How did the Vietnam War affect the Civil Rights movement? (Hint: Who was more likely to go to
Vietnam and why?)
How did the Vietnam War affect the Civil Rights movement? (Hint: Who was more likely to go to
Vietnam and why?)
Anti-war efforts increase
Late 60’s- more aggressive civil rights, student movement and protestors because of vietnam
What is Stagflation and why was the 1970s economy plagued by it?
3 problems why economy turned bad and started stagflation:
stagflation- rising inflation and rising unemployment (NOT SUPPOSED TO HAPPEN)
1.) federal deficit spending from Johnson admin
-great society, Vietnam war, lowering taxes, and refusal to expand money supply
2.) Competition in technology and industry- West Germany and Japan
-used to be industrial power but fell after Vietnam
-West Germany and Japan passing us
3.) Dwindling Oil Supply
-We have to rely on buying from Middle East
OPEC- petroleum countries in middle east that charged more for other countries
Because of our support in the Yom Kippur War, they put crazy taxes and restricted selling to us anymore (EMBARGO)
Why were there long gas lines in the 1970s? (Hint: Boycott)
Had to save as much gas as possible because opec boycotted us from oil
Gas lines- went by alphabet, all day to get gas
Gas prices go up
What happened in the Rust Belt?
How did Nixon handle Vietnam?
Nixon wanted to end the war badly to end inflation without telling American public
-gradually withdrawal troops
-increase air war- bomb Vietnam even though their army is mostly on the ground
-Secretly bombs Cambodia
1975- Fall of Saigon- north Vietnamese army takes over south Vietnam (we lose)
What was Watergate and how did it affect Nixon?
CREEP- committee to re elect president
Democratic convention is held at Watergate hotel- Nixon and Creep agreed to break in hotel and get negative things on democratic papers inside hotel
Has to turn over tapes from oval office and deletes information on tapes
Used office of presidency to break the law
Why was Jimmy Carter considered a great humanitarian, but a weak President?
Jimmy Carter- democrat that was too passive
-said things in his campaign and did the exact opposite during career
-not a lot of muscle to his words and too weak
Departments of Energy, Education, Office of Human Rights
How did Reagan help rebound the economy during his first term?
Reduce government spending (40 billion dollars in government spending)
Reduce Income Taxes-Laffer Curve-Passes the ERTA
Reduce Government Regulation-Savings and Loans, health care, consumer protection, environment
Economy Rebounds in 1983 due to lower inflation rate and tax cuts
Why did the Reagan administration leave the nation will a 3 trillion dollar deficit?
Left with the highest federal deficit ever- if you’re going to reduce spending and cut taxes but do not start adding new programs like SDI (defense against soviets)
Defense spending+ lowering of taxes= deficit
Concept to invalidate the Soviet Brezhnev Doctrine and overturn existing communist governments during the cold war
• Provided schools that would provide the use of modern weaponry education
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