Develops steel with the Bessemer process for the manufacture of steel.
T he Bessemer process involved using oxygen in air blown through molten pig iron to burn off the impurities and thus create steel
Occurred during the permanent phase of the industrial revolution, during the 2 nd phase
Remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of disease. His discoveries reduced mortality from puerperal fever , and he created the first...
Regarded as the father of germ theory and bacteriology
Pasteurization for milk, work with livestock inoculators, rabies cure, synthetically produced vaccines, and vaccines against diseases-measles
Showed that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors , and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection . He published his theory with compelling evidence for evolution in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species .
Was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. He is well known for establishing extinction as a fact, being the most influential proponent of catastrophism in geology in the early 19th century, and opposing the gradualistic evolutionary theories of Lamarck and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire . His most famous work is the Le Règne Animal (1817; English The Animal Kingdom ).
He is best known as the author of Principles of Geology , which popularized uniformitarianism – the idea that the earth was shaped by slow-moving forces still in operation today. Lyell was a close and influential friend of Charles Darwin .
Father of genetics for his study of the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants. Mendel showed that the inheritance of these traits follows particular laws , which were later named after him. The significance of Mendel's work was not recognized until the turn of the 20th century. The independent rediscovery of these laws formed the foundation of the modern science of genetics.