Def/Descr: Use of meditation/herbs to achieve a closer state to the gods or afterworld to aid in healing themselves or others.
Lect/Read: Evidence of shamans is present through ancient cave drawings. Discussed in Patterns and lecture. Still pract. today in eastern India or Pakistan.
Def/Descr: Approach of assuming authors of a text intended something other than what is literally expressed. Claimed himself to be the "last of the prophets."
Def/Descr: Founder of Manichaeism-ancient gnostic religion (now extinct).
Lect/Read: Manichaeism was large influence to the life of St. Augustine, which is evident from his writings in his autobiography, Confessions.
Signif: His religions spread thousands of miles throughout the middle east and Asia reaching the minds of millions. Based on Mani's belief that knowledge and observation of the world was the purest form of discovering salvation sparked many new, creative thoughts about the world and life that surrounded believers.
Def/Descr: Ancient Greek ideology that life should be lived in moderation. Life-long happiness is obtained when one's philosophical needs are satisfied.
Lect/Read: Third virtue in Plato's Republic is moderation.
Signif: Plato describes how the best way to live a perfect, harmonous life is through moderating desires and being the master of one's self.
Def/Descr: Took the views of Plato & took unique interpretations, enough to make it substantially different from what Plato wrote and believed.
Lect/Read: St. Augustine struggled w/ Neoplatonism during his conversion from Manichanism to Christianity. Absence of good being the source of evil, & that this absence of good comes from human sin.
Signif: Beliefs strongly influenced early Christian thinkers such as Augustine.
Def/Descr: Ancient Roman term specifying a certain connotation of virtue. To hold or achieve excellence, manliness, courage, and worth. Typically held by men and their tough enemies.
Def/Descr: Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca that takes place in the last month of the year, and that all Muslims are expected to make at least once in a lifetime.
Lect/Read: Although stretching back thousands of years to Abraham, prophet Muhammad led first Islam-only Hajj.
Signif: Muhammad cleansed the area, removed idols, and named it one of the five pillars of Islam.
Def/Descr: Cube-like building in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, & is most sacred site in Islam. Muslims around the world face it when in prayer.
Lect/Read: Originally the worshipping shrine of many religion figures, including Jesus & Mary. But taken by Muhammad and all idols destroyed.
Signif: Original shrine dedicated solely to God by Muhammad.
Def/Descr: Method used to find the answer to questions and resolve contradictions.
Lect/Read: St. Augustine used method's philosophy and reason to help explain the doctrine of mysteries of the church. Augustine one of founding fathers to merge Christian sensibilities to Greek philosophy.
Signif: Synthesis of Greek philosophy and Christian Doctrine is the heart of Scholasticism.
Def/Descr: Religious and spiritual journey or search of great moral significance. Majority of major religions hold or participate in some sort of pilgrimage.
Lect/Read: The Hajj is Islam's pilgrimage to Mecca. Or the Canterbury Tales would be an example.
Signif: Influenced many literary works and aided in the creation of common-day beliefs. Plus Examples.
Def/Descr: The tendency to sin innate in all human beings, held to be inherited from Adam in consequence of the "Fall of Man".
Lect/Read: Concepts of original sin were developed in the writings of St. Augustine.
Signif: Although original sin, derived from Adam and Eve's give into temptation, is a belief by many Christians. There is division within the religion in that it is a man-made concept, and that no where in Biblical texts are their mentions of the idea. No other religions hold such a belief as well.
Def/Descr: Arab prophet & found of Islam.
Lect/Read: In Mecca he received the first of a series of revelations that, as the Koran, became the doctrinal and legislative basis of Islam.
Signif: Considered Muhammad the restorer of an uncorrupted original monotheistic faith of Abraham.
Def/Descr: Trojan hero who escaped from Troy during its fall to the Greeks. After wandering for many years eventually reached Italy.
Lect/Read: story of the journey from Troy is recounted in Virgil's Aeneid.
Signif: His journey to Italy led to the founding of Rome.
Def/Descr: Political and religious movement referring to the followers of John Wycliffe.
Lect/Read: Lollard ideals influenced the thoughts of John Huss, who in turn influenced Martin Luther.
Signif: Influenced Luther who preached doctrine of justification by faith rather than by works, and spoke up against corruption within the church.
Def/Descr: First Christian hermits who abandoned themselves to the Scetes desert of Egypt to escape chaos and persecution of the Roman Empire.
Lect/Read: Even when Christianity was legalized in Egypt by Constantine I, a trickle of individuals continued to live secluded.
Signif: Resulting from such a lifestyle came the first emergence of the true secret life in which the believer and Christ were "one spirit".
Def/Descr: French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation.
Lect/Read: Principle figure in the development of Calvinism, which stresses the absolute sovereignty of God.
Signif: Best known for its doctrines of predestination, where God determined the fate of the universe throughout all of time and space.
Def/Descr: In Christian Hebrew scriptures it is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God, and is responsible for the failures and sin against God of the world.
Lect/Read: In the book of Job, Satan is the accuser and reason for God's testing and retesting of Job's faith.
Signif: Determined as God's ultimate adversary in being responsible for the world's denial and distance from the all-knowing God.
Def/Descr: Sometimes called the "unofficial sixth pillar of Islam", it requires Muslims to "struggle to improve one's self and/or society."
Lect/Read: Mentioned frequently in the Koran, Jihad is directed against Satan's inducements, aspects of one's own self, or against a visible enemy.
Signif: Islamic military focuses Jihad as the only form of warfare permissible under Islamic law.
Def/Descr: The chief accuser of Socrates, & leader of Socrates' cross examination.
Lect/Read: In Plato's Apology, he isthe primary receiver of Socrates' final indirect remarks regarding Meletus and other false philosophers & poets of the time.
Signif: Meletus is a literary tool used by Plato as a view into his opinions of false-like poets and philosophers of the time of Socrates.
Def/Descr: Series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage resulting from a clash of interests between the existing Carthaginian Empire and the expanding Roman Republic.
Signif: Led to the undisputed dominance of Rome in the western Mediterranean.
Def/Descr: Dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which nobility held lands from the local rulers and peasants in exchange for military service & protection from surrounding conquering areas.
Signif: Many weak Monarchy's became powerful political spectrums as a result of feudalism.
Def/Descr: Theory that knowledge of a subject is inevitably partial & limited by the individual perspective from which its viewed, thus a necessity to inquire from surrounding perspectives.
Signif: Development of open discussions and questioning of what has been established in order to better understand somethings purpose.
Lect/Read: Written by Martin Luther & used to display his displeasure with some of the Roman Catholic's clergy's abuses, most notably the sale of indulgences.
Signif: Primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation & birth of Protestantism.
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