Def/Descr: Use of meditation/herbs to achieve a closer state to the gods or afterworld to aid in healing themselves or others.
Lect/Read: Evidence of shamans is present through ancient cave drawings. Discussed in Patterns and lecture. Still pract. today in eastern India or Pakistan.
Def/Descr: Approach of assuming authors of a text intended something other than what is literally expressed. Claimed himself to be the "last of the prophets."
Def/Descr: Founder of Manichaeism-ancient gnostic religion (now extinct).
Lect/Read: Manichaeism was large influence to the life of St. Augustine, which is evident from his writings in his autobiography, Confessions.
Signif: His religions spread thousands of miles throughout the middle east and Asia reaching the minds of millions. Based on Mani's belief that knowledge and observation of the world was the purest form of discovering salvation sparked many new, creative thoughts about the world and life that surrounded believers.
Def/Descr: Ancient Greek ideology that life should be lived in moderation. Life-long happiness is obtained when one's philosophical needs are satisfied.
Lect/Read: Third virtue in Plato's Republic is moderation.
Signif: Plato describes how the best way to live a perfect, harmonous life is through moderating desires and being the master of one's self.
Def/Descr: Took the views of Plato & took unique interpretations, enough to make it substantially different from what Plato wrote and believed.
Lect/Read: St. Augustine struggled w/ Neoplatonism during his conversion from Manichanism to Christianity. Absence of good being the source of evil, & that this absence of good comes from human sin.
Signif: Beliefs strongly influenced early Christian thinkers such as Augustine.
Def/Descr: Ancient Roman term specifying a certain connotation of virtue. To hold or achieve excellence, manliness, courage, and worth. Typically held by men and their tough enemies.