How is scholarly research different than every day ways of knowing?
The form of disciplined inquiry that involves studying something in a planned manner and reporting it so that other inquirers can potentially replicate the process if they choose.
What are the characteristics of research?
1. Based on curiosity and asking questions. -Can come from a theory -Can be used for practical terms
2. Systematic process -Conceptualization ? To define, to narrow down, to describe, the area of research or the topic that is going to be addressed -Design a Research Plan ? What are they going to do in the study (i.e. survey, interviews, experiments) -Enact the Method -Analyze the Findings
3. Potentially replicable ? Possible for other researchers to go back to it. -Should be able to design it well enough for other researchers to go out and find similar results
4. Reflexive and self-critical ? No research is perfect -No research can accurately describe every situation in the world
5. Cumulative and self-correcting ? looking at topics that other people are looking at or that there are already research studies for
6. Cyclical - The process of research rarely reaches and end -We?ll never hear ?We?ve learned everything about that. We don?t need to study it anymore?
Define Research Methods
The strategies researchers use to collect evidence necessary for building or testing explanations about that which is being studied.
Define internal validity. Give an example.
Accuracy of conclusions drawn from a particular research study.
Example: Doing a study on your vocabulary and continuously record all week. The types of words you use would be internal.
Define external validity. Give an example.
The ability to generalize the findings of a study to other contexts.
Example: Giving a vocabulary test to 100 Communication majors at KU and the scores would be similar for most majors, not just one.
What steps do researchers go through to complete and report their research?
1. Provide a rationale for the research topic (or the question being posed) -Basic communication research: -Develops new or extends existing theory -Expands previous research -Applied communication research: -Provides practitioners with up-to-date knowledge -Educates general public about improving their communication
2. What do we already know about the topic? -Literature review -Provides a comprehensive description of what we already know about the topic from previous research -Develops an argument for your research question(s)/ hypotheses.
3. What is the focus of this research? -Research question(s) -Describe communication behavior -RQ: What supervisor communication occurs during the dismissal process? (Cox & Kramer, 1995) -RQ: What do the emotional experiences of 911 call-takers and citizens look like? (Tracy & Tracy, 1998) -RQ: What are the types of interpersonal rituals reported in friendships and marital relationships? (Bruess & Pearson, 1997)
4. What is the methodology used? -How was the research conducted? -Research participants/Texts -Procedures -Data treatment (analysis)
5. What did the researcher find? -Results- Typically straightforward account of findings -Discussion- Researcher interprets the results -May show new topics to study or new research to collect
What is a peer-reviewed journal?
How do primary sources differ from secondary sources?
What do communication researchers focus on?
Explain the difference between social science and humanistic/rhetorical research.
Define units of analyses and give an example.
What or whom is studied ? individuals, groups, messages, words, etc.
Define sampling and give an example.
The process of selecting observations
It is rare that we can study every person in a population or every text on a given theme
Define variables and give an example.
Any concept that can have two or more values
Define Quantitative Research
Research can be put into numbers. From there, statistical analysis is possible.
What are the benefits and drawbacks of qualitative research?
Advantages: -Has the potential to be richer in meaning -Helpful when asking questions about ?how?
Disadvantages: -Ambiguity -Often takes more time and resources for the researcher to complete
What are the benefits and drawbacks of quantitative research?
Advantages: -Easy to compare and summarize -Can often be quicker for the researcher to gather -Can more easily make generalizations to others
Disadvantages: -Potential to lose the richness of meaning
Define Qualitative Research
Research based on nonnumerical data, symbols, words.
1. The Beets 2. Doug 3. Killer Tofu
Want to see the other 19 Flashcards in Final Exam?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!