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Linear model’s- where a sender encodes a message via a channel and the message is decoded by the receiver. Straight-line communication found typically in mass communication; television, radio, newspapers, etc. There is no means for immediate feedback. Transactional Model- receiver and sender can play the same roles simultaneously, as messages can be sent back and forth simultaneously. It appears chaotic and ineffective, but sometimes communication is just that. Noise can effect communication.
Greek scholar who wrote Rhetoric, a systematic analysis of the art and practice of public speaking.
a former slave who moved audiences with his discussion of life under slavery, counted among the most compelling antislavery speakers.
how ethics vary across societies.
put the piece you are citing out of site so you can’t take their words.
when a speaker presents information that leads listeners to an incorrect conclusion.
when a speaker reveals only part of the truth and then mixes it with a lie.
are factors in a specific speech setting that you can observe or discover before you give the speech. They include audience size, time, location (forum), and audience mobility.
refers to certain characteristics of your listeners—for example, age, gender, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, religious orientation, socioeconomic background, and political affiliation. By assessing your audience members’ demographics, you can better anticipate their beliefs about your topic, their willingness to listen to your message, and their likely responses.
beliefs, values, and experiences that you share with your listeners.
sympathetic, hostile, and neutral. A sympathetic audience already holds you in a high personal esteem or agrees with your message and will therefore respond favorably to your speech. A hostile audience opposes your message or you personally and will therefore resist listening to your speech. A neutral audience has neither negative nor positive opinions on you or your speech.
when you write down a word or phrase in the middle of a large piece of blank paper, and then surround it with words and images representing other ideas that come to you.
the objective of your speech. Some examples: “To inform my audience about the events at a Portuguese fiesta,” “to persuade my audience members to drink milk produced by our state’s dairy farms,” and “to honor Captain Chesley B. ‘Sully’ Sullenberger for safely landing Flight 1549 in the Hudson River.”
this is important because it helps your audience better comprehend your message. They know what to listen for because your organization provides cues to indicate main ideas. It’s also important because listeners can’t rewind if they missed something. It also enhances your credibility.
using subordination means creating a hierarchy of points and their supporting materials in your speech. Thus, main points are the most important (or highest) level of subordination, and supporting materials used to develop a main point (called subpoints) are subordinate to that main point. There should be at least two subpoints to support each main point.
the main points represent important aspects of your topic that can be thought of as adjacent to one another in location or geography. This approach is effective when speech topics that can be broken down into specific parts that relate to each other spatially. You take the audience from one part to the next, much like a tour guide.
you present the information in time-based sequence, from beginning to end. Each main point covers a particular point in the chronology. If you are discussing a subject that follows a sequence, such as a historical event or a process, this pattern can help your audience keep track of what you are saying.
if your speech has a cause-and-effect relationship, this pattern will help your audience understand the link between particular events and their outcomes. Explain why commerce has grown:
1. Internet use grew rapidly in the 90’s.
2. Businesses took advantage of this new channel of communication by marketing products online.
3. Consumers have increasingly chosen to shop online because of the convenience.
if you want to ask your audience to take a specific action or support a particular policy on an issue, you would use this model. With this pattern, your first main point argues that one or more problems exist. Your second main point covers the cause(s) of the problem. And your third main point develops your proposed solution.
proposes standards for making a judgment about a topic and then applies those standards to a related topic. This pattern accommodates two main points. The first main point establishes the criteria (or standards) that you believe listeners should use to make a judgment about a topic. The second main point is the application of those criteria to your speech topic.
you would organize your speech as a story, using characters and a plot to convey your message. You still have a thesis with a story rather than a set of explicit main points. The story should have a plot and build to a climax that communicates the main idea of your speech to listeners.
this pattern is effective when you have a diverse set of main points to support the thesis of your speech. Each main point emphasizes an important aspect of your topic that you want the audience to understand.
is a sentence that indicates you are moving from one part of your speech to the next.
a working outline is a thorough outline that you can use to craft your speech. A working outline should be relatively detailed to include your entire speech, from attention getter to clincher, with each idea written down in full or detailed phrases. A speaking outline is a shorter outline that expresses your ideas in keywords or brief phrases, rather than in complete sentences or detailed phrases.
requires that you speak with limited notes; you do not attempt to present a speech word-for-word from manuscript or memory. Your limited notes are there for your reference- you can use them as a reminder of what idea comes next. But you trust yourself to deliver the details more spontaneously, so that your speech feels fresh and conversational.
should be at the left margin after specific purpose in your outline.
evidence- information from credible research sources that you can use to support your claims. Credibility- you gain credibility when you are informed about your topic and provide compelling evidence.
are career professionals who are hired to assist students and faculty with there research. Types of sources: books, journal articles, newspapers, recent newspapers and quality online sources, and interviews.
to evaluate the credibility of a given source, examine four distinguishing characteristics; expertise, objectivity, observational capacity, and recency. Expertise- is the possession of knowledge necessary to offer reliable facts or opinions about the topic in question. Objectivity- has no bias or prejudice or partisanship that would prevent them from making an impartial judgment. Observational capacity- is able to witness a situation for him or herself. Recency- or timeliness.
to build audience interest, enhance audience understanding, to win audience agreement, and to evoke audience emotion.
brief examples vs. extended examples.
tell a story or anecdote, offer a striking or provocative statement, build suspense, let listeners know you are one of them, use humor, ask a rhetorical question, provide a quotation.
explain how you gained knowledge about your topic, reference own relevant experiences.
provide brief summary of main points, provide a memorable clincher that ties in your introduction. End with a striking sentence or phrase, emotional message, or end with a story or anecdote.
reading from a manuscript, memorizing from a manuscript, or speaking from an outline.
eye contact, gestures, physical movement, proxemics (use of space between yourself and your audience) and personal appearance.
dictionary (the meaning as it appears in the dictionary), expert (comes from a person or organization that is a credible source of information on your speech’s topic), etymological (understanding a word or concept by tracing its roots in the same or other languages), or functional (defining a concept by examining how it is applied or how it functions).
hearing means merely receiving the messages in a passive way. Listening on the other hand means actively paying attention to what you’re hearing; it involves both processing the message to decide on its meaning and remembering what you’ve heard and understood.
you actively think about a message you’re receiving from someone else—not only the words but also the nonverbal cues.
your ability to remember what you’ve heard.
often occurs when listeners feel overwhelmed by your message and find it too difficult to follow. Defeated listening is a particular challenge from speakers who deliver presentations that may be technical or detailed and perhaps beyond the easy comprehension of individuals in the audience. They indicate their feelings by avoiding eye contact or by working on something else while you speak.
anticipate ineffective listening before your speech, consider your listener’s attention and energy levels, assess your audience’s knowledge and abilities, front and back load your main message, use presentation aids, tailor your delivery, watch out for argumentative listeners, superficial listeners, and defeated listeners.
select a topic you know and enjoy, start preparing early, take care of yourself, visualize success, use relaxation techniques, and ask to speak first.
the speaker, assistants, objects, visual images, maps, photographs and drawings, diagrams, graphs, lists and other text-based visuals, and audio video.
make sure aids support your points, keep your aids simple and clear, rehearse with your aid, make sure everyone can see/hear your aid, control audience with interaction with your aid, and maintain eye contact.
6 lines per slide, little use of animation, make sure contrast is appropriate, 30pt font.
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